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II 



IHi 
HU ENRH 3 



^^ 




K^ ^^<s'ii> 7 



^ 



"L. 



ADVERTISEMKNTS. 






t^vy/ W^9-}o^ isi iU 'it^ CS5 tS^ 9 

53 HINDLEY STREET, 



-A.i:)ELA.I3DB, 



Begs respectfully to call the attention of aU persons requiring anything in the 

above lines, before purchasing, to call and inspect his stock, which, for e^ent, he 

can confidently assert is unequalled in the colony, and sold at such prices as to defy 

competition, and render unnecessary any persons being their own importer. 



Ledgers, Journals 

Day Books, Cash Books 

Waste Books, Invoice Books 

Bill Books — Payable and Receivable 

Account, Current, and Sales Books 

Letter, Minute, and Order Books 

Copying Presses, Stands, Books, Brushes 
Damping Pans, Oil and Drying Paper. 

Pencils (Lead) — Black, Blue, and Red 
„ Ink and Parcel 
„ Slate and French Chalk 
„ Mordan's, Perry's, and other 
patent 

Quills, do. Pens and Toothpicks 

Travelling Bags and Desks in Mo- 
rocco, Russia, and other leathers 

Metallic Memorandums and WaUets 

Pocket Books and Bill Cases in Russia, 
Morocco, Spanish Leather, &c. 

Inkstands — Pewter, Glass, Papier Mache, 
Mahogany, &c. 



Guard Books for Letters and Invoices 
Bankers' Pass and Exchange Books 
Private Account Books, with Locks 
Manuscript Books — ^loose Indices 
Cargo Books, Bills of Lading 
Bills of Exchange, Acceptance Forms 

Deed Boxes — ^Jaipanned and Fire-proof 
Pens — GHlott's, Perry's, and Mitchell's 
Ink — Morrell's, Stephens, and Black- 
wood's, Black, Blue, Red, and Copying 
Writing Paper of all descriptions, plain 

and fancy, with Envelopes to match 
Despatch Boxes and Writing Desks in 
Russia, Morocco, Walnut, Mahogany, 
Rosewood, &c., plain, brass bound, &c. 
&c. &c. 
Post, Deliver, and Date Cases 
Rulers — ^Roimd, Flat, and Parallel; in 

Ivory, Box, Ebony, and Glass 
Lawrie's and other Interest Tables 
Byles and Chitty on BiUs 



And an immense ntmiber of other Works of reference for office. 



The PRINTED BOOK STOCK will be found replete in every department of 
standard literature — the stock on hand at all times the labgest in the colony — 
and new shipments, per L.S.R., BxnYy^mmamAmhtimmmtmiikmmiKkif^, vurMelboumd, 
every ten days. 



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joogle 




J. WILLIJtMS, 

MANTJFAOTimmG AND (GENERAL STATIONER, 

5 C3-k.esi3:jl:m: st:e?.eet, 

(OPPOSITE THE SJVniGS BANK,) 

ADELAIDE. 



ACCOUNT BOOKS. 

J. W. having imported the best description of Machinery, combining the latest improvements 
(and emplo3ring none but the best workmen,) respectfully solicits a trial for First-class 
Account Books, usually ordered from England ; and will guarantee all orders intrusted 
to him will be executed in such a manner that they cannot be surpiissed by any English or 
Colonial Manufacture. 

An Assortment of Account Books, manufactured of the best Kent papers, always kept 
in stock, comprising — 

LEDGERS. 

JOURNALS. 

DAY BOOKS. I 

WASTE BOOKS. ! 

ACCOUNT CURRENT BOOKS. | 



LETTER BOOKS. 

BILLS PAYABLE AND RECEIVABLE; 

BOOKS. ! 



MINUTE BOOKS. 

MACHINE COPYING BOOKS. 

PETTY CASH BOOKS. 

GUARD BOOKS FOR LETTERS AND 

INVOICES. 
BANKERS' PASS BOOKS. 
MINING COMPANIES' SCRIP, SEALS, 
REGISTER AND TRANSFER BOOKS, &c. 



Also a variety of Account Books (Machine-made Papers) at less cost than the preceding. 

J. W. invites attention to his varied Stock of Mercantile and General Stationkby, 
of the best description, suitable for Bankers, Merchants, Insurance and Mining Companies, 
Solicitors, Tradesmen, &c., not to be surpassed by any other house for price or quality. 

Estimates will be furnished, when required, and Contracts entered into for regular 
supplies of Account Books, Stationeut, Printing, &c. &c. 

A Large and Miscellaneous Stock of General Stationery and Office Requisites 
always on hand. 

J. WILLIAMS, 
MERCANTILE AND GENERAL STATIONER, 

f 5 GRESHAM STREET, ADELAIDE. 

(Opposite the Savings Bank.) 



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11, ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Sstabllshed 1839. 

_ ft 



I> L A.TT S' S 

No. 1 HINDLEY & KING WILLIAM STEEETS. 

WHOI^ESAIiE STORES, NOgBTH TERRACE 

(Opposite the BaUway Terminus.) 



IL.ITER.A.TTJR.E. 

The newest works of interest received per overland mail and sailing vesseL Tlie 
largest selection of Bailey, Parlour, and other Libraries in South Australia. 

PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS SUPPLIED WITH DREAT PUNCTUALITY. 
Bibles, Prayer Books, and Church Services. Hymn Books for various denomina- 
tions. Catholic Books. 

m: xj s I c. 

A LARGE SELECTION BOTH SECULAR AND SACRED. TUNE BOOKS. 
STA-TIOTSTER-Y. 



BOOKJBIIVDINO, 

BY COMPETENT WORKMEN AND THE AID OF NEW MACHINERY. 

.^CCOTJIVT BOOKS, 

For Mining Companies, Banks, Building Societies, Merchants, Millers, Solicitors, 
Medical and other Professional men, manufactured to order and ruled to any pattern. 

COPYIIVG PRESSES, or l>est r^ondoiiL maJke. 

INFERIOR ONES ARE NEVER TO Bit RELIED ON. 

^WlEtAFI^JJSGr JPA.:]PER.S & BA.OS, 

ALWAYS A VERY LARGE STOCK SUITABLE FOR ALL TRADES* 

PHOTOGRAPH ALBUITIS, 

A Large .Variety, Elegant Bindings, New Designs, Photographs and Cartes de 
Visite received every mail. 

AH€HER¥ AND CRICKETRT, 

A LARGE STOCK OP THE ABOVE WELL SEASONED, ALWAYS IN STOCK. 
• FANCY OOODS 

In Leather, Papier Mach6, Gold and Silver, suitable for presents, &c. 

AGENT FOR THK HOME NEWS. 



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ADVERTISEMENTS. • Ul. 



G. H. EGREMONT-GEE, 

68 », U IV r> IL. E STjaEET. 



SOLE AOEKTS FOB CBAHBB & CO., BEaBNT STBBET, LONDON. 

PIANOFORTES, 

OF BEASS, WOOD, OE PERCUSSION,^ 

LONDON OB CONTINENTAL MANUFACTURE, 

AT SEASONABLE PEICES. 



Vooal and InstiniiiieiiLtaly 

Always on Hand, and Liberal Discount allowed to the Profession 
and Teachers generally. 



Concerts Arranged and Artistes engaged. 
COMPETENT HANDS FOR TUNING S REPAIBISG. 

68 BUNDLE STBEET, ADELAIDE. 

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IV. ADVEBTIttBMENTS. 



i 



■^. . 



xmiiiiiEirsE stock 



OF 



FtTSHI 





&e. &c. &c. 
DISPLAYED IN FOUR LARGE SHOW ROOMS. 

103, 103J, 105, 105,i BUNDLE STREET. 

Fill MMI S18W I88MS, 

WHEEE PARTIES FURNISHING WILL FIND ELEGANT 

« 

BIAVIHS-iiiH riBEiriiB 

IN WALNUT AND ROSEWOOD 
WELL gSSASOXrSD CSSDJUK I'^BXTIX^BS:, 

At very Low Prices, all manufactured on the Premises. ^ 

^ IRON BEDSTEADS, TUBULAR AND SOLID, 

rOUE-POST, TENT, FEENCH, &c. 



CHIMNEY, CHEVAL, AND DKESSING GLASSES. 

HORSEHAIR MATTRESSES, FEATHER BEDS, &c. 
FLOORCLOTH FOR ROOMS AND PASSAGES. 



HXJNJDLE STREET, .^^JDEXj^^^JDE. 

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ADVERTISEMENTS. V, 



SAMUBL PBAI^GB, 

HINDLEY STREET WEST. 





Bents and Debts Gollectedi Bills Discounted^ and Loans 

Negotiated. 



Conmmnications from any part of the Colony will meet ^th prompt 
attention. 



ADELAIDE LOAN OFFICE, 

HINDLEY STREET WEST, 



Ofla.ce Hours, from Ten till Fonr O'clock. 
Saturdays, Ten till One. 
; # 

From £5 and upwards, on Personal Security or 
Deposit of Title Deeds. 

SAMUEIL. PEAROE, 

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ADTERTI BEMEK TS. 



TOWNSEND, BOTTIN&, & KAT, 



AFFBAISSES, LAND, HOUSE, 



ilTD 



fecral C^mmissbtt Agents, 



AUCTION MART, 



mt& SfBEll, 



j^^DELi^IDE. 



SAXES ATTENDED TO IN ALL PAETS OF 



THE COLONY. 



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.1 



/ 



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ADVERTISEMENTS. vii. 



BOOK & STATIONERY WAEEHOUSE, 

12 RUNDLE STREET, 



E. S. "VV^IGG; Aoprietor. 

WITH AN ACTIVB 

x.03sri>03sr ^gj-ki^cy, 

AND IMPOBTINO ON BEST TEBMS PROM THE CHIEF 

XiOI^r>OI^ I>XJB3:,ISIIKRS, 

AND A STOCK OV UPWABDS OV 

4.5,000 -v o IjXJ m: K s, 

E. S. Wioo offers abundant facilities for selectios, and at Prices as low as any 
other Australian Importing House. Heads of Families and Schools, Committees 
of Public Libraries, Institutes, and Sunday Schools should apply for his Titide 
Catalogue, with special terms for quantities. 

iiaga2iw^s^Xno^*i¥wspapers, 

Including the Home News, on the usual Subscribing Terms. 



SCHOOL BOOKS AND SCHOOL STATIONERY 

AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. 
A Large Stock always on hand, with Monthly Shipments arriving. 



SEYEBAI4 THOUSAND PIECES OF 

Including Music Instruction Books, Sacred Melodies, and Tune Books for Public 
Social Service. 

AETI8T8' OIL AND WATEE COLOURS AND MATEEIALS. * 
CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHS, SKETCH BOOKS, &c. 

MATHEIIATIGAL INSTRUMENTS, Loose and in Case. 

*«* Engineers and ArUsta supjplied on Liberal Terms, 



PLAIW AH© FAlSrCT STATIOBTEET, 

ACCOUNT BOOKS AND RULED PAPERS, 

• ORxcK:EiTE»ir, ace. 



12 RVItDLE street ADELAIDE. 



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VUl. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ON SALE, 



By Ross, Smith, Beck and Smith, Powell and Lealand and Baker. 
AY OKRTLINC3f.' 



I'oriiion Forceps. 

Artery Forceps. 

Caustic Holdera 

Scalpels. 

Curved Bistouries. 

Sounds. 

Hammers. 



Gouges. 
Tourniquets. 
Bone Forceps. 
Chain Saws, 
&c,, Ac, So. 



Estimates for fitUng Hospital Sorji^erys forwarded by post. 

F. F. B A I L L I E R E, 

104 COLLINS STREET EAST, MELBOURNE, 

AND LONDON, PARIS, NEW TORE, AKD MADRV. 



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SYNOPSIS. * 



THE MOST RECENT AND ACCURATE INFORMATION 

AS TO 

EVERY TOWNSHIP, VILLAGE, AND HAMLET, 

EVERY RIVER, CREEK, MOUNTAIN, LAKE, GOLD FIELD, ROAD, AND RAILWAY IN 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 

WITH ITS BOTANICAL, GEOLOGICAL, AND PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

THE DIVISION OF THE COLONY INTO COUNTIES, , 

AND ELECTORAL, COUNCIL, PASTORAL, AND MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS AND HUNDREDS, 

WITH THEIR BOUNDARIES AND STATISTICS. 

TH;P NAMES, AREAS, OCCUPIERS, POSITIONS, RENTALS, NEW VALUATIONS, 

AND GRAZING CAPABILITIES OF THE SQUATTING STATIONS, 

WITH THE BEST MEANS OF REACHING THEM. 

ALSO, PARTICULARS OF THE COAST SURVEY. « 

STATISTICS OF THE PORTS, MANUFACTURES, AND AGRICULTURAL, 

PASTORAL, AND MINING PURSUITS. 

CENSUS OF DWELLINGS AND POPULATION, AREAS IN ACREAGE* AND MILES, 

AND COMPREHENSIVE AND CORRECT ELECTORAL, MUNICIPAL, DISTRICT COUNCIL, 

AND POLICE INFORMATION. 

ALSO, A COMPLETE ROAD ITINERARY, 

SHOWING THE EASIEST, MOST EXPEDITIOUS, AND CHEAPEST METHOD OF TRANSIT 

AND CONVEYANCE OF GOODS TO AND FROM EVERY PLACE IN THE COLONY, 

BY RAIL, COACH, BOAT, DRAY, OR HORSE. 



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BAILLIERE'S 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN GAZETTEER 



ROAD GUIDE, 



CONTAINING 



THE MOST RECENT AND AOrTTRATE INPORxMATloN 



EVERY PLACE IN THE COLONY. 



COMPILKI) 1^^ ROBT. V. WIIITWORTH. 



WITH MAP. 



F. F. B A I L L J K R p: , P i; J] 1. I >. II K R. 

MELBOURNE: J04 COLLINS STREET EAST. 
LONDON: H. BAILLIERE, REGENT STREET. 

1866. 



r- 



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\^^ J'S^^ y 



HARVARD* 

[UNiVERSiTYl 

LIBRARY 

FEB 16 f956 



MELBOURNE I 
FBRGUSSON AND MOORE, GENERAL PRINTERS, 
, FLINDERS LANE EAST. 



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PREFACE. 



k 



Ik introducing this work to the notiee of the public, the compiler has great 
pride in mentioning the success which ha« attended his previous efforts to 
diffiise a knowledge of the physical, political, and social state of the colonies 
of Victoria and New South Wales, by means of the *' Gazetteebs" of 
those colonies. These books have eai^h attained an immense circulation, 
both at home and abroad ; are accepted as standard work? of reference on 
all questions regarding the places with which they deal, and have received 
the highest e^omium? both from the colonial and the English press. The 
present work will, it is hoped, further prove the desire and intention of the 
projectors to carry out their original idea of giving an accurate and com- 
prehensive view pf the whole of Australia, and^the information it contains 
will, it is trusted, afford a correct description of the condition, productions, 
industries, capabilities^ and vast resources of the colony of South Australia. 



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EDITOR'S ADDRESS, 



Ix accordance with the promise made in the " Victorian Gazetteer," 
and in the " New South Wales Gazetteer," of issuing in turn similar 
works on all th» Australian colonies, and stimulated thereto by the incentive 
of a large and rapid sale, and a highly flattering reception by the public and 
the press, the proprietors hastened further to prosecute their intention, and, 
almost before the ink was dry on the pages of the " New South Wales 
Gazetteer," had commenced the compilation of the present one. This is 
merely mentioned as proving their desire to carry out their design in such a 
manner as, that the information afforded in the whole of the works shall 
bear, as nearly as is po^jsible, the same date. It need hardly be mentioned 
that in a work of this kind, where the difficulties of obtaining reliable 
information are so great, and the sources of information so varied and widely 
scattered, there must necessarily be many unforeseen delays, and from this 
cause the publication of the work has been imavoidably deferred from the 
middle of November, when it was anticipated it would be ready for issue, 
until the present date. It is, however, hoped that the additional information 
which has been obtained during the short postponement will ftdly com- 
pensate for its lateness. 

In a work of this nature it is, of course, impossible that the whole of 
the matter it contains can be minutely correct, and this from the constantly 
varying state of the colony, and the difficulties already alluded to ; but it is 
hoped that the errors will be few, and, for the most part, unimportant ; and 
this hope is advanced with the more confidence from the fact of the previous 

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Editor^ 8 Address, vii. 

works having been found almost uniformly correct, even in the smallest 
particular. 

The information embodied in the work will be found to deal at consider- 
able length with the three gteat interests of the colony, viz., mining, agri- 
culture, and the pastoral interest, whilst other matters will be foimd not to 
have been neglected. 

The map given with the work is more fiill in its details than any map 
of the colony ever yet published, not being a mere copy of existing ones, but 
having been carefully compiled from the best authentic sources. 

In conclusion, the Editor cannot but tender his most sincere thanks to 
the following gentlemen who have, personally or by their infli^nce, aided 
him in the compilation of the work, by affording him information, or by 
placing facilities at his disposal for obtaining it : — ^The Hon. Arthur Blyth, 
Chief Secretary; the Hon. W. Milne, Commissioner of Lands; and the 
South Australian Ministry generally; Jos. Boothby, Esq., Government Statist; 
E. W. Goyder, Esq., Surveyor-General; J. W. Lewis, Esq., Postmaster- 
General; James N. Blackmore, Esq.; E. G. Blackmore, Esq., Parliamentary 
Librarian; W. Hamilton, Esq. ; A. L. Smith, Esq. ; the Rev. J. E. T. Woods; 
the Kev. W. W. Ewbank, . Mount Barker; the Rev. E. T. Howell, Port 
Elliott; the Rev. J. A. Boake, Qare; D. Randall, Esq., J.P., Glen Para; 
H. Mildred, Esq., Port Augusta; R. Gardiner, Esq., Survey Department; 
G. W. O'Halloran, Esq., Survey Department; Captain H. N. Humphreys, 
C.M.R. ; and S. Deering, Esq. ; the various postmasters, and several other 
gentlemen. 

The following maps and works of reference have be^ used in the 
compilation of the work : — ^The Government map of South Australia, the 
block plan of the settled districts, Austin's mining map, the squatting 
Map of South Australia, the county maps as issued. Backhouse's " Aus- 
tralian Colonies," " Handbook to Australia,'* the Rev. J. E. T. Woods's 
*' Australian Explorations," and " Geological Observations in South Aus- 
tralia," Jevon's "Essay on the Climatology of Australia," Wells's " Geo- 
graphical Dictionary of Australia," Austin's " Mines of South Australia," 

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viii. Editor^s Address, 

Ward's "Vineyards and Orchards of South Australia," Boothby'd 
"Adelaide Almanack," the metropolitan and provincial journals, and the 
Government Oaiette, Statistical Begister^ and parliamentary papers. 

The Editor, in presenting the result of his labours to the pubKc, trusts 
to the indulgence of his readers for any errors or omissions which may 
appear in its pages, .and hopes they may be ascribed, not to any lack of 
diligence or care on his part, but rather to the many difficulties in the way 
of obtaining information with which he has had to contend. 

R. P. WHITWORTH, 

• Editor " South Australian Gazetteer." 



Adelaide, 4Xh December, 1866. 



ADBITTOKd AND CORBECTIOKS. 



«^ 8ee Page 289. 

N. B.- In the letter B, the part commencing Bi ha« been erroneously placed after, 
instead of before Bl. 



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THE 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN GAZETTEEE, 



1 S 6 7. 



[Note. — The fallowing ahhreviaUons are used in, iJvis work : — Co. for eowniy ; lat. for 
laUtude; long, for longitude; mag. var. for magnetic voflriation; and the inUiaH 
letters of the points of the compass for the hearings} majL.'for maainmrn; min. /or 
minimwm; and t&mp, for temperatwre.'] 



A. B. C. KANGE is the name given to a succession of curious hills, of which 
the N. side of each is steep and generally capped with rocks, lying to the S. of HArd- 
wick's bluff. It has its name from an idea that the number of peaks is the same at 
that of the letters oi the alphabet, 

jiL'BECBLETT'S POND, 30** K/ S. lat., 138' 2(yE. long., (Flinders' ^triet) is a 
water-hole lying near mount Lyndhurst, and on the upper end of the river Munday. 
It lies in good pastoral country to the E. of mount Termination. 

jiL'BECBLETT'8 POND STATION (N, district ;J lease No. 905; occupiers, 
Davenport and Fowler; area, 90 square miles; rent and assessment, £46 10s. This 
station lies on the lagoon of the same name, near mount Deception, the nearest post- 
office being Angipena. 

AiBERDEEN (Co. Burra) is a small township, forming part of the township of 
Redruth,^lthough separated from it by the Burra creek. — See Kedbuth. 

AiC&ABKAN CREEK {Flinders district) is a small creek flowing through Cooey- 
ana, the sheep station of Messrs. Lindsay and (jibson, into the head of Blanche- 
port Bay, a small E. indentation of Streaky bay. 

jiLDEXiAZBE, 34° 57' S. lat., 138° 38' E. long. {Co. Adelaide,) is a large and 
wealthy city, situate on the river Torrens, 6 miles E. from the E. shore of the gulf of 
St. Vincent, and 7 miles from the port of landing, and is the metropolis of the colony 
and the seat of government. Its site was fixed upon by Colonel William Light, the 
surveyor-general, and commander of tlie Rapid, a ship chartered by the South Australian 
comnussioners. Colonel Light, who arrived at Kangaroo island in August, 1836, 
immediately proceeded to the bay, and subsequently to port Lincoln, in order to survey 
those places in order to judge of their suitability as sites for a metropolis, but abandoned 
them both. He afterwards, by virtue of the discretionary power vested in him, coasted 
along the E. side of the gulf of St. Vincent, and discovered the estuary running up to 
the present township of port Adelaide. Proceeding inland, he found a large fertile 
plain, bounded on the E. by a lofty chain of mountains and watered by a small river, 
and on the banks of that stream he selected the site for the m^opolis. Here he 
commenced to lay out the city, which was named Adelaide in honour of Adelaide, the 
queen of William IV., the stream being called the Torrens river after Colonel Torrens, 
the chairman of the commissioners for South Australia. In Decetnber of the same year, 
the first appointed governor, Capt. John Hiddmarsh, R.N., arrived at Adelaide with 
immigrants, and on the 28th day of that month took formal possession as 
governor, at Glenelg, near a singularly shaped old gum tree, where, in the 
presence of the assembled colonists, about 200 in number, he issued the proclamation 
estabUshing ihe government of the colony. A metal plate was attached to the 
teee, in 1857, in commemoration of the event, bearing the following inscription: 
"On this spo^, on the 28th Decembqj:, 1836, the oolony of South Australia 
was proclaimed and established as a province, by Capt. John Hindmarsh, B.N., 

B 

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2 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Ade 

1 « 

the goYernor thereof, acting in the name and on hehalf of His Majesty King 
WillSim IV., in the presence of the chief officers of the government and other colonists. 
On the 28th December, 1857, the record of the above ft^ct was here publicly affixed by 
Sir R. G. Macdonnell, E:C.B., govemor-in-chief 9^he province, in the presence of me 
assembled colonists, to commemorate the event Oi the colony attaining its 2l8t year, 
and to testify their feelings by a day of public rejoicing. God save the Queen." During 
the laying out of the city the colonists temporarily established themselves in various 
places in the vicinity, and it was not until March, 1837, that the survey was completed. 
The trees were rapidly cleared, the owners of land selected their town lots, and the 
remainder were disposed of, by auction, at prices varying from £2 to 420 per acre. 
The city itself was laid out on the S. bank of the river and comprehended 1042 acres, 
a reserve of a J-mile wide completely surrounding the city, and called the park lands, 
being closed against sale, and kept as a people's park, and for public purposes only. 
At the same time another township on the N. side of the city, beyond the park lands 
and the Torrens, which flowed through that part of them, was laid' out and called 
North Adelaide, its main streets being called after the gentlemen" forming the 
colonial commission; Barnard, Lefevre, Mackinuon, Montefiore, Palmer, and Pennington. 
The city of Adelaide, delightfully situated on a large plain, hemmed in on the E. by 
the Adelaide or Flinders range of mountains, which appear almost to overhang the 
town, and whose beauty and magnificence must be seen to be fully appreciated. They 
lie at a distance of about 5 miles from the city and are of every description, consisting of 
beautiful bald hills and of rugged and precipitous ranges covered with the sombre 
eucalyptus of Australia, of gentle slopes where the purple grapes ripen under the 
summer sun, and of deep and fearful gorges and chasms down which thunder the fierce 
mountain torrents in winter. Here and there embosomed in the hills peeps forth a 
stately mansion, or the shingled roof of a farmer's homestead or a vigneron's cottage, 
and the enti{e landscape, as seen from the streets of Adelaide, is one of loveliness and 
tranquil beauty. The city is built nearly in the form of a square, its streets running 
at right angles; the main street. King William street, is a fine, wide, thoroughfare, 
running in a N. and S. direction. It is lined with fine public and private buildings on 
both sides, and is the principal place of business, although the large and fashionable 
shops are mostly situated in Bundle and Hindley streets, running at right angles to it, 
and on its E. and W. sides respectively. The boundaries of the city consist of 4 
terraces, each about a mil&in length, facing the park lands, and known as the North, 
South, East, and West terraces. Besides the park lands, which extend about a |^-mile 
on each side the town, and are reserved from sale, and which act as lungs fo%the city 
and places of recreation for its inhabitants, there are 5 public parks reserved within 
the city boundary. The central square, which lies in the centre of the city, is called 
the Victoria square; that in the N!E. corner of the city is called Hindmarsh square; 
that in the N.W., Light square; that in the S.E., Whitmore square; and that in the 
S.W., Hurtle square. These reserves are planted with trees and shrubs, and have 
benches placed in them for the convenience of the nursemaids and children who visit 
them. 

Adelaide is divided into two electoral districts, Adelaide E. and Adelaide W. The 
former contains 1 647 acres, and is represented in the Legislative Assembly by 2 members, 
the present ones being the hon. Thomas Reynolds, and Philip Santo, Esq. The latter 
contains 1962 acres, and is also represented by two members in the Assembly, the 
present ones being James Penn Boucaut, Esq., and Robert Henry Fuller, Esq. For 
municipal purposes the city is also divided into four wards, — the Hindmarsh ward, 
containing 507 acres; Gawler ward, 480 acres; Grey ward, 1391 acres; and Robe ward, 
1231 acres; making a total of 3609 acres. The present mayor is William Townsend, 
Esq., M.P., and there are 8 councillors. The receipts and expenditure for the year 
1865 in this munid|)ality were as follow*:— Amount of assessment, £166,187 Ss., — rate 
declared in the pound, Is ; amount of rates collected, £8592 Is. 6d.; government grant 
in aid of rates, £5376 Os. 3d.; private subscriptions collected, £1373 78. 8d.; govern- 
ment grant in aid of such subscriptions, £907 4s. 3d.; amounts raised from other 
sources, X'6366 3s.;— total receipts, £22,614 16s. 8d. ; office expenses and salaries, 
£2879 17s. 6d.; expended on public works, £13,149 8s.' 9d. The meetings of the 
council are held in the town hall. King William-street, a fine building just erected by 
the corporation, and containing a< large ball, a council chamber, and the necessary 
offices for carrying on the business of the city. The city and neighbburhood are 
supplied with water of the best quality from 2 large reservoirs lying at a few miles 
distance on its E. side, and the water woiks were completed in 1861, at a cost of 



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Ade] The SoiUh Australian Gazetteer. 8 

about £256,000, and water is now introduced into eyery dwelling, and the ^uantitf 
unlimited. Sereral fountains are also erected in the streets and squares of the city, and 
troughs placed at suitable places for cattle. Previous to this time the citizens were 
supplied by watermen, who carried on a thriying trade. The chief place from whence 
they obtained their supply was at a romantic spot on the riyer Torrens called the Ford, 
situated in a line from Morphett-street, and on a road running to North Adelaide. On. 
the banks close by were the waterworks and baths of a priyate company, f^here the water 
was raised into eleyated cisterns, and supplied to those watermen who preferred to pay 
the sum of threepence a load to dipping it by nleans of a tin bucket, and thus fill their 
casks from the river. This was a busy spot on the breaking out of a fire in those days 
— the military and police turned out tp afford help, fire engines were brought into play, 
watermen were to be seen driving at a rapid rate to and from the river, over ill-made 
roads, to the scene of conflagration, and the inhabitants generally were on the alert, as, 
from the nui4ber of wooden houses, a fire was much dreaded. The watermen were 
also compelled to keep their carts filled with water, during night-time, and the first 
load arriving at the scene of danger was awarded the sum of fite pounds. At the 
present time there are nearly a thousand fire plugs laid down in the city, and suitable 
hose, under the control of appointed officers, being provided. The old system of alarm 
by ringing a bell at the post-office, the church and chapel bells, and giving full vent to 
the shrill note of the steam whistle at the Ford waterworks, are alike dispensed with. 
A fire-bell, however, is erected at the back of the post-office, in case of need. 

Adelaide is the seat of the bishop of Adelaide, under the Church of England, 
the Bight Bev. Augustus Short, D.D., Ohristchurch College, Ozon, (now in Englfu|d,) 
and of the Bight Bev. Lawrence B. ShieL The head-quarters of the Fresbytemn, 
Congregational, Wesleyan, Primitive Methodist, Baptist, and other denominations are 
also in Adelaide, which has been denominated the city of churches, from the number 
of edifices it contains erected for the purposes of public worship. The English 
churches we Trinity (670 sittings,) the Very Bev. Dean Farrell, M.A., incumbent j 
Christchurch, North Adelaide (750 sittings,) the Yen. Arohdeacon Woodcock, incum- 
bent; St. Luke's (600 sittings.) the Bev. James PoUitt; St Paul's (650 sittings,) the 
Bev. A. B. BusseU, rural dean; and St. John's (350 sittings,) the Bev. D. H. Ibbetson. 
The diocesan synod, constituted ini 1855, meets in session at the Church office on a 
summons from the bishop after Easter in every year. It consists of all clergymen in 
the diocese and of delegates from each congregation elected at Easter. The Boman' 
Catholic churches are St.F. Xavier's cathedral and St. Patrick's. The CongregatioMklists 
have 2 churches, and 1, the Stow Memorial church, in memory of the late Bev. T. Q. 
Stow. There is a Congregational union, formed in 1850, and holding annual meetings 
in April. The Wesleyans have 2 churches, the Baptists 2,*the Presbyterians, (the 
Presbytery meeting oa the first Tuesday in every month in Chalmers's schoolroom, 
the Bev. John Gardner being moderator;) the Primitive Methodists, 2; the Bible 
Christians, 1; the Methodist New Connexion, 1; the Christian Brethren, 2; the 
Disciples of Christ, 1 (280«sittings;) the Society of Friends, 1; the Lutherans, 1; the 
New Church Christians, 1 ; the Unitarians, 1 ;iand the Hebrew congregation, a synagogue, 
consecrated in 1850 (5610,) and containing 120 sittings. The diocese of Adelaide was 
endowed by Miss Burdett Coutts, the endowment fand being £17,500. Besides this are 
endowments left by Messrs. Leigh and Allen, yielding an annual income of nearly 
iB3000. The sum of £2000 has been invested for the endowment of the dean and 
chapter, and parochial endowments of from £20 to £70 have been formed in many of 
the parishes. The Church of England Endowment society has £10,000 intended for 
parochial endowments ; the sum of £500 per M»num*s granted by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in aid of recently -lormed cures; and £100 per annum is 
granted by the bishop of St. Asaph for endowment. The places of worship in 
Adelaide are as follow:— Church of England: Holy Trinity, situate at the corner of 
Morphett-street and North-terrace, was erected in 1838. Christ Church, a very hand- 
some building, more particularly as regards the interior, is situated in North Adelaide, 
and -was consecrated in December, 1849. St. John's: the foundation stone of this clfurch 
was laid in October, 1839; it is situated in St. John-street, Gilles-street, and the laud 
on which it was built was presented for this purpose by Osmond Gilles, Esq. St. 
Luke's, situated on the W. side of Whitraore-square, was erected in 1856. St. 
Paul's, Pulteney-street, was opened for public worship in 1859, and the recently- 
erected nave and chancel were consecrated in August, 1865. St. Peter's College chapel, 
Boman Catholic church. — The Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier is situated in Victoria.' 
square, and St. Patrick's, West- terrace. Wesleyan Methodist church.— The founda- 

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4 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Adb 

tton stone of Pirie-ttreet chapel was laid on the 15th July, 1850, by his Excellency Sir 
H. F. Toung, and the chapel opened in 1854; and Archer-street, N. Adelaide. Con- 
gregationalists— Freeman-street chapel, for a long time known as Mr. Stow% is situated 
Si the street from whence it bears its name. A new building, in memory of the late 
Bev. T, Q. Stow, is in course of erection in Flinders-street, to be called the Stow 
Memorial church; another in Hindmarsh-square, and a chapel in Brougham-place, N^ 
Adelaide. Baptists: Flinders-street chapel, erected in 18G3-4, is a yery handsome strac- 
tnre. There is also a chapel in connectifon with this denomination on Lefevre-terrace, 
K. Adelaide, and another at Brougham place. Methodist New Connection: A hand- 
fome building for this denomination, situated in Franklyn-street, was erected in 1864 
at a cost of £3500. Christian Brethren : This congregation meets in Bentham-street. 
diurch of Scotland: St. Andrew's, Wakefleld-street; Chalmer's Church, North-ter- 
race; and United Presbyterian, Flinders-street — the latter is a very handsome struc- 
ture, erected in 1864-5, and opened in October of the latter year. Bibllf Christians : 
Chapel in Young-street, erected in 1857. Primitive Methodists: The building for this 
body is in Morphett-street, and was erected in 1859. Disciples of Christ: Chapel in 
Grote- street. Society of Friends : Meeting house in Pennington- terrace, N. Adelaide. 
New Church: Meeting house in Carrington-street Qerman Evangelical: There are 
two German congregations in Adelaide, one in Carrington-street, and the other in Way- 
mouth -street, at the old Primitive Methodist Chapel. Unitarians : The only place of 
worship in the colony belonging to this body is in Wakefield-street. Hebrew Congre- 
gation : The synagogue in Bundle- street was consecrated for Divine worship in 1850. 
fhe present system of education was founded by Act of Legislative Council in 
A central beard of education, composed of seven members, a secretary, and two 
inspectors, are appointed to guard the interests of education, with the help of the vari- 
ous district councils in the country districts. Teachers licensed by the .board are 
entitled to an annual stipend of £40 to ^£60, in addition to the usual school fees. 
Orphans and destitute children are paid for by the Government. The 'number of 
schools in the colony under the direction of the board at the present time, is 259, and 
the number of scholars about 1 1,600. At the head of the educational establishments is 
the collegiate school of St. Peter's— (See Stepket.) Next in importance is the Ade- 
laide educational institution. It has sent out sonte excellent scholars, and although 
not a denominational scho<^ is chiefly patronised by the Congregationalists. 

Adelaide is lighted witn gas, supplied by the South Australian gas company. This 
oomp§ny is incorporated under an act of parliament of 1861. The capital is fixed at 
£30,000 in 6000 shares of £5 each, with power to increase to £60,000 by the issue of 
additional shares. The liability of the shareholders is limited to double the amount of 
their shares. By their act of parliament, the company have power, by giving due 
notice, to break up streets, &c., for laying pipes and other purposes, but it requires the 
company to reinstate all roads and streets so broken up without delay, and in case of 
delay empowers parties having control of such roads or streets to repair them and 
recover the expense from the company. Power is given to*the company, in their act, 
to contract for lighting streets, public buildings, &c., and to let on hire meters, &c., at 
a rent not exceeding 20 per cent, on the cost price in Adelaide. The meters, &c., 
rented by the company to consumei'b of gas are not subject to distress for rent, or to be 
taken in execution or sequestrated with the estate of such persons. The maximum 
price of the gas supplied by the company is not to exceed 30s. per 1000 cubic 
feet, and it shall be of a quality capable of producing from an argand burner having 
15 holes and a 7-inch chimney or other approved burner, and consuming 5 feet of 
gas per hour, a light equal in ftitensity to the light produced by 12 sperm candles 
of 6 to the pound, and burning 120 grains per hour. The company has power to inspect 
the meters and fittings of consumers at any time between the hours of 8 a.m. 
and 10 p.m., and any person obstructing any officer appointed for such inspection 
would be liable to a penalty not exceeding £5. The corporation of Adelaide has 
power under the act to appoint an inspector of meters, who, after notic#, there being 
BOthlbg owing the company, may inspect any consumer's meter, and in case of payment 
^ving been made in excess, such excess shall be refunded by the company. Power is 
given to the company, where rent for gas is due, to cut off the supply 48 hours after 
payment has been demanded, lind to recover the arrears of rent and cost of cutting off 
the service pipe. Provision is made in the act for the removal of pipes where the use of 
the gas is discontinued, and for compensation by the company whese property is damaged 
in such removal. A penally of £5 can be recovered by the company from any person 
who fraudulently injures any meter cnr other property, or who may waste or fraudulently 



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Ads] The South AustraUan Gazetteer, 5 

. . : ^ ; . 

consume $ab. There are in the act ample proyisions ibr puniihinj? the company 
fiMT contaminating water, causing a nuisance, or for the escape of gas. The limits of the 
company extepd to and include the city of Adelaide, the town of Fort Adelaide, and the 
towns and villages included in a radius of eight miles from the general post office. Th« 
first directors were the Hon. Henry Ayers, Hon. Arthur Blyth, Thomas Graves, Esq., 
J. P., George Peter Harris, Esq., and Greorge Young, Esq., J.P.; these gentlemen are 
still in office, having been re-elected at different periods under the company's deed of 
settlement, which provides that three directors shall retire annually, and that no 
director shall remain in office for a longer period than three years without re-election. 
The ordinary meetings of the shareholders are held in ^e month of July in each 
year. The city works are situated at Brom^ton, near Adelaide, on the line of the city 
and port railway. The coal used in the manufacture of the gas is from New Souui 
Wales, and is carbonized in clay retorts. Gas was first supplied to the city on June 
22nd, 1863, the price then charged being 21s. per 1000 cubic feet; this was subsequently 
reduced on July 1, 1865, to ISs., and on July 1, 1866, to 17s. per 1000 cubic feet, 
which Is the rate now charged. Works are nearly completed for supplying the town of 
Port Adelaide with gas. These works are situated about a mile from the town, on the 
line of the city and port rdilway. They are constructed on the same principle as the 
city works. • 

A company for the manufacture of ice, with suitable offices and works, is established 
in the city, and supplies this article of luxury and comfort in warm climates at a 
reasonable rate during the summer season. There is also an aerated bread company, 
under the management oi Mr. P. Fox. The bakery is a large brick building, having 
all the necessary appliances. This company also produces bread, not aerated, and has 
a large connection. 

The N. side of Adelaide proper, separated from it by the Torrens river and the 
Park lands reserve, is the suburb of North Adelaide. It is a favourite place of 
residence for gentlemen having business in the city, and lies on an elevation overlooking 
and having a fine view over it, apd over the plains between it and the gulf of St. 
Vincent to the W. A fine iron bridge of peculiar construction, and crossing the 
Torrens, lies on the road from the suburb to the city (see Torb^ns River.) On the 
S. side lie the suburbs ^ Farkside and Unley; and in the park lands on this side the 
city is the rifie-shooting ground, a large tract of fiat land extending £. and W., and 
having 5 large and sul stantial stone butts erected in the middle, with targets and 
markers and umpires' shields erected. On the E. side are the suburbs of Stepney, Ken- 
sington, and Norwood, taken up as villa residences, and for gardening and dairy -iiarming 
purposes; and on the W. lie the suburbs of Bowden, Hindmarsh, and Brompton, in the 
Litter of which places the gas works are situated, and in all of which villages brick- 
making is carried on to a large extent. 

Adelaide is indebted to the enterprise of its private citizens and trading companies 
for the finest of its buildings, with the exception of its town hall and government offices. 
The latter consist of a range of splendid stone buildings, built in the middle of the city, 
having a fine but not ornamental front to the main street, and comprising the Treasury 
with its offices, and the land survey and immigration offices. The design was by the late 
colonial architect, Mr. E. A. Hamilton, and is in the Italian style, very clia>te and 
handsome. The town hall, which is the pride and boast of Adelaide, is a magnificent 
structure, erected in the best part of the town. The foundation-stone was laid on the 
4th of May, 1863, by his Excellency the Governor. A peal of 8 bells, puBpltased by 
iubscripiion as an Albert memorial, graces the tower, which is to be calleuthe Albert 
tower, after the lamented prince— Architects, Messrs. Wright and Woods. Tht 
supreme court and its offices are situated on the S. side of Victoria square, and occupy 
a fine freestone building, massive in structure, and a combination of Oreciun, Doric and 
Italian in style. It was built in 1849 at a cost oi £10,000. The hou&es of parliament 
are on the N. side of North-terrace, and consist of a range of brick buildings with pointed 
gables. This building was erected in 1 855 at a cost of £13,000. It contains th}' council 
and assembly chambers with their offices, a fine parliamentary library under the charge 
'Of £. Blackmore, Esq., librarian, a refectory, lavatories, and other office s. At the rear of 
the premises is a large ornamental garden, which forms a pleasant adjunct to tliatpart of 
tilie town. The railway station is a brick building standing about luO yards to the W. 
of the parliament houses, and although small in itself, has capacious goods and other 
iheds at its rear. From this station passengers and goods are conveyed to Port Adelaide 
by the port line, and to Kapunda and intervening stations by,tbe northern line, the 
junction of the two lines being about a mile from the city. The station was erected in 



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Ths South Australian Gazetteer. [Ade 

i ^ 

1854 at a cost of £7111, and iu the Anglo-Italian style. The post-office is a hric^ and 
ftnocoed building in King William-street, opposite the gorernment offices, and is sur- 
^mounted by a tower having a clock, with 3 dials, i^hich denote the time on the N., E., 
md S. sides respectively. The money order and police offices adjoin this building on 
the S. side, and are also of brick covered with dingy stuoeo. The telegraph office 
is situated in the business part of King William-street, in a part known amongst 
merchant.% as <'the Flags." It is a plain building, and forms the front part 
of the Exchaiige, which is a long room set apart for the transaction of business, 
and supplied with the colonial and many of the intercolonial and English papers. 
Government house is situsfted on the North Park lands, adjacent to North-terrace and 
City Bridge-road. It is in the Italian st^de, and was designed by Mr. G. S. Kingston, 
architect, in the days of Governor Gawler. In 1856, it was enlarged and improved, in 
accordance with the original plan, at a cost of £10,000. At its entrance is a gate- way and 
guard-house, where, since the departure of H.M. troops for New Zealand, the poUce do 
duty as sentinels. A marine residence at Glenelg, and a country villa are also provided 
for the Govei^or. The latter is pleasantly situated in the hills, about 4 milel beyond 
^itcham, and is known as* Government farm. The original humble house of the first 
governor, alluded to in a previous page, was situated about 500 feet N.W. of 
the proi^nt vice-regal residence. The South Australian institute is a noble building, 
situate on North-terrace, immediately east of the Government domain. It was buUt 
in 1859, at a cost of £7000. The institute is liberally supported by the Goviernment, 
and is under the control of 4 governors elected by the members. The reading-room 
is well supplied with the chief English magazines and reviews, and a good se ection of 
newspapers, English and colonial. The library contains about 12,000 vols., and is free 
to the public for reading at the rooms. The reading-room is open to the public from 
10 a.-m. till 10 p.m. Members paying £1 per annum can take home books from the 
library, on certain regulations, and have free admission to lectures. A museum, a 
school of design, and other branches of education are also established. The museum is 
open to the public from noon till dark. The hospital situated on the Park lands, near 
the E. extremity of North-terrace, is a large and commodious building in the Italian 
style, and has been erected at a cost up to the present time of £23,000. It contains 
8 wards, in which accommodation is provided for upwards* of 150 patients, but the 
average number of patients is about 100. This institution is supported from private 
funds, and a public dispensary is attached. The friends of patients are admitted thrice 
a week, with exceptions in cases of emergency. The Botanic garden, situated imme- 
diately E. of the hospital, is most tastefully laid out, and a place of great attraction to 
the public Its formation was commenced in 1855, the old garden behind Government 
house having been then abandoned for the present more eligible site. The garden 
occupies about 40 acres of ground, and has recently been beautified by fountains, lakes 
~-on which may be seen both black and white swans, and many other specimens of 
water-fowl — statuary, green-houses, a very handsome domed conservatory, pleasure- 
grounds and sylvan-lilie walks. It also contains above 3000 species of plants, aviaries 
for native and other bi»ds — including a few English songsters — enclosures for animals 
&c. &c. Like the previous institute it is a government establishment under the control 
of a board of governors. The public are admitted from sunrise to sunset. On Sundays, 
the hours are from 2 to 5, and closing is notified by the ringing of a bell. The grounds 
were laid out by the late Mr. Geo. W. Francis. The director is Mr Schomburgk. 
The obsPvatory, in 34° 57' S. lat., 138° 38' E. long, is on the West-terrace. The exhi- 
bition building is pleasantly situated on the park lands, a short distance from the 
* hospital, and was erected in 1858 for the purpose of affording accommodation for 
. holding the annual show of the Agricultural and Horticultural society. This generally 
takes place about the middle of February in each year, and prizes are awarded to the 
exhibitors of the best grain, fruits, wines, dairy and garden produce, and also for agri- 
cultural and other implements. The show fair is a grand gala day for many of the 
young and old of the city and suburbs. The city baths were opened to the public in 
1862, and are conveniently situated on the City Bridge- road. The baths are available 
from 5 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. during summer months; and from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. during 
winter months. A first-class bath is set apart for the use of ladies only, every 
Thursday and Friday from 10 to 12. The asylum for the destitute is at the rear of the 
institute, and affords relief to the aged and infirm, or deserted or orphan children. 
' The establishment is a government one, and is under the control of a board. The 
servants' home for feftiale immigrants is provided by the aid of government and a com- 
mittee of ladies. The theatre is situated in Gilles arcade, a little to the east of light- 



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Adb] The South Australicm Gazetteer, 7 

square, and is the property of a private gentleman. During the ^ason the most 
available talent is engaged. The gaol is situated on the southern banks of the Torrens, 
about a quarter of a mile W. of the city, and was erected in the year 1840, with 
accommodation for about 200 persons ; but the average number of inmates, including 
debtors, seldom exceeds 75. The gaol is somewhat of an ornamental looking building 
on the outside, and latterly the grounds in front, to the extent of several acres, have 
been planted Vith vines and fruit trees. The more incorrigible prisoners, and Uiose 
long-sentenced, are sent to the stockade, about 7 miles from , Adelaide, and are 
employed at stone quarrying. Keeper of gaot, Charles J. Lawrence; superintendent 
at stockade, F. W. Howell. The Lunatic asylum, situated Hflittle to the rear and E. 
of the botanic garden, is a building of some magnitude, in the Elizabethan style. The 
private buildings of Adelaide are pumerous, and many of them very fine in their 
structure. Until recently, the shops, banks and other places of business were of the 
plainest description, and small in dimensions, but of late many of the old unsightly 
buildings erected in the early days of the colony have been taken down, and magnificent 
structures been raised in their stead. Of these, the banks and insurance offices, and 
several new stores in King William-street, are the finest. Adelaide has branches of 
the Soutk Australian, Australasian, Union, National; English, Scottish and Australian; 
Adelaide, Savings', and Penny savings' banks: and of the Adelaide, Adelaide Marine, 
Alliance, Australian Alliance,' Australian Mutual Provident, Australasian, Britannia,* 
Church of England, City of Glasgow, Colonial, Cornwall, Derwent and Tamar, Eagle^ 
European, Hobart Town and Launceston, Home and Colonial, Imperial, Liverpool and 
London and Globe, Lloyd's, New South Wales; New Zealand, North British, Northern, 
Pacific, Queen, Royal. South Australian Lloyd's, Southern, and Universal insurance 
and assurance companies. The mining companies are the Adelaide, Bremer, Cape 
Jervis, Copper Miners, Glen Osmond, Grfttt Northern, Kanappa, Kanmantoo, Kapunda, 
Karkarilla, Matta, Moonta, Murninnie, Mount Lily, New Cornwall, South Australian, 
Talisker, Wallaroo, West Kanmantoo, New Kanmantoo, Wheal Coglin, Wilkawat, 
Worthing, YeUa, Yorke's Peninsula, Yudanamutana, and English and Australian. The 
miscellaneous companies are the Adelaide Land and Credit; Ice; .^aled Bread; 
Australian Trust, General Finance, Land, Credit and Agency; Glen Osmond road 
metal; Kadina and Wallaroo railway and pier; South Australian coal; South Austra- 
lian slate; South Australian gas; and Northern Territory companies. The Adelaide 
club, a fine large brick building, stands in North-terrace, nearly opposite Government 
house. Members are admitted by ballot only, and on the introduction of 2 members of the 
club. Adelaide has 2 racecourses, 1 at the suburb of Britannia, near Norwood, on the 
E. side of the city, and being an excellent course, with a fine roomy stone-built grand- 
stand; and the other at Thebarton, on the W. side of the city, ^d having a grand- 
stand constructed of wood." There is a jockey club, a cricket club, a rowing club, an 
archery club, a rifie association, a gymnastic and fencing club, an agricultural and 
horticultural society (which holds »- show in February,) a horticultural and floricul- 
taral society, an acclimatisation society, a pastoral association, 2 winegprowers' 
associations, a total abstinence society, a philosophical society, a society of arts, 
an auxiliary bible society, and benevolent society of blues, and an orphan home 
for the reception and training of oiphan children, a corps ol rifie and 1 of artillery 
volunteers, and a fire brigade in the city. iThe principal hotels are the York 
(Hornibrook's,) and the Globe (Henning's,) in Rundle-street; the Clarence (Comock's,) 
and the Criterion (Hubble's,) in King William-street; the Freemasons' (Darling's,) in 
Pirie- street; the Black bull (Battam's,) in Hindley-street; and several others, also 
numerous inns in all parts of the city. The newspapers are the Register ^ Advertiser and 
^e/€!^ra/)^ (morning daily,) the Express and Evening Telegraph (evening daily,) and 
the Observer, Chronicle and Mail (weekly,) also a German newspaper, the Deutsche 
Zeitung. Adelaide has the following Masonic lodges:— E.C., Lodge Friendship, Lodge 
Harmony, United Tradesmen's Lodge, Lodge Truth, Lodge Concord, Albert Lodge, a 
Boyal Arch Chapter, a lodge of Mark Masters, and an encampiiient of Knights' 
Templars; I.C., Duke Leinster's Lodge, Leinster Mark Lodge, and Leinster Royal 
Arch Chapter. There are also 4 lodges of the Independent Order of Oddfellows, 
M.U., and 5 of the Ancient Independent Order of Oddfellows; 5 Foresters' courts, ' 
4 Druids' lodges, and Druids' and Shepherds' friendly societies. In the city are the 
following manufectories, works, &c.:— The aerated bread company's bakery, 7 
agricultural implement makers' manufactories, 2 billiard table manufactories, 1 
bone-dust works, 4 candle and soap makers, 4 chafi and com cutters (steam,) 
14 coach manu&ctories, 1 cofiee-roasting establishments, 3 cordial manu&ctories. 



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8 The South 'Australian Gazetteer. [Ade 

8 d^ works, 3 hat manufactories, 1 ice works, 3 jam manufactories, 1 olive <M 
manufactory, 6 organ and pianoforte makers, 10 picture-frame manufactories, 
7 cordial, &c., manufactories, fi?e t)reweries, 8 foundries, 8 malting houses, 1 marble 
works, 18 printing-presses, 9 saw-mills (steam,) and 1 tannery. There are also 161 
wholesale stores, including merchants and general stores, grain stores and wholesale 
grocers, drapers, ironmongers, saddlers and wine and spirit stores; 184 <Mcea 
of professional men and companies, and 137 builders, timber, iroft, stone and 
liyery stable yaraa^ the shops number 1118, comprehending those of tradesman 
of all kinds. The mean temperatui^ of the city, as shown by Mr. JeTons, is 
64° 9^; the hottest montfi being January, when 80"^ 8' is the mean; and the ccddest, 
July, when it is 50'' 7', the diflference being 30° I'. The mean annual rainfall as stated 
oy G. S. Kingston, Esq., for 5 years, was 19.90 inches. The geological formation of 
the plain on which Adelaide stands is principally clay and limestone, some of which is 
used for building purposes, whilst that lying to the N. of the city is to a great extent 
burnt for lime. 

The Adelaide E. electoral district comprises that part of North and South Adelaide 
snd the Park lands bounding the same, to the E. of a line drawn through the centre of 
King William-street, Poole-street, John-street, and 0*Connell-street. It is dinded into 
% wards — Hindmarsh ward E., containing an area of 357 acres, and a population of 
2901; Hindmarsh ward W., with an area of 150 acres, and a population of 2329; Grey 
ward E., with an area of 620 acres, and a population of 3628; and Robe ward E., with 
an area of 520 acres, and a population of 2229— being a total area of 1647 acres, and a 
total population of 11,087; of whom 2585 are adult males— -the number of electors. 
The voting places for this district are on, or near to, the Corporation acre, and N. 
Adelaide. The Adelaide W. electoral distric%comprises that part of North and South 
Adelaide to the W. of the line drawn as aforesaid as the boundary of Adelaide E. It la 
divided into 4 wards— Gawler ward E., with an area of 129 acres, and a population of 
2336; Gawler ward W., with an area of 351 acres, and a population of 3365; Grey 
ward W., wit%an area of 771 acres, and a population of 4440; and ^obe ward W., 
with an area of 711 acres, and a population of 2072 — being a total area of 1962 acres, 
and a total population of 12,213; of whom 2897 are adult males— the number of 
electors. The voting places are in, or near to, Light square, and at North Adelaide. 
The total area, therefore, of the electoral district of the city of Adelaide is 3609 acres, 
and the total population 23,300 persons, being identical with that within the corpo- 
ration limits, which are the same as the electoral boundary. The number of adult 
males is 5482. The increase of population in the city since 1861 is 4997— that of adult 
,males being 1449. The number of houses is 5192, being an increase of 840 over those 
in 1861. The number of electors on the rolls for Adelaide (E. and W.) for the year 
1865 was — for the Legislative Council, 1496; and for the Legislative Assembly, 2686. 
Adelaide E. is represented in the Legislative Assembly by the Hon. T. Reynolds and 
F. Santo, Esqi, The number of registered electors for 1865 in this district, for the 
Legislative Council was 716, and for the Legislative Assembly, 1188. Adelaide W. ia 
represented in the Legislative Assembly by J. P. Boucaut and H. R. Fuller, Esqs. 
The number of registered electors for the district for 1865, for the Legislative Council, 
was 780; and for the Legislative Assembly, 1498. 

▲BELAIBE COUNTY is the metropolitan county of the colony, and lies on the 
E. shore of the gulf of St. Vincent, being bounded on the N. by the counties Gawler 
and Light, from which it is separated by the rivers Gawler and South Para respectively, 
on the S. by the county Hindmarsh, on the E. by the county Sturt, from which it is se- 
parated by the main range, and on the W. by the waters of the gulf before mentioned. It 
u divided into the following hundreds, viz. : — N. hundreds, Port Adelaide, MuniioPara,^ 
and Para Wirra; Central hundreds, Yatala, Talunga, Adelaide, Onkaparinga, and 
Noarlunga ; and S. hundreds, Willunga and Kuitpo. Tliis country consists for the 
most part of a fertile plain, lying back from the shores of the gulf to the W. foot ^ 
the main range, from wiiich spurs run out into the plain in an E. direction, having fine 
• valleys between them, many of which are highly cultivated, and have hanging gardens 
and extensive vineyards on their slopes. From the summits of these spurs, particularly 
irom mount Lofty, the highest point of the range, are magnificent views of the plain 
below, and of the rolling Onkaparinga river, and numerous small tributary creeks. Hie 
N. part of the W. or coast side of the county consists of a tract of swampy flat, over- 
grown with reeds, but affording capital fattening food for cattle, and in its more 
elevated parts producing good crops of hay. A fine view from the hills whteh bound 

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AdeJ Ths South AmtraUan Gazetteer. 9 

Ur as well as of the waters of the gulf beyond, is to be obtAied, and tourists in search 
oi the picturesque would do well lo Tisit them. The greater part of the county 15 
purchased land, and a very large portion of this is under cultivation, and supports a 
kody of industrious farmers, gardeners, and yignerons. The city of Adelaule, the 
capital of the colony of S. Australia, lies in the centre of the plain, on the S. Ank of 
the Torrens river, a stream which, rising in the hills to the I{^£., meanders over the 
flat land, emptying itself into a reedy flat about 7 miles distant from the city. The 
chief towns of the county besides Adelaide, are Port Adelaide, the shipping port of the 
metropolis; North Adelaide, a residential suburb; Salisbury, on the N. line of railway; 
Gmneracka, Blumberg, Hahndorf, Balhannab, Woodside, Glenelg, Brighton, Noarlunga, 
Clar^don, and Willunga. The principal streams are the Torrens, Little Para, and 
Sturt. The area of this county is 1 1 61 square miles, or 743,040 acres, of which 590, 564 
acres are purchased land, 294,394 acres being held by freeholders, and there being 463,583 
acres enclosed, 176,330 acres under cultivation, and 287,253 acres enclosed, but not 
cultivated. The live stock in the county numbers 18,908 horses, 26,901 homed cattle, 
94,852 sheep, 2666 goats, 21,915 pigs, and 159,015 head of poultrv. Of the land under 
cultiyation, 91,786 acres are under wheat, 3104 acres under barley, 1064 acres under 
oats, 44,936 acres under hay, 1445 acres under green forage, 616 acres under peas, 
and 153 acres under other crops. There are 23,521 acres of fallow land, 1430 acres of 
potatoes, 1482 acres of orchard, 2280 acres of garden, and 4513 acres of vineyard, 
having 3,680,459 vines in bearing, and 1,291,430 vines not in bearing. The gross pro- 
duce for the year ending 31st March, 1866, was 854,412 bushels wheat, 42,675 bushels 
barlcfy, 13,367 bushels oats. 42,419 tons hay, 2452 tons potatoes, 617,021 gallons 
wine, and 26,279 cwt. grapes. The .population numbers 78,072 persons itgainst 
66,238 in 1861, being an increase of 11,834. The number of dwelling-houses is 16,544 
against 15,292 in that year, being an increase of 1252. 

jiLBELAIBE {Cg. Adelaide) is a centraHiundred of the county lying round the city 
of Adelaide, and watered by the river Torrens. It is nearly all purchased land, and 
for the most part consists of pasture land, and of gardens, orchards and vineyards, 
^though some small crops of grain are grown in it. There are numerous small 
Abnrban townships in this hundred, the principal ones being North Adelaide, Hindmarsh, 
Unley, Norwood and Kensington. 

ABELASDE PLAINS {Co. Adelaide) is the'narae given to the extensive flat lying 
between the gulf of St. Vincent on the W., and the main or Adelaide range on the 
E. The city of Adelaide and its surrounding suburbs lie on this plain, which consists 
of level fertile country, with deep alluvial soil resting upon tertiary deposits of gravel, 
sand, clay and sandstone, with tertiary limestone, which frequently penetrates 
5 or 6 feet into the joints and fissures of the rocks, completely covering them with a 
thin crust of white earthy carbonate of lime. Large crops of wheat and hay are grown 
upon it, and productive gardens and vineyards are numerous* 

AiDELASDE PORT {Co, Adelaide) is a postal and corporate town, the principal 
•hipping port of the colony, and the port of the metropolis, in the electoral district and 
hundred of Port Adelaide. It is situated on a mangrove swamp, on a saltwater creek or 
estuary, known as the Port Adelaide channel, about 9^ miles from the mouth in the gulf 
of St. Vincent, which is entered from the gulf betweui two extensive sand-shoals, 
through a narrow creek, and constitutes the outer bar. There is another bar inside 
the heads, known as the inner bar; but, by means of dredging, the outer bar has been 
cleared so as to give a depth of 15 feet at low water spring tides, or about 23 feet at 
high water, and a channel has been cut through the inner bar, giving a depth of 18 
feet at high water neap tides. Both bars have a hard limestone crust, and have been 
difficult and expensive to deal with; and although little inconvenience or delay need be 
experienced by ships up to 800 tons register, still, vessels of 1000 to 1200 must lighten 
considerably outside before they can venture to cross the bars. The question, there- 
fore, of the enlargement of the port, which has been fiM* some time before the public, is 
one of immediate consequence, if pace is to be kept with the great wealth-producing 
powers of the colony^ Port Adelaide lies on the E. side of the creek, in a low situation, 
and surrounded by swamp; it is not, ho>»ever, unhealthy, as the water is salt. Some . 
(4lthe lower streets are, however, liable to inundation, and a vast amount of property 
was destroyed some time back by a catastrophe of this nature. The channel or entrance 
toiPort Adelaide runs between sandy banks; and is bounded on the W, by a sandy 
piece of land known as Lefevre's peninsula, and on the E. by the mainland. . It is, 
iMwever, divided into two branches by a large sandy island, known as Torrens island 



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10 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Adb 

(on which itands the quarAitine station,) the branches being known as the N. andS. 
arms respectively. The latter is the one used for navigation, and is divided into two 
portions, called Lipson's and Gawler reaches. On the B. side of that channel are two 
indentations, forming boat harbours, and known as North cove and False bay. The 
semaphore and flagstaff, whence vessels entering, the harbour are signalled to Adelaide, 
lies on the W. coast of lefevre's peninsula, opposite Port Adelaide, and near the villages 
of Willunga and "Weymouth. 

Fort Adelaide contains 1 steam flour mill (Hart's,) also 1 in course of erection, 2 
breweries, I boilermaker*s works, also extensive coppef smelting works, established by 
the English and Australian Ck)pper company. There are also 2 shipbuilding yards; 
Fletcher's, in which is a patent slip, capable of raising vessels of large tonnage, and 
Cruickshank's, in which is a slip for small-class vessels. Port Adelaide has a sub- 
stantial steamer's wharf, and other wharves for the use of the shipping which frequent 
the port. These wharves are fltted with cranes and other appliances for the loading 
and unloading of vessels, and a tramway runs along them in connection with the 
railway to Adelaide, the terminus of which is at the other side of the to>rn. At and 
near the wharves vessels drawing 18 ft. of water can lie afloat at all states of the tide. 
At the steamer's wharf is a large and extensive goods shed, erected in order to prevent 
cargo suffering from the inclemency of the weather. Port Adelaide has all the 
characteristics of a seaport town; its shops, commodities, hotels, and manufactories, 
all seem intended for the accommodation of a seafaring population. It contains many 
excellent buildings, and several well-formed streets. The custom-house, police court, 
railwav station, and new town hall (the latter opened in August of this year, hy a 
concert given by Mr. G. Loder,) are all flne structures, as are also many of the 
warehouses, mills, churches and chapels. The custom-house is the principal one of 
the colony, and contains the offices of the marine board. There is also a small theatre, 
which is, however, rarely open for dranfatic performances. The nearest places are 
Albert Town and Queenstown, about 2 miles from Port Adelaide, on the main 
road to Adelaide; Portland estate, adjoining Port Adelaide on the S.£. side; also 
Glanfield, a village and district on Lefevre's peninsula, on the. N. side of the Port 
Adelaide creek, being connected with that township by a wooden bridge, with thett 
places, except with Albert Town or Alberton, which lies in the line of railway, there 
are no regular means of communioation. A locomotive railway, 8^ miles in length, 
connects Port Adelaide with the capital. A coach road, also, runs parallel most of the 
distance, but it is in such bad order as to be. little used, and bears the unenviable 
notoriety of being one of the worst kept and most greatly neglected roads in the colony. 
A temporary hospital has been established at the police-office by the government, 
fh>m which patients are removed to the Adelaide hospital. The principal hotels in Port 
Adelaide are the Britannia, Port Admiral, Ford's, Wharf, Smith's, White Horse, and 
Railway. There are also several smaller houses. The carrying-office of Messrs. Hill and 
Co., railway contractors for delivery of goods per railway, is in the township. The 
surrounding country is flat and swampy^ sand, clay, and limestone rock. The fol- 
lowing banks have branches at Pprt Adelaide, viz.: — The Union Bank of Australia, 
Bank of Adelaide, National Bank of Australia, and the Bank of South Australia. The 
churches are, — Episcopal church of England, Roman Catholic church; chapels, 
Wesleyan, Independent, and «fresbyterian. There is a post and money order office, 
telegraph station, branches of the South Australian and £uroi>ean insurance offices; a 
company of volunteer rifles, a battery of volunteer artillery, and a rowing club. 

The receipts and expenditure for 1865 in tl^is municipality were as follow: — 
Amount of assessment, £25,889 138. 6d.,— rate 2s. in the pound; rates collected, 
£2379 Is. 6d.; — total receipts from All sources, £4812 12s.;; Office expenses and 
salaries, £457 4s. 7d.; expended on public works, £4525 7s.' Id. The area of the 
nmnicipality is 370 acres; the population numbering 2270 persons, being an increase 
of 562 since 1861. The number of dwelling-houses is 603, being an increase of 53 since 
that year. Within this muniqjpality are, I biscuit bakery, 1 boatbuilding yard, 2 
breweries, 1 gas works, 2 malting houses, 1 large steam flour mill, 2 printing presses, 
2 saw mills, and 1 smelting works; also, 40 merchants and whojh^sale stores, 25 offices 
of professional gentlemen and companies, 12 builders, timber and livery stable yards, 
and 111 tradesman's shops. 9 

The Port Adelaide electoral district is bounded on the S. by a line commencing at 
a point on the sea coast due W. of the N. W. angl»of section 1006, hundred of TatiAa; 
thence E., along the N. boundary of same section, to the Port Adelaide creek; thence 
N., along centre of said creek, to a point opposite the S. W. angle of section 929; thence 



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\de — ^Alb] The South AaxtraUan Gazetteer, ll 

E. by the S. boundaries of sections 929 and 924; N. by the road between sections 924 
and 2073 to the N. W. angle of the latter section; S.E. in a straight line to the S. angle 
of section 418; £. by the S. boundftry of section 417; N. by the £. boundary of section 
417, to the Port road; S.E. to the S. angle of section 405; N.E. by the boundary 
between sections 405 and 393; N.^. by the road to the S. angle of section 422, and N. 
by the £. boundai^ of the said section; thence E. by the road to the N.E. corner of 
section 360; thence N. by the road to the Gawler river, between sections 7568 and 
7569, in the hundreds of Fort Adelaide and Munno Para respectively; thence W. along 
the centre of the river Gawler, to a point where it cuts the dividing line of sections 
7523 and 7513; thence W., by the south boundary of 7523, 7522, and 7521, to a point 
where the Gawler river cuts the boundary between sections 7500 and 7510; thence by 
the centre of the aforesaid river Gawler, to the sea at Port Gawler; thence S. by the 
sea coast to the point of commencement; together with the whole of Yorke's peninsula 
lying S. of the river Broughton and W, of the county of Stanley. It comprises the 
corporate town of Port Adelaide, the district councils of Alberton and Queenstown, 
Glanville, portion of Hindmarsh, Portland estate, portion of Yatala, the remainder of 
the hundred of ^"t Adelaide, the N. portion of the county Daly, the S. portion of the 
county Daly, and Torke's peninsula, an4 has a total area of 1,202,690 acres, or 1878' 
. square miles, and a total population of 15,232, of whom 4000 are adult males. The 
number of acres under cultivation is 7839, as against 3642 acres in 1861. The voting 
places for this district are at Port Adelaide, Dry Creek, and Eadina. The present 
representatives in the Assembly are Messrs. Smith and Bower. The number of 
registered electors for the district for 1865 was, for the Legislative Council, 884; and 
for the Le^slative' Assembly, 2264. 

ADELAIDE PORT (Co.* Adelaide) is a hundred, lying in the N.W. corner of 
the county, on the coa§t of the gulf of St. Vincent, and consisting of flat, swampy 
land, much of which is purchased and used for the purpose of fattening cattle or for the 
growth of hay. The Little Para river runs through the hundred, and the shipping 
port of the metropolis, Port Adelaide, lies on a wide estuary in the south part of the 
hundred: 

ADIEU CAPE (Flinders district.) A former name of Nuyt's point,^ which see. 

AHAMOLA CREEK (Flinders district.) See Abcaboola crbbk. 

ALBERT COUNTY is a large tract of country lying upon the S. and E. banka 
of the Murray river, and comprehending the inner angle of the great bend of that river. 
It forms the N.W. corner of the electoral district of Victoria, and extends along the 
bank otVihe Murray from the overland corner to the N.W. bend from W. to E., and 
from that place to the Chucka bend f rOm N. to S. Its W. side, along the bank of the 
Murray, is divided into the hundreds of Cadell, Randell, Paisley, Cooper, Giles, and . 
Morphett, and is, as well as the land along its N. side, a tract of pastoral country. 
This county has an area of 2136 square miles,* or 1,367,040 acres, of which 1690 are 
purchased land, 600 acres being held by freeholders, 1 100 acres enclosed land, and only 
10 acres under cultivation. The live stock numbers 125 horses, 262 horned cattle, 
23;600 sheep, 7 goats 6 pigs, and 164 head of poultry. The whole of the cultivation 
land was lying fallow for the year ending March, 1866, and there were consequently no 
crops. The population numbers 71 persons, being an increase of 2 since 1861, and the 
number of dwellings is 28. 

ALBERT LAKE (Co, Russell) is a fine large inland lake, about 10 miles 
in length by 8 miles in width, lying to the E. oi Lake Alexandrine and connected with 
it by a narrow channel or river, about 5 miles long; a pedlnsula, about 10 miles long 
and «s many wide, and forming the hundred of Baker, dividing the two lakes, the 
isthmus of which peninsula separates lake Albert from the Coorong lake. The waters 
of the Albert lake abound in fish, amongst which the Murray cod, called by the natives 
** Poride," may be mentioned, and on its shores game is plentiful. The coast surround- 
ing the lake is generally of a red sandy loam with magnesian limestone; on the shore 
are numerous outcropping granite boulders, and in the middle of the lake-is a small 
island formed of large blocks of the same formation. Lake Albert lies about 9 miles 
K of the postal village of Point Madleay, and 21 miles S. of Wellington. 

AXBE&TOM (Co. Adelaide) is a postal township and railway station, lying 
Bobarban to Port Adelaide. It is in the electoral district of Port Adelaide, hundred of 
Yatala, and forms part of the district council of Alberton and Queenstown. It lies on 



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M The South Australian Gazetteer, [Alb — ^Alb # 

the main road from Fort Adelaide to the city of Adelaide, adjoining the former place 
on the S.E. side, and being 7 miles N.W. of the latter place. The nearest places are — 
Qaeenstown, acyoining; Woodville, l^ miles S., and Uindmarsh, Bowden,and Brompton, 
4^ miles S.E., the communication being by railway and the Port road; the latter very 
mach out of repair. Alberton has a post office and 2 hotels— the British Standard and 
the SlMpwrights' Arms. The surrounding country is flat and swampy, with clay and 
•andy drift; much of the available ground being taken up for the oaltivation of hay, 
and a small quantity of wheat. The population is included in that of the district 
council—which see. 



&TOH AND QUEENSTOWN (Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the 
electoral district of Fort Adelaide. It is under the control of a chairman, the present 
one being Mr. T. Psge, of Queenstown, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expendi- 
ture in this district council for lg65 were as follows:— Assessment) £4520 lOs. rates, 
Is. in the pound; rates collected, £169; total receipts, £223 Os. 9d; office expenses and 
salaries, £64 4s.; expended on public works, £170 Os. 3d. The area is 275 acres. The 
population numbers 1268 persons, and the number of dwelling-houses, 267. 

ALDGATE PUMP {Co, Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlen^t, and the 
name of a wayside hotel on the main road*from Adelaide to Mount Barker, and 
near the township of Crafers. 

ALDINOA BIG LAGOON (Co, Adelaide) is a swampy lagoon, lying in the 
Aldinga plains, at a distance of Ij miles N.W. by W. of Sellick's hill. 

ALDINOA {Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Noarlunga. hundred of Willunga, and under the control of 'the Aiding^ district 
council. It lies on the Aldinga creek, and on the'main S. road from Adelaide to 
Tankalilla; is an agricultural, wheat-growing district. There are 2 flour mills in the 
township, and silver and lead have been found in the neighbourhood, but only in small 
qvantities. The nearest places are Wellington, 5 miles S.E; and port Willunga, 1} 
miles W. The communication with Willunga, as with Adelaide, is by RounseveU's 
daily mail coach, the distance being 30 miles N. Aldinga has a post office, a council 
chamber, a literary institute, and 1 hotel— the Aldinga. There is a public pound in 
the township, and a court of Foresters is held at intervals. The surrounding country 
is generally flat, with a range of hills to the E., principally of ferruginous sandstone, 
with quartz and limestone. The population numbers about 500 persons, inclusive of 
the fkrmers who dwell on the neighbouring agricultural settlements. 

ALBINOA {Co. Adelaide) is a district* council in the electoral district of Noarlunga. 
It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. B. Butterwofth, and 4 
councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as 
follow: — Assessment, £4400— rate, I9. in the pound ; rates collected, £125 14s.; total 
receipts,£768 Is. 8d.; office expenditure and salaries, £82 ?8. 3d.; expended on public 
works, £659 6s. 7d. The population numbers 972 persons ; the area is 31 square miles 
or 19,840 acres ; land under cultivation, 7984 acres; and number of dwellings, 191. 

ALDZNOA BAY {Co, Hindmarsh) is a small boat harbour lying on the E. coast 
of St. Vincent gulf, to the S. of Holdfast bay. 

ALDINOA PLAINS {Co. HindmarsK) is the name given to a tract of undulating 
land, much of which is taken up for agricultural purposes. It lies at the foot of mount 
Barker, in the district of Willunga, near to Sellick's hill, and is separated from Myponga 
flat by a range of hiUs running N.E. and W. 

ALEXAMBKuf A ^o. Hindmarsh) is a district council in the electoral district 
of mount Barker. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr . 
H. Pavy, of Milang, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council for 1865 were as follow : —Assessment, £2886— rates, 3d. in the pound; rates 
collected, £40 iOs. 5d.; total receipts, £148 17s. l^d.; pffice expenses and salaries, 
£33 178. 8d.; expended on public works, £130 5s. 6d. The population numbers 340 
persons; the area is 52 square miles or 33,280 acres; laud under cultivation, 4016 acres; 
and number of dwelling-houses, 59. 

ALEXANSBINA (Co, ffindmarsh) is a S.E. hundred of the county, lying on 
the W. side of the lake of the same name. It contains about a third of its area in pur- 
chased land, principally taken up for agricultural purposes. The township of Clayton 
if in this hundred. 



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Ale — Alm] The South Australian Gazetteer. IS 

AXtEKAWMtXNAt LAKE natire name Eayinga, (Cos. ffindmarsh. Start, and 
Rvseell) la an immense inland lake lying near the coast, to the N.E. of Encounter Bay, 
between SS"" SO' and 35° 35' S. lat., and 139° 5' and 139" 35' E. long. It opens to the sea 
hy a narrow passage known as the Murray sea mouth, arailable for large steama**, and 
forms a vast enlargement of the Murray river, whose waters it receiyes at its N.£. end. 
Lake Alexandrina was discovered by Sturt. Its length from N.E. to S.W. is 30 miles, 
and its breadth from S.E. to N.W. 15 miles. It contains several islands, which lie in 
its S.W. corner, and the principal of which are Hindmarsh, Mundoo, Goose, Goat, Rat, 
and Holmes islands. On its E. sides are two other lakes, connected with it by narrow 
passages, and known respectively as the Albert and Coorong lakes. Its wfCters are 
bracklBh, and abound in fine fish, particularly in Murray cod or poride, and on its 
serabby shores native game is found in plenty. The townships of Milang, Clayton, 
and Goolwa., the port for the Murray steamers, lie upon its S.W. coast, and the postal 
Tillage of point Macleay, on a peninsula separating lakes Albert and Coorong, 
on its W. side. Its shores are low and sandy, with patches of scrub and ocoasiona, 
swamps. The mean annual rainfall at this port of South Australia is stated by Jevonsl 
on the authority of Mr. G. S. Kingston, to be 17.45 inches. 

f AXJCOB, MOUNT, (N. district) is a trigonometrical peak at the N. end of Elder's 
« range, and lying to the N. of Hookina, and to the S. W. of Wilpena-and Bawnsley's 
bloff. 

AZiXHDEE, 32° 28' S. lat., 139° 40' E. long., (Flinders cUstrict) is a detached hill 
lying in the pastoral district of Eastern plains. 

AXL-ALONE, MOUNT, (flinders district.) is a S. peak of the Gawler range, 
passed by Byre in his exploration joui*ney from Streaky bay to the head of Spencer's 
gal^ in 1839. It lies in a dense wilderness of mallee scrub, and has some salt lakes 
lying to the S.W. 

Al&LANDA&E, EAST, (Co. Qrey) is an agricultural postal township* in the 
electoral district of Victoria, hundred of Macdonnell, and under the control of the 
central board of roads for the S.E. district. It lies 4 miles to me S.W. of the cele* 
biated extinct volcano known as mount Shanck, and is an agricultural district growing 
wheat, oats, hay and potatoes ; also to some extent pastoral, sheep and cattle being 
depastured in small numbfrs. The nearest places are port Macdonnell, 4 miles S., the 
nearest township on the coast, and Garabierton, 14 miles N. by E. Ihe communication 
with these places is by mail, twice a week, and coaches are to be hir^ at each place 
for passengefli. With Adelaide, 337 miles N.W. the communication is by steam 
vessel, from port Macdonnell, once a fortnight, by sailing schooners, and by mail 
coach, twice a week. The nearest hotels are at Port Macdonnell, and there is conveyance 
to be had for goods and produce by bullock and horse drays, which ply to mount'Gam- 
bier and Macdonnell bay, daily The surrounding country is low and swampy, and 
partly elevated with limestone ridges. The population of AUandale East and suburbs 
numbers about 200 persons* 

AlrLAKHAl&E, NORTH, {Co. Light) is a small postal township in the electoral 
district of Light and hundred of Kapunda. It lies on the main road from Kapunda to 
Koonnga, 3 miles N. of Kapunda, and 7 miles S. of Hamilton, the communication 
being by RounsevelPs daily mail coach, and with Adelaide, 52 miles, S.W. from 
Kapunda by rail. AUandale is in an agricultural district, and has a post office, a mill, ' 
a store, a Bible Christian chapel, and I hotel, — the Wheatsheaf. The country is 
undulating, and the population numbers about 70 persons, chiefly farmers. 

A&LU&ZHG HILL, 29° 25'S. lat., 138° 8' E. long., {Flinders district) isasolitary 
hilly lying on the E. bank of the Erome river, amidst indifferent country. 

AIA If ATIOMS' MINE {Co, Bv/rra,) SeeKooRiNOA: 

AILKA {Co, Gawler) is the name of a hundred in the N.E. part of the country, 
ooBsisting for* the most part of purchased land, and taken up by farmers, wlio pro- 
duce lai^ quantities of grain and hay. There are two post offices in this hundred 
for the convenience of the settlers, one known as the Alma, and the other as 
Humphrey's springs. The area of this hundred, excluding the district council of 
Stockport, is 46,720 acres, of which 10,375 acres are under cultivation. The popu- 
Uition of that portion numbers 707 persons. 



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14 The SotUh Australian Gazetteer, [Alm — Ano 

Ai:-TT#^ {OtOa/valer) is a post office in the agricultural and pastoral district lying 
in the hundred of the same name. It is situated on the main road from Adelaide to 
Clure, and is a post office established for the convenience of the surrounding settlers, 

AIiFAGBZNA STATION ( TF. district;) occupiers, Heath and Wooldridge. See 
Wallianippib Station. 

ALTHO&FE ISLES {Investigator^ a strait) are three small islands, with several 
rocks and a reef, that lie as far out as 5 miles to the southward from cape 
Spencer, but have not been ihinutelj examined; the largest is about a mile 
in extent^ and has 35 to 45 fathoms at 8 or 9 miles to the we&tward and southward of 
it, and 22 fathoms 6 miles to the eastward, in which direction the shore trends 
about E.N.E., upwards of 8 leagues, and forms the N. side of Investigator strait. 
The S.W. island of this group, the centre of which lies in lat. 85° 23' S., long. 136** 
54' 30" E.; being 26 miles N.N.E. ^E. from cape Borda, is 285 feet above low water 
mark. To the N. of the S.W. Althorpe there exists a reef which generally breaks. 
Betweefi this reef and the N. end of the island is a passage of upwards of a 
mil^in breadth, but as the tides are rapid and somewhat irregular, the passage is not 
recommended, unless a vessel when at anchor under the island should be caught in a 
south-easter with the flood tide, when it would be almost impossible to beat out to the S. 
The soundings between the Althorpe Group and cape Borda vary from 40 to 80 
fathoms ; 6 miles to the W. of the cape soundings of 60 fathoms are obtained. 

AMEBIGAN RIVEE {Kangaroo Island) is a small river flowing in the N. part 
of the E. portion of Kangaroo Island at American beach, 10 miles W. of Hog bay. It 
runs through scrubby pastoral land. 

AMEBlCAIf RIVER RUN {Kangaroo Island nearest post town, Eingscote or 
Hog bay. This run includes leases Nos. 860 and 959; occupier, R. Tapley; area, 24 
square miles; rent and assessment, «£ 19 2s. 6d. 

AKERZGAM RIVER STATION {Kangaroo Island;) lease No. 737 ; nearest 
post town, Kiijgscote or^Hog bay ; occupier, J. Martin; area, 10 square miles ; rental 
£10 5s. per annum. * 

ANABIA AND BUNGAREE RUNS {Go. Stanley;) leases Nos. 131 and 139 ; occu- 
pier, G. C. Hawker; area, 236 square miles; grazing capabilities, 87,000 sheep, 300 head 
of cattle, and 150 horses, the greater portion feeding on purebred land in the hundreds 
of BIyth and Mgne and at Auama ; old rental and assessment, £488 3s. 9d.; Goyder's 
valuation, £3472, exclusive of improvements valued at £2025. The head station of 
Anama lies 12 miles N.N.W. of Clare and 112 miles N. of Adelaide, and there are good 
roads to Clare and Port Wakefield. It is watered by the Broughton and Hutt rivers, 
and by 7 wells and dams. 

ANBEMOBJLA {Flinders district) is the name of a salt lake lying on the 
W. side of lake Torrens. There are several good waterholes near it, and the surround- 
ing country is known as Swinden*s country — which see. * 

ANDERSON RANGE (^Flinders district) is a range of low volcanic hills lying on 
the N. bank of the Lindsay river, and about 26° 5' S. lat., 134° 30^ E. long. It consists 
chiefly of gypsum, quartz, and ironstone. The surrounding country is scrubby, %ith 
an ironi»tone soil and occasional white flint. On the range are gum-trees, with large 
igouty swellings. Their bark is smooth, and of a flne white; the trees being affected 
with gall-flies, which produce gall-nuts as large as turnips, and the larvse being con- 
sidered a great luxury by the natives. 

ANDERSON'S CREEK (Co, Adelaide) is a small creek flowing through the 
township of Morphett vale, and so called from its running through the grounds of a 
gentleman named Anderson. The soil on the banks is of excellent quality, and several 
fine gardens and vineyards (the latter producing good wine) are in cultivation on both 
sides of it. Limestone and sandstone. 

ANDREWS {Co. Stanley) is a N. hundred of the county, containmg a small 
quantity of purchased land, which lies along the main N. jroad via Clare. The remainder 
of the hundred is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

ANGAS ^{Vo, Sturt) is a N. hundred of the county, consisting almost exclusively 
of pastoral country, and lymg in the belt of mallee brush, known as the Murray scrub. 



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Ang — ^AnlJ The South Australian gazetteer. 15 

.The areit or this hundred, including also that of Ridley and Finnis, is 263,680 acres, of 
which only 1 acre is under cultivation. The population of the 3 hundreds amounts 
' to 157 persons, engaged in pastoral pursuits. 

ANGAS HILL (Ob. Hindmarsh) is an elevation, lying in the scruhhy country 
between the Angas and Bremer rivers, about 1} miles E.«of Strathalbyn. It is a 
survey point. . 

ANGAS KIVER (Co, Hindmarsh) is a fine stream, rising in Anthony's hill, 
about 3 miles N. of Strathalbyn, and flowing through that township in a S.E. direction 
for about 18 miles until it falls into lake Alexandrina by a swampy outlet 2 mile^ to the 
E. of Milang. It is crossed by the main road from Adelaide to Wellington, at 
Strathalbyn, and again at a point about half way between that township and Lang- 
home's bridge, on the Bremer river, and is fed by several tributaries, rising by 4 
distinct head streams, which join at the foot of the ranges. 

ANGAS'S RUN {Co, Gregory;) lease No. 121; occupier, J.* H. Angas; area, 
474 square miles; grazing capacity, 10,450 sheep, or 220 per square mile; there being 
30,000 sheep, exclusive of lambs, 3500 head of cattle, and 180 horses on this, Stony 
creek, and mount Gullet runs, and in the hundred of Wongyarra and Gregory, 
including about 26,000 acres of purchased land, of which 5000 acres are rented by ]^. 
Angas. This run lies 2# miles E.N.E. of 0K)unt Remarkable, and 35 miles from port 
Augusta. 

AMGASTOV (Co. Light) is a postal township in the hundred of Moorooroo 
electori^ district of Barossa, and under the control of the Angaston district council 
the members of which are commissioners of roads, ex officio. It is situated on the 
Angaston creek, a branch of the N. Para river, the Gawler river, also a branch of the 
N. Para, running within 2 miles of the township. The surrounding district is agricul- 
tural, and there is a steam flour mill at Penrill, a small hamlet 1 mile from the town. 
A copper mine was formerly worked within 14 miles of the township, but it has been 
closed for some time, although indications of a very fine character have been exhibited. 
The nearest places are Nuriootpj^4 miles S.W.; Stockwell, 5 miles N.K.; andTanunda, 
6 J miles S.W., the communication being by horse and dray, except to Stockwell, to 
which place Eounseveirs coach runs daily. ^ With Adelaide, 51 miles S.E., the com- 
munication is by Kouns^eli's daily mail coach, and omnibus three times a-week to 
Freeling, and thence by train; also by carrier'^dray three times a-week. Angaston 
has a post and money-order office, a local court-house, police station, a telegraph 
station, 2 resident magistrates, G. H. Angas and E. Eeyne, Esqs., a branch of the 
National bank, and an agency of the South Australian Insurance company, a Forester's 
court, and a public' pound. There are also 2 licensed schools, ladies' school, 3 chapels, 
and 2 hotels, the Angaston (Milsom's) and the New inn (Doddridge's.) The surround- 
ing country is hilly, except to the E., where low scrubby country extends to the banks 
of the Murray river. The population numbers about 370 persons, including that of the 
environs. In the vicinity of Angaston is the justly celebrated vineyard known as 
Evandale, producing splendid crops of the finest grapes, which make wines*of choice 
quality, the Riesling, Frontignac, and Muscat being specially excellent. The other 
vineyards in this neighbourhood are Lindsay house, and Tealumba. 

AM G AST<^ (Co. Light) is a district council in the electoral district of Barossa . 
It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. James Jepson, and 
4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were 
as follow:— Assessment, £11,212— rates, 9d. in the pound; rates collected, £222 15s. 5d. : 
total receipts, £751 12s. 3d.; office expenses and salaries, £76 12s. Id; expended on ' 
public works, £612 10s. Id. The papulation cnumbers 2435 persons— the area is 
70 square miles or 44,800 acres; land under cultivation, 17,913 acres; and number of 
dvrelling-houses, 406. *" 

AM GIVENA {N. district) is a postal village in the electoral district of J'linders, 
it lies near the Mochatoona mine, and to the N. of mount Hack, on the main NT road to 
Tudanamutana. There is a police station in the village. The district is exclusively a 
pastoral one. 

AMGORZGEMA {N. district) is a trigonometrical point on a hill lying to the 
N. of Blinman. There is a resident magistrate here, W. R. Swan, Esq., J. P. 

AMLABY (Co. Light) is the name of an agricultural district lying to the E. of 
the township of Hamilton. It is taken up by a few small farmers engaged in the culti- 



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Ifl The South Australian Gazetteer. [ANti — Ap© 

. : # 

yation of wheat. H. T. Morris, Esq., J. P., is the resident magistrate for the neigfi- 
boarhood. 

ANXiABY HILL, 27° 35' S. lat., 139° 30' E. long, {Flinders district) is a small 
eleyation lying on the S. side of Lake Buchanan, in the midst of finely-grassed 
country. * 

ANl^i^BY STATION (jOo, Eyre;) lease No. 20; occupier, F. H. Dutton, is Ihe 
head station and woolshed of the Emu flats run (which see.) It lies 9 miles N.E. of 
Eapunda. Anlaby has an area of 150 square miles, and pays a rental and assessment 
of £250 per annum. 

ANMA (Co. Eyre) is a central hundred of the county, consisting almost 
exclusively of pastoral land, although a small quantity has been purchased. ^ 

ANNA, MOUNT, 28° 40^ S. lat., 136° E. long. {Flinders district,) a flat-topped hill, 
probably auriferou»; discovered by Stuart in November, 1859, and forming a prominent 
point in the Denison range. He describes it as follows:—" It is a table-topped hill, 
standing on high table-land, which is intersected by numerous small watercourses, 
flowing towards the Douglas. On the S. and W. sides of the mount (which I have 
named mount Anna,) it is a compound of ironstone, quartz, granite, and a^ chalky 
substance, also an immense quantity of conglomerated quartz and ironstone, which haa 
the appearance of having been run together in a smelting works; there are also 
numerous courses of slate of different descriptions and colours. The quartz predomi- 
nates, and gives the country the appearance of numerous springs. These patches have 
deceived me two or three times to-day." Near this mountain several new species of 
lizards, and Sspecimens of a large green cicindela, belonging to a genus of insects hitherto 
unknown in South Australia, have been found. 

AHME (Co, Stanley) is the N.E. hundred of the (ounty, containing a small 
quantity of purchaaed land. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral 
purposes. 

AMSTEY'S HILL. See Hops Yallet. 

AMSTSY CREEK (Co. Adelaide) is a small tributary of the Torrens river. 

AMTEGRAMBE& BAT (Kamaroo Island) is a bigtit in the E. coast of the 
island lying between cape St. Albans to*he S.E., and capepoutts to the N.W. It is about 
34 miles wide, and has a sandy beach, with steep locks near cape Coutts. It is used as 
an anchorage for government vessels conveying supplies to the Sturt or cape Willoughby 
lighthouse. 

AMTEGKAMBER BAY RUN (Kangaroo Island,) nearest post town Kings- 
cote or Hog Bay. This run comprises leases No. 661, 771, and 589; occupier, Thomas 
Lashmar; total area, 31 square miles; rent and assessment, £32 3s. 4d. 

AN PROMT'S HILL (Co. Hindmarsh) is the name given to the S.E. extremity of 
an E. spur of the main range lying between Macclesfield and Strathalbyn, and about 
Ij miles from each. The Angas river rises by several heads in the S. slopes Of this hill. 
The surrounding country consists of good forest and agricultural land. 

ANXIOUS BAY, between 33° 11' 45" S. lat., 134° 16' 20" E. long., and 33° 36' 
S. lat., 134° 44' E. long., is a wide bight in the W. part of the coafe lying between 
cape Radstock on the N.W., and the Waldegrave islands on the S.E. It is about 32 
*miles in width, and 14 miles in depth, but is exposed to all W. winds except those to 
'the S. of S.W., and affords no secure anchorage. There are 26 fathoms of water at 
3 or 4 miles from shore in all parts exy^ept the S.E. corner, where 7 fathoms on a sandy 
bottom at a distance of 24 miles ot£ thQ beach. 

APEX HILL {N. district) is a lofty peak and trigonometrical point lying on the 
W. side ^ the great N. road, and on the N. bank of the Frome river, to the N. of 
Angipena and S. W. of Yudanamutana. There is a good road and plenty of water. At 
the footuf this hill a'copper lode exists, traceable for about 150 yards on the surface, the 
country consisting of quartz and killas or clayslate, with strong stains of copper all 
about the neighbourhood.^ The ore in the lode is not rich but looks promising, 
consisting of blue and green carbonate, ^ith a little grey ore. This mine is not work^ 
at present. 

APOINOA {Co, Burra) is a scattered agricultural village in the electoral 
district of Burra, hundred of Apoinga, and under the control of the road board and 



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Apo — ^Abo] The South Australian Gazetteer. 17 

district council of Apoinga. It is situated on the mall route between Kapunda and 
Kooringa, 78 miles N. of Adelaide. The river Light flows 4 miles S.W., TothiUt 
creek 2 miles S.» Brady creek 4 miles E., and Julia creek 12 miles E., with dense scrub 
to the E. extending to the Murray river. The district is both agricultural and pas- 
toral; the country to the S. being chiefly agricultural, and that to the J^ pastoraL 
Apoinga has a public pound and a smelting works. 

APOINOA {Co, Bwrra) is a hundred in the S.W. part of the county, containing 
« large area of mineral (copper) land, and being nearly all purchased. The township 
of Apoinga is in this hundred. The area of this hundred is 47,360 acres, the land 
nnder cultivation being 476 acres. It has a population of 286 persons, mostly miners 
and small farmers. 

AFFAANANA STATION (N, dUtrict;) lease No. 466; occupier, J. Wills; 
area, 60 square miles; rent and assessment, ^47 13s. 9d. per annum. This station lies 
near the Passmore river, to the N. of Kanyaka, the nearest post-office. 

LAKE (Flinders district.) See FappbrdjLAB. 

STATION {N, district;) occuiRer, Price Maurice. See Peking Run 

AJlGAXtOOIiA, ILLINAWUBTINA (or Ahakola) CREEK {Flinders 
district) is a fine creek, rising in the Yudanamutana hills, and following in an £. 
direction past mounts Painter and Paralana into the W. side of lake Blanche, near the 
Welcome mines. It waters the pastoral country known as the Eastern plains. Nardoo 
grows by the side of this creek. The scenery is very fine, and the formation is of 
shale, slate, and calcareous rocks, some of the latter rising to a height of from 300 to 
400 ft., and being thickly covered with pine and scrub, intermingled with handisome 
flowering shrubs. 

AaCBSR'S CREEK {Co. ffindmarsh) is a N. tributary of Rodwell's creek, 
rising in Archer's hill, and flowing about 4 miles through the agricultural country of the 
hundred of Strathalbyn. 

AR,GRE&'S HILL {Co. Hindma/rsh) is a lofty peak of the mount Barker ranges, 
lying in rugged scrubby country, about 6 miles N.N.g. of Strathalbyn township. 
Tlie Archer's creek rises in the S. slope of this eminence. 

A&DSN, MOUNT (Flinders district,) is a Ibfty eminence lying near the S. part 
of lake Torrens, and to the N. of mount Brown. 

ARBEM, MOUNT, RUN (N, district;) leases Nos. 60 and 57 ; occupier, J. 
Taylor; area 138 square miles; grazing capability 13,000 sheep; valuation by Mr. 
Goyder, deducting improvements, £313 13s. 8d. This run lies 15 miles N. of mount 
Brown, 2f miles E.N.E. of the Dutchman's Stern, and 30 miles E. of port Adelaide. 

AKDTO&XrZSK (Co. Adelaide) is a small village inhabited by small farmers, 
and lying on the Tea Tree Gully road, near Adelaide. 

AJRSABA RUN (N, district;) lease No. 76; occupiers, W. J. and J. H. 
Browne; area 105 square miles; Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, ^£369 4s. 
per annum. This run lies on the E. bank of the Arkaba creek, 82 miles N.E. by N. 
of port Augusta, and 267 miles N. of Adelaide. This run also includes leases Nos. 
424, 455, 500, 497, and 537, which have a total area of 144 square miles, and pay a 
rental of £125 lis. 8d. per annum. An aboriginal depot was established at this 
station for the relief of the blacks, during the late severe drought. 

A&XAGB (Co, Stanley) is a small agricultural village lying a short distance 
to the N. W. of the township of Clare, and inhabited by a thriving body of farmers. 

A&NO VALE (Co. Gawlerj is a small agricultural settlemtnt lying in the 
neighbourhood of Guwler town. 

A&09MA CBJBEKy (N. district,) a flue creek rising in Hardewicke's bluf^ 
and flowing through the station of the same name into the Brachina Creek." It forms 
into bogs which have to be fenced to keep out cattle. There are some good gardens 
on its banks, where willows, vines, fig trees and vegetables flourish. 

A&OOMA RUN (N. district i)\QMQ No. 83; occupier, J. F. Hayward; area, 
86 square miles; grazing capabilities, 7000 sheep or 81 per square mile. Goyder's valu- 
ation, deducting improvements, £120 per annum. This run lies N.E. of Hayward*s 
blufi^ and 120 miles N.N.E. ot port Augusta. 



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18 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Abt — ^Aug 

ARTHV&, MOUNT, 27** 25' S. lat., 136' 6'E. long. {Flinders district,) is a 
high flat-topped hill in the sandy plain, interrapted by low ranges of sand-hills, dis- 
coTered by Stuart as lying to the N. of the Frew river, in March, 1860. One of the N. 
tributaries of that river has its rise in this hill. 

AJEtTHUR, PORT, {St Vincent's gulf) is a name given to the N. part of the 
gnl^ and including port Wakefield, which forms its E. portion. 

AJITIFEHA STATION {N, district;) lease No. 351, is a portion of the Wilpena 
run, (which see) occupiers, Messrs. Brown; area, 30 square miles. 

ARUNDEL PLAINS {Flinders district) is the name given to a tract of grassy 
country intersected by several good creeks, and lying to the N. of the N.W. extremity 
of Stuart's range of mountains, in about 28'' 20' S. lat., IZi" to 135° E. long. These 
plains were discovered by Stuart on his first exploration journey in 1858, and he 
describes the country good, with plenty of grass and salt-bush, and having a few stones 
on the surface. 

ASHBOV&NE, postal name FAniss flat {Co, Hindmarsh,) is a postal township 
lately declared, in the electoral district of mount Barker, hwidred of Bremer, and 
under the control of the district council of Kondoparinga. It is situated on Bull's 
creek, the Finniss river, and Steel's ranges, lying near and to the S.W. The district 
is an agricultural one, wheat being the principal product. A copper mine, called the 
•* Great Bradford," lies on the Middle Finniss, about 4J miles from the township. The 
nearest places are— Sandergrove, 5 miles S.E.; Giles's flat, 2 miles E.; M'Harg's creek, 
2 miles W. ; Meadows, 10 miles N. ; and Strathalbyn, 8 miles E. ; the communication 
being by horse and private vehicle, and with Adelaide, 37 J miles N.W., by Rounseveira 
mail coach from the Strathalbyn, or by an occasional earner's dray. Ashbourne has a 
post office and 1 hotel — the Green Man. The surrounding country is elevated, and the 
flat on which the township stands (Finniss flat) consists of good alluvial soil over quartz 
and trap rock. The population of the township numbers about 30 persons— that of 
the flat about 200, mostly small farmers. 

ASKFORD {Co, Adelaide) is the vineyard and residence of Dr. Everard, on the 
Bay road, about 2 miles distant trom Adelaide. It is planted principally with grizzly, 
red, black and white Frontignac, Tokay, Black Hambro' and Black Prince, and pro- 
duces excellent wine. There is also a flue orangery and orchard. 

ATHELSTOME {Co, Adelaide) is a postal village, in the electoral district of E. 
Torrens, and hundred of Adelaide. It is situated on the Fifth creek, the river Torrens 
being 1 mile distant from the post office, and Adelaide 8 miles distant. The district is 
an agricultural one, wheat and farm and garden produce being grown. It is very 
scrubby in some parts, and bears strong traces of copper. The nearest places are — 
Paradise, IJ miles N. W., and the Montacute mine^, 6 miles E. There are no regular 
means of communication with these places. The communication with Adelaide, 8 miles 
S.W., is by horse or private vehicle, the mail being carried on horseback. The nearest 
hotel is at Paradise. The country is hilly, and the population numbers about 200 
persons, scattered over the district. The Athelstone vineyard (CouU's) is a celebrated 
one, producing Black Portugal, Shiraz, Dolcetto; red, white, black and grizzly Fron- 
tignac; Sweetwater, Golden Chasselas, and Muscat. The orchard at Athelstone is 
almost of equal importance with the vineyard. There is a capital cellar and wine-house, 
and very good wine is produced there. The Freshford vineyard also lies near this place. 

ATT&AGTZOM, MOUNT, 29"* 33' S. lat., 138° E. long. {Flinders district,) is as 
solitary hill lying on the W. bank of the Frome river, near the junction of Hergott's 
springs with that river. 

AUGUSTA, PORT, in 32° 29' 42" S lat., and 137° 47' 28" E long., the northern- 
most of the South Australian ports, from which the township takes its name, in the 
hundred of Davenport, county of Frome, electoral district of Flinders, and situated on 
the upper shores of Spencer's gulf, is about three quarters of a mile wide, with good 
anchorage in soft mud, 18 feet deep at low water springs. The old township of Port 
Augusta is situated on the eastern shore, which is composed of low ridges and hillocks 
of loose blown white and red sand, pretty thickly covered with myall, sandalwood, 
and stunted scrub. An extension of the township, ** Port Augusta West/' has recently 
been laid out and sold by the government. This place is the key outlet for a very large 
tract of pastoral and mineral country extending 500 miles N. There are no rivers or 

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Aug] The South Australian Gazetteer. 19 

permanent water preeks in the neighbonrhood, but simply courses or channels, ^faieh 
waste themselves on the plains and are dry the greater part of the year. The most 
prominent natural feature is ^ Mount Brown," 3174 ieet above the sea level, bearing 
E. 2^ N. from the Fort Augusta custom-house flagstaff, distant 15 miles ; it is the 
highest peak of that beautiful range of hills named after the great explofer ** Flinders.** 
There are also the ** Dutchman's Stem" and the ** Devil's Beak" to the northward of 
mount Brown, plainly visible from Port Augusta, and *' mount Remarkable," farther 
S. on the eastern side, but not visible fh>m Port Augusta. Agriculture has been 
tried in the district, but from the frequency of dry seasons has proved a failure. Its 
• pastoral capabilities support immense numbers of sheep and cattle, many of whidi 
thrive well and fiitten on salt bush. Several copper mines have been opened, extending 
16 miles off Port Augusta to some 300 miles north. Amongst the foremost of these 
may be enumerated the Blinman, Yudanamutana, Mount Bo8& Wirrawilka, Welcome 
Springs, Eanyaka, Nuccaleena, Sir Dominic, and Northern Mineral Association com- 
pany's properties, all of which suffer materially for the want of railway commnnicatioD. 
Hie nearest mines to Port Au^ta are the Horrocks Creek^ about 18 miles, recently 
opened, and the Spring Creek company's property, about 30 miles distant on the 
eastern side of the Flinder's range. The next townships are Stirling or Minchin's 
wells, distant 5 miles S. by E. on the high roads to Horrocks pass for the soutiiern 
traffic, and Pichi Rich! for the northern traffic. The 2 wells from which it is named 
are 70 feet deep, but the water is not fit for domestic use- It is now supplied fh)m a 
stand pipe of the waterworks. Saltia, on a creek bearing its name, 11 mUes E. by N. 
of Port Augusta, situated at the entrance of the northern or Pichi Richi pass. There 
are no regular conveyances between Port Augusta, Stirling, and Saltia. Port Augusta 
has an overland mail twice every week from Adelaide, arriving at 2 p.uL on Mondi^s 
via Melrose, and on Fridays by Clare, the last 30 miles being usually carried on horse- 
back ; total distance from Adelaide, 220 miles. There is also a bi-weekly mail per 
coasting screw steamer Lvbra, leaving Adelaide on Monday, calling at Port Lincoln, 
and arriving at Port Augusta on Thursday. Travellers usually prefer this means of 
transit for convenience and economy ; saloon passage j£4, steerage £2.; whilst the 
overland route involves the cost of being specially conveyed through Horrocks pass 
and Beautiful valley, there to join the mail line which passes up and down on the 
eastern side of Flinder's range. 

Port Augusta has an aboriginal station, a public pound, a post and money-order 
office, a Foresters' court, and branches of the South Australian insurance, NeV South 
Wales assurance, Adelaide assurance and guarantee companies, and the National 
bank. The resident magistrates are T. K. Ellison, W. Luton, C. Ogilvie, and J. H. 
Bowe, Esqs. There are no hospitals, benevolent asylums or institutions at Port Augusta, 
nor has any place of worship yet been built. The Church of England holds services 
regularly every Sunday at the custom-house, where is also a Sunday school with 
upwards of 70 scholars. The Bible Christians also have services twice every Sabbath 
at Port Augusta, and afternoon services at Stirling. Cases of destitution are relieved 
locally by an auxiliary board of the Adelaide institution, consisting of three members, 
who sit once a fortnight in the custom-house long room, which is also used temporarily 
as a local court, until more commodious premises are erected. A branch of the Ade- 
laide South Australian Institute is also supported by the inhabitants, who have also a 
literary association, which meets every Tuesday evening for debating, readings and 
recitations, one of the nights in each month being devoted to lecturing. The hotels at 
Port Augusta are "The Northern" (Walter Hobkirk's), and the "Port Augusta" 
(Alexander Mackay's). The carrying companies of the district are the South Austra- 
lian Carrying company limited, at the Blinman and Yudanamatana mining company's 
stores, P. A., their principal work being the conveyance of their own goods to the 
Blinman mine 140 miles, returning with copper cake and ore; and the Camel Carrying 
firm, Messrs Elder and Stuckey's, consisting of about 100 camels and 30 donkeys, 
between Lake Hope and Port Augusta. The roads are under the Sorveyor-Geneiul's 
department. The country behind the sandy ridges which border the coast is a plain 
about 12 miles broad, with an easy rise to the foot of the Flinders range, and N. and S. 
about 200 miles. The western side or shore, a few miles below Port Augusta township, 
has less plain, and at about 2]^miles from the beach is backed by a barren stony flat- 
topped range, 950 feet high. The geological formation is tertia^, with angular red and 
li^t brown siUcious and quartzose san(&tones scattered over a mable light soil. 

The same description applies to the E. side between the sand-hills of Port 
Augusta and the Flinders range. The population of Port Augusta is 450 soula. 

• c» 



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20 



The South Australian Gazetteer, 



[AUB 



•applied with good fresh water by a 4-iiich pipe of I4i miles with 900 feet fall from 
the Woolandanga springs, which take their nse at mount Brown; it is delirered every 
few mornings to the public at a charge of 20s. per 1000 gallons at the stand- 
pipe, and aUo at Lassie's jetty end for the shipping. There are 3 jetties, 4 large 
stores, 1 bonded warehouse, a branch of the National bank, custom house, and 
Harbour-master's residence, besides many substantial buildings, 2 ferrying lines ion 
•lock, &c, a commodious post office and telegraph station, and a racecourse 3} miles 
N.E. of the town. 
Memorandum of Exports and Imports at Port Augusta, during the 8 years ending 
SOth June, 1866, value in pounds sterling. 



BXPORTS. 


Imports. 


Tear. 


Wool, &c. 


Minerals. 


Year. 


General Mer- 
chandise. 




£ 


£ 




£ 


1859 


25,775 


••• 


1859 


27 


1860 


128,724 


5,386 


1860 


970 


1861 


149,267 


19,120 


1861 


6,551 


1862 


84,769 


22,004 


1862 


9,918 


1863 


172,649 


22,770 


1863 


1,992 


1864 


153,334 


32,167 


1864 


8,217 


1865 


33,347 


5,306 


1865 


796 


1866 


>••• 


••• 


1866 


11,297 



Meteorological Obseryations, by H. Mildred. 
Statement showing the rainfall at Port Augusta during the period from the Ist 
March, 1859, to the 31st December, 1865, and half-year ending, 30th June, 1866, 
from Mr. Hiram Mildred's rain guage. 



Year, 


1859. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


January , 


••• 


... 


0.010 


0.180 


0.165 


1.030 




0.385 


February 


.•• 


... 


••• 


0.557 


1.015 


0.018 


••• 


0.500 


March 


••• 


2.858 


0.555 


0.770 


0.305 


0.005 


... 


0.680 


April ... 


... 


.836 


0.580 


0.535 


1.440 


0.080 


0.214 


0.120 


May 


0.375 


1,176 


0.731 


0.342 


1.151 


0.529 


0.805 


1.380 


June 


0.417 


0.685 


1.269 


1,795 


0.655 


0.369 


0.035 


0.387 


July 


0.021 


0.338 


0.737 


0.185 


0.880 


0.120 


0.535 




August 


0.498 


0.326 


0.740 


0.474 


0.353 


0.785 


0.075 




September 


.727 


0.466 


0.492 


0.956 


0.889 


0.405 


0.010 




October 


•.. 


1.610 


0.535 


2.157 


1.120 


1.080 


0.055 




November 


••• 


0.555 


0.215 


0.338 


0.215 


0.110 


0.285 




December 


... 


1.110 


1.302 


0.140 


0.060 


0.500 


0.090 




Total Inches for each year 


2.038 


9.960 


7.166 


8.429 


8.248 


5.031 


2.104 





AUBUllM, 34° 2' S. lat., 138° 40' E. long. (Co, Stanley) is a postal township in 
the electoral district of Stanley, hundred of upper Wakefield, and under, the control of 
the upper Wakefield district council. It is situated on the river Wakefield, and on the 
great northern train line of road from Adelaide, and lies about 33 miles from port 
Wakefield, the chief outlet for wool and wheat. In the township there is a steam flour 
mill (Field's,) and a brewery in progress; there has also been recently erected a town 
ball, built by a limited liability company of 800 shares, £2 10s each. Adamson 
Brothers' coacfi factory, in Auburn, employs a large number of hands. The district is 
purely agricultural, chiefly wheat and hay being grown. The township lies witbin 30 
mUes W. of the Burnt Burra mines, and the nearest places are Undalya, 3 miles S; 
Saddleworth, 8 miles SJB.; Leasingham, 4 miles N; and Miutaro, '8 miles E.; the 



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Aui>— Baa] The South AmtraLian Gazetteer. 21 

communication being hy coach along main lines of road. The communication with 
Adelaide, 80 miles S., is by coach to Eapunda, 30 miles, and by rail from thence, 50 
miles, or by port Wakefield, 33 miles, a tramway to the latter place having been under 
consideration for some time. Auburn has a mechanics' institute, schoolhouse, Episco- 
palian church, and Bible Christian chapel, post and money order office, local court- 
house, and telegraph and police stations. The hotels are the Rising Sun ina, 
estafSshed 15 years, and the District hotel, lately established. There is a public 
pound, branches of the South Australian insurance and National bank, a local court, 
and 2 resident magistrates, P. Maonamara, and J. Morgan, £sqs. The district is 
well supplied with limestone, sand, and the finest building-stone in the colony, and 
the country is undiilating and well-wooded, the timber mostly honeysuckle and gum, 
the soil bei«g a rich loam. The population numbars about 200 persons. About 7 miles 
west of Auburn are extensive plains extending tor manjr miles, formerly sheep-runs, 
which are now being brought under cultivation, the young crd^s looking exceedingly 
{nromising. 

A.VX.DANA YINEYAkD (C7o. Adelaide.) See Beaumont. 

AUST&AX.XA, SOUTH.— See South Australia. 

AV E HU E FLAT RUN {8,E. district;) lease No. 218; occupies, Stewar$ 
and Falloon; area, 42 square miles; grazing capability, 4600 sheep, or 100 per 
square mile; rent, deducting improvements, as valued by Mr. Goyder, £86 per annum. 
This run lies 195 miles S.E. from Adelaide, and 40 miles N.E. by E. from Guichen 
bay on the road ftom that place to Narracoorte. 

AVENUE RANGE RUN {S.E. district,) lease No. 200. Occupiers, Tilleyand 
Ormerod; area, 699 miles; grazing capability, 10,000 sheep, or 120 per square mile; 
but 24,000 sheep and lambs, and 60 head of horses and cattle, are on this' and other 
runs held by the same lessees. The old rent and assessment was £152 78. 6d. Mr 
Godyer's valuation, deducting improvements, is £270 10s per annum. The stock is 
watered fi*om swamps, waterholes and wells. This run lies 180 miles by road S.E. by 
S. of Adelaide, and 50 miles N.N.E. of Guichen bay, the shipping port. 

AVENUE RUN, NORTH {8,E. district/) No. 335 lease A; occupiers, Tilley and 
Ormerod; area, 50 square miles; grazing capability, 8500 sheep, or 170 per square mile. 
The heEid station is on Reedy creek on the adjoining run. Mr. Goyder's valuation, 
deducting improvements, £258 14s. per annum. This run lies 235 miles S.S.E. from 
Adelaide, and 35 miles E.S.E. of Guichen bay. It forms part of the Avenue range 
ran. 

AVENUE RUN, SOUTH. (S.E. district) lease No. 355 ; occupiers, Tilley and 
Ormerod ; area, 75 square miles; grazing capability, 13,500 sheep, or 180 per square 
mile*; rental, deducting improvements, £142 88. This run lies 240 miles S.E. of 
Adelaide, and 50 Miles N.W. of Macdonnell bay, where the wool is shipped. 

AVOCA, VALE #F {N, district) is the name given to a fine valley lying 
between ranges 500 feet high, near the Welcome mines. The ranges on the N. side of 
tiie valley are bolder and higher than those on the S., and at the top are bare rocks of 
fiemtastic forms. Halfway up them are some singular apertures, and over a small creek 
or watercourse is a natural bridge of rock, consisting of a single stone 20 feet long. 

AVOID BAY (Co. Flinders) is a deep indentation in the land lying to the E. of 
point 'Whidbey, and about 9 miles across from that point to point Avoid is East Head. 
This bay almost insulates point Whidbey, it has a small rocky islet lying about a mile 
from the beach, and some black rocks and shoal water near its E. shore, with 21 
latho&s, a long mile from them, but it is exposed to the S. and S.W., and is unfit for 
anchorage. 

AVOZD POINT {Co. Flindet^s) is the E. head Of Avoid bay, and bears from point 
Whidbey E.S.E. 9 miles. It is low, and has 2 rocky islets connected by a reef lying 
off it to the extent of 3 miles. 

ATS&8 (Co. Stanley) is a N.E. hundred of the county, containing a small 

quantity of purchased land. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral 

purposes. 

L SAAH HILL RUN {neu> S.E. district;) leases Nos. 762, 775, and 1036; occupiers 

' Williams and Bagot ; respective areas of leases, 27, 10, and 43 square miles. This 

run lies in the Tattiara country, near Border town, and is watered by swamps. 



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33 The South Australian Gazetteer, Bab — H^l] 

BABBAOE, MOUNT, 29° 55' S. lat., 139° 45' E. long. iFlinders district,) is the 
name of a solitarj hill situated at the head of the Hamilton creek. 

BA.GKSTAZ&S PASSAGE is a narrow strait lying hetween the mainlaifd on 
the N. and Kangaroo island on the S.W., and leading from the ocean by the N. of that 
island to Port Adelaide and the other harbours in the gulf of St. Vincent, and to 
Nepean bay, Eingscote harbour, and the other ports on the N. coast of EangHtoo 
island. The tides in this passage run very strongly, as rapidly as 5 knots on some 
occasions, and it is supposed that the flood from the W. and the ebb from the E. meet 
somewhere near a group of small rocks, lying in the passage known as the Pages. The 
Yatala bank or shoal lies in the S. part of this passage, 8 miles N. of cape Willoughby. 
The narrowest part of the Backstairs passage measures nearly 8 miles in width from 
Cape Jervis to the n^est f>oint of Kangaroo island, and has soundings varying 
tcom 12 to 22 fathoms between the shores. 

BAGOT {Oo. Eyre) is a S. hundred of the county, Qonsisting almost exclusiyely 
of pastoral land, although a small quantity has been purchased. There is a public 
pound in this hundred. 

BAGOT RANGE, 26° 40' S. lat., 134° 20' E. long. {Flinders district,) is the name 
of a range of low volcanic hills, consisting principally of gypsum, quartz, and iron- 
stone, discovered by Stuart in his explorations of 1860. The surrounding country is 
generally scrubby, and has an ironstone soil with white flint occasionally. The 
Stevenson river and its tributaries flow past the N. foot of this range, and have grassy 
and gum bordered banks. 

BAGOT' S WELL {Co. Light) is a small agricultural postal settlement in the 
hundred of Kapunda, and electoral district of Light, lying in a wheat-growing district 
to the N.E. of Kapunda, which is distant 5} miles, the mail being conveyed on horse- 
back and thence per railway to Adelaide, distance 55 J miles. The surrounding 
country is diversified, and contains a considerable quantity of fine land, settled on by 
numerous^ farmers. At Bagot*s well, however, there are only two fiimilies resident, 
^comprising 12 persons in all. 

BAZBD'S BAY RUN (TF. district.) See Radstock Cape Run. 

BAKEB (Co. Russdl) is a S j^. hundred of the county, including the entire 
peninsula lying between lakes Alexandrina, Coorong, and Albert, and consisting 
of a scrubby tract of country, having, however, some good, agricultural land 
on the E. and W., which is surveyed and sold. On the W. side of this hundred, and on 
the shore of lake Alexandrina lies the township of Point Madeay, and the boat hur- 
hour known as Loveday bay. 

BAKER'S NOB {Co. Hindmarsh) is a prominent peak in the Yankalilla ranges, 
lying about 3 miles E. of Rapid bay, whence it forms a prominent landmark. 

BAKER'S RANGE RUN {S.E. district;) lease No. 223; occupiers, Messrs. 
Mclnnes; area, 30 square miles; grazing capacity, 5000 sheep; Mr. Goyder's valuation, 
deducting improvements, £150 10s. This is part of the Grower run, and lies 54 miles 
E.N.E. of Guichen Bay. This run also includes leases Nos. 223 and 284. 

BAL AKLAVA (Co. Gawler) is a N. hundred of the county, containing a small 
quantity of purchased land on its N. side, the S. bank of the Wakefield river. For 
population, &c., see Inkerman hundbbd. 

BALAUE CREEK (Ob. Victoi*ia) is a small watercourse, flowing in the S.E. 
part of the Bundaleer run. 

BALAGRBIX: RUN (N. district;) lease No. 69 ; occupiers, Messrs. Ragless; 
area, 71 square miles; grazing capability, 9000 sheep, or 127 per square mile; old rent 
and assessment, £133; Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £534 8s. This 
run lies near the Willochra township, 35 miles N.N.E. of Port Augusta, and 215 miles 
N. of Adelaide. It is watered by the Willochra and Beltana 'creeks, and by wells. 
The head station is generally known as the Mud Hut. 

BALGOORZE RUN {N. district,) See Baloabrib Run. 

rBALGORAGANMA CREEK {N. district) is a fine stream, rising in the ranges i 
to the N. W. of Blinman, and flowing past the N. of that place, in an E. direction to the 
£. plains, through good pastoral country. 



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Bal— Bar] The South Australian Gazetteer. 23 



HILLS {Co. Hindmarah) is a postal village in the electoral district of 
Encounter bay, hondried of Elankalilla, and under the control of the Tankalilla district 
counciL It is situated near the Yankaiilla river, which flows through that part of the 
district known as Dairy flat. The Inman river is also within a short dbtance; and 
mount Eobinson, ll miles distant, is covered with scrub, and contains good building, 
stone. Bald hills lies in an agricultural district, some of the best land in the colony 
being found in the neighbourhood, and being largely taken up for agricultural purposes, 
chiefly the growth of cereals; cattle and sheep are also grazed to a considerable extent 
on the adjoining waste lands. The nearest places are — ^Yankalilla, 5 miles W.; Nor- 
man ville, 7 miles W.; Victor harbour, 15 miles E.; and port Elliot, 20 miles N.E. 
Nonnanville being the next seaport and telegraph station. The communication with 
these places is by horse and dray; and with Adelaide, 55 miles N.E., by the same 
means to Tankalilla, and thence by Rounsevell*s mail coach. Heavy goods are usually 
carried to Adelaide by means of drays from Bald hills to Normanville, and thence by the 
schooners Analgisia, Nancy or Resolute, the regular traders to that port Bald hills 
has a i>ost office, a branch of the South Australian insurance company, and 2 stores 
(Leake's and Burgess and Bostock's. ) There are 2 chapels (Wesleyan and Bible 
Christian.) The surrounding country is mountainous, and is justly considered as 
exceedingly salubrious; the scenery is very beautiful, and offers great attractions for 
the tourist; for sportsmen the district is second to few in the colony, kangaroo and 
other native game abounding on the waste lands. 

BALD HILL {Oo, Light) is the name of a peak in the main range lying in the 
hundred of Belvidere, near the S. bank of the light river, and about 8 miles E. of 
Eapunda. 

BAXJ> HILL MINE (Tor1ce*i Peninsula) is a newly found copper lode in the 
Kadina mining district, and lying between the Telta mine and Eadina. A corre- 
spondent writes to the Walla/roo Times, ui\der date July 9th, 1866, respecting this find, 
as follows: — **I have just returned from a visit to the new discovery of copper which 
has been made near the Bald hill. The genuineness of the ' find' is now placed beyond 
any doubt, as the result of the day's working has opened up a splendid deposit of green 
carbonate of copper. There are 2 pits sunk, one of which is about 10 feet in 
length by 6 or 7 feet m width, and 2^ feet deep. This large opening seems 
to have been made for the purpose of ascertaining the extent of ground through 
which the ore might occur. Every portion of it shows green carbonates. A few feet 
distance from the above sinking there is another pit sunk to the depth of 2 or 3 
feet, which plainly discloses the back of a strong lode, with quartz, impregnated with 
green carbonates of copper. This discovery fairly eclipses all the recent ones that I 
have witnessed in this district, and it is very gratifying to be thus enabled to record 
such an event. I have thus given you a short sketch of my first visit to this new 
locality, and you can make what use you like of it." 

BAU>INA CREEK (Co, Burrd) is a small mountain creek, rising and flowing 
about 7 miles to the N. of Eooringa into the head of the Burra creek. It is merely a 
chain of waterholes in summer. 

BALBINA RUN, No. 1, (Co. Burra;) lease No. 22 ; occupier, the Hon.H. Ayers; 
area, 28 square miles; grazing capability, 5600 sheep or 200 per square mile. Original 
rent and assessment, £58 6s 8d.; Mr Goyder's valuation £392, excluding improvements, , 
which are valued at £405. This, is a head station and woolshed, and lies on the Stone 
Chimney creek, 6 miles E. of Kooringa, 105 N.N.E. ^ Adelaide, and 70 E.N.E of 
Port Wakefleld. It consists of well-grassed land, with a little mallee and sandalwood 
scrub, and about 9 miles of ^saltbush and grass, It is watered by the Stone Chimney 
and Baldina creeks, and has a good road to Kooringa. This run also comprises lease 
No. 285, which has an area of 24 square miles adjoining the head station, and its rent 
and assessment being £35. There is another run of the same name, but more usually 
known as ** Barker's," which see. A. Barker, Esq., J.P. is a resident magistrate of 
the district. 

BAU>INA RUN, No. 2. (N, district;) lease No. 545 ; occupiers, Barrett and 
Duffield ; area, 67 square miles ; rent and assessment £94 148. 4d. This run lies to 
tie N. of the Burra Creek, the next post town being Kooringa. 

BABSEB'S, (or Baldina) RUN, (i\r. district;) lease 33. This run also 
«)mpri8e8 lease No. 504, which has an area of 43 square miles, and pays a rent and 
assessment of £62 12s. lid. This run is part of Baldina No. 1. 



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24 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Bal — Bab 

BAZiHAHirAR, S^^'HT S. lat., Ids'" 55' E. long. {Co. Adelaide,) is a postal town in 
the electoral district and hundred of Onkaparinga, and under the control of the district 
council of Onkaparinga, on the rirer Onkaparinga. The Balhannah creek running from 
E. to N. and £dling into the river on the N.W. side. The district is an agricultural 
one, prindpally wheat growing. The nearest places are Oakhank Tillage, 1 mile N.E. 
little Hampton village, 5 miles E., and Grunthal village, 2} miles S.W. The main 
line of road runs between Oakbank, Balhannah, and Grunthal, and there is a district 
road from Balhannah to Little Hampton, the communication being along the main road 
bj Rounseveirs coaches, and with Adelaide, 181 miles W. by those coaches, along the 
main E line of road. There is one hotel, the Golden Cross inn, in Balhannah. The 
furrounding country is mountainous, the formation being of soft slate, with auriferous 
quartz. The population oi Balhannah. about 160 persons. There are at Balhannah 
2 stores, a post office 1 public school house, the best in the district 1 church (of England,) 
and one chapel (Primitive Methodist.) There is a company of volunteer rifles in this 
township. 

BALLAST HEAD {Kangaroo island,) is a bold rocky headland, in Nepean Bay, 
forming the W. horn of Eastern Cove. 

BAMGHABK RUN {S.E. district;) lease No. 154; occupier, B. Cussen; area, 30 
square miles; grazing capacity, |4000 sheep, or 129 per square mile; Mr. 
€k>yder's valuation, deducting improvements, £56 per annum. This run lies 100 miles 
N.E. of Guichen bay, and 195 miles S.E. by S. of Adelaide. It is watered by wells 
aad swamps. 

BAMOOR {Co. Frome) is a small village on the main N. road, lying about 10 
miles S. of the township of Melrose. Copper and lead have both been found in the 
locality. 

BANKS'S CAPE, of Grant, or Cape Button, of the French, {Co. Grey,) is a 
sandy projection in 37° 53' S. lat., and 140° 23' E. long., and is rendered remarkable by 
having a conspicuous white sand hummock close to its extremity. At 3 or 4 leagues 
inland there is a ridge of moderately high hills, which terminate to the southward 
in a bluff bearing from the hillock on the cape N.E. f N. " The coast from cape 
Buffon to Cape Banks has a sandy frontage, showing a few large stones upon the 
beach, with good soundings close to the shore." 

BANKS'S GROUP {Spencer^s Gulf) is the name given to a number of islands lying 
on the W. side of Spencer's gulf, and to the N.E. of Port Lincoln. They were first 
surveyed by Flinders in the early part of March, 1802. See also Sm Joseph Banks's 
Gboup. 

BABATANA EUN {N, district;) leases Nos. 544 and 566; occupiers, Messrs. 
Thomas; areas, 74 and 69 square miles; rents and assessments, £37 and £34 10s. This 
run lies at mount Thomas, near Burt's hill. 

BABGOO RIVER {Flinders district)— &ee Cooper's Cbeek. 

BABKEB, MOUNT. 35° 3' S. lat., 139° 1' E. long. (Co. Hindmarsh,) is a postal 
township iu the electoral district of mount Barker, hundred of Macclesfield, and imder 
the control of the mount Barker district council. It is situated on the main E. line 
of road from Adelaide to mount Torrens, 3 miles west of mount Barker, and near the 
head of the mount Barker creek, in an agricultural, district celebrated for the fine 
wheat it produces. Samples of wheat grown in this district, by Mr. Waddell, gained 
the prize medal at the exhibition, London, of 1851, and speoimens were exhibited in 
the Melbourne exhibition, of 1 866, by Messrs. Waddell, B^, Venning. Frame, Hackett; 
Mr. Frame also exhibited a fine specimen of oats; Mr. J. Ramsay exhibited an improved 
reaping and thrashing machine. There are 2 flour mills in the township (Dunn an«i 
Co.'s and Wedd's,) the flour from the first of which gained a prize medal at the 
exhibition (London) of 1862. On the mount Barker mineral reserve, 9 miles from the 
township, are several copper mines. The nearest places are Nairne, 4 miles which lies 
N.E.; Littlehampton, 1 mile N.E.; Balhannah, 6 miles N.; Hahndorf, 4 miles 
N.W. With these plaoes, as with Adelaide, 21 miles S.W., the communicatlim is 
by Rounseveirs daily line of mail coaches. Mount Barker has a post and money ordir 
office, a telegraph station, branches of the National bank and the South Australian 
insurance company, a local court, a public pound, a Foriesters' coui't, an Oddfellows' 
lodge (M . U. ,) and a volunteer rifle corps. The resident magistrates are, J. Parker,F. May, 
T. Lambert, J. Dunn, and G. F. Dashwood, Esqs. There is a church of England, a Pres- 



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Bau] The South Australian Qnzetteer, 26 

byterian, and a BomanXatholic church, Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist cfaapeli; a 
literary institute, and Aotels, the mount Barker, Oakfield, and Gray's inn. There is 
no regular carrying-office, but several carriers ply with horse vans to Adelaide. The 
Bsrrounding country is mountainous and highly picturesque, having deep wooded 
gullies and fertile flats intersecting the mountain ranges in all directions. The soil is 
rich and admirably suited to the growth of cereals, and t^e geological formation is 
generally of post pliocene tertiary drift, consisting of large fragments of schist, sand- 
stone and quartz, but slightly waterworn. The population numbers aboul 1000 persons, 
the number of dwellings being about 150. The whole district of mount Barker may 
be said to consist of hills and valleys, — the hills being formed of either granite, gneiss, 
mica, slate, and quartz rock, clay slate or conglomerate of sandstone, quartz, and iron. 
Their summits are rather scanty of vegetation, owing to the quantity of loose soil, the 
primary rocks frequently being exposed. The valleys and slopes, on the contrary, are 
extremely fertile, and usually have small streams running along their course the 
greater part of the year. A sandy clay generally occupies the bottom, and part of the 
slopes; higher up, the surface soil is very light in texture, and contains much decom- 
posed vegetable matter. Lime is exceedingly scarce. There is abundance of good 
material for road-making and building purposes. Copper pyrites have been found in 
many places, but no copper mines have been opened in the district. The climate is 
colder and rain nM)re frequent than on the plains. The hot winds are often felt to an 
unpleasant degree, but this is amply compensated by the refreshing summer breezes. 
The different aspects and sheltered slopes occasioned by the hills, with the humid and 
ridi soil of the valleys, produces a varied and luxuriant vegetation. Most of the 
UDcl^ired land is covered with fine specimens of eucalyptus and acacia, beneath which 
flourishes a variety of orchids and other splendid flowering plants, many of them being 
delightfully fragrant. Wheat is the common cereal crop. Almost every house has its 
vegetable and fruit garden, which is very productive; the orange, apple, pear, cherry, 
fig, strawberry, gooseberry, and other European fruits bear well. The vine is cultivated 
more largely than formerly, and produces good wine, but the climate is generally 
considered too variable to make it other than a precarious vintage. 

Mount Barker electoral district is bounded on the E. by the river Murray, com- 
mencing at its outlet into lake Alexandrina; thence northerly by the centre of the 
said river to the N.E. corner of the hundred of Brinkley; on the N. and N.E. by the 
district of Onkaparinga; on the N.W. by the river Onlraparinga; on the W. by the 
diatrict of Koarlunga to that point of the summit of the Willunga range cut by the 
Encounter bay road; thence E. to mount Magnificent, %nd S. to the range between 
mount Compass and mount Observation; thence E. along the most direct spur to 
mount Observation; thence by the boundary of the hundreds of Nkangkita and Kendo- 
paringa, to the N.W. corner of section 2363: thence by the centre of the Finniss river, 
following the S.W. boundary of the hundred ot Alexandrina. to the county boundary 
of Bindmarsh and Sturt, near the east point of Hindmarsh iAnd; thence N.E. to point 
Sturt; thence N.E. to the outlet of the river Murray, the point of commencing. This 
district comprises the hundreds of Kondoparinga, Bremer, Alexandrina, Strathalbyn, 
Macclesfield, Kuitpo, Freeling, and Brinkley, and the district councils of Alexandrina, 
Bremer, Clarendon (S. part,) Echunga, Kondoparinga, Macclesfield, mount Barker, Ona- 
hunga, Strathalbyn, and Willunga. It has a population of 9372 persons, and an area of 732 
square miles, or 468,480 acres, of which 57,517 acres are under cultivation. The voting 
places for this district are Strathalbyn, mount Barker, Echunga, Macclesfield, Milang, 
and Meadows. The present representatives in the Legislative Assembly are James 
Bankine and John Dunn, Esqs. The number of registered electors for 1865 in this 
di£<3ict was, for the Legislative Council, 1027; and for the Legislative Assembly, 1684. 

BARKER, MOUNT {Co, Hindmarsh) is a district council in the electoral district of 
mount Barker. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr A. Bell, of 
Dalmeny park, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council 
fbr 1865 were as follow :— Assessment, £9186; rates, Is. in the pound; rates collected, 
ie445 4s. 6d.; total receipts, £1256 8s. 5d.; office expenses and salaties, £i5 7s. 8d.; 
expended on public works, £1116 5s. 8^d. The population numbers 1926 persons; the 
area is 35 square miles, or 22,400 acres; land under cultivation, 5801 acres; and number 
Hi dwelling-houses, 379. 

BARKER, MOUNT [Co. StuH,) is a lofty peak of the Hay, or main range of 
mountaina, attaining an altitude of 2300 ft. above the level of the sea. This peak 

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26 Ths South Australian Gazetteer. [Bar 

standi about 3 miles distant from the township of Mount Barker, which it appears to 
oyerhang, and is a prominent landmark firom the western side jg the Murray river. 

BABKE&y MOUNT, CREEK {Co, EindmcM'sh,) is a fine mountain stream rising 
near Mount Barker township, and flowing in a general S.E. direction through fine 
agricultural country for about 10 miles into the Bremer river, which it joins about 10 
miles E. of Macclesfield. It is fed by Scott's and Naime creeks, which fall into it 
about 3 miles above its mouth. Portion of this creek forms the N.E. boundary of the 
county separating it from cqunty Sturt. 

BARKER'S KNOLL {Co. Russell) is a sandy hill at the extremity of Young> 
husband's peninsula, and forms the E. head of the sea mouth of the Murray. 

BARKER'S RUN (Co. Burra;) lease No. 33; occupier, A. Barker; area, 
83 square miles ; grazing capabilities, 6000 sheep, or 180 per square mile; original 
rent and assessment, £67 7s. 6d.; Mr. Goyder's valuation, iJ363, excluding improve- 
ments, which are valued at £900. This run lies on the N. of the Baldina creek— the 
head station being 7 miles E.N.E. of Kooringa, 105 miles N.N.E. from Adelaide, and 
70 miles E.N.E. from port Wakefield. It consists of well-grassed spurs and flats, with 
bushy ranges, and a little mallee scrub and saltbush. There is a good road to 
Kooringsu 

BARNDEOOTOO RUN (N. district;) lease No. 117; occupiers. Grant and 
Phillips; area, 47 square miles ; grazing capability, 5500 sheep, or 117 per square 
mile; Mr. Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £263 12s. per annum. This 
run forms part of the Kanyaka run, and is worked from the head station at Kanyaka. 
It lies 55 miles N.N.E. of Port Augusta, and 245 miles N. of Adelaide. It is watered 
by the Kanyaka and Wirrianda creeks, and by a fresh water lagoon. 

BAROOTA RUN (jOo. Frmvt;) lease No. 15; occupier, Ww T. Salter; area, 
65 squares miles; grazing capability, 9400 sheep, or 144 per square mile; old rental, 
£108 2s. lid.; Mr. Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £442. This run lies 
35 miles S. of Port Augusta, and 160 miles N. of Adelaide. It extends from Yatala 
harbour to near mount Remarkable, and is watered by several springs and water- 
courses. d 

BAROSSA electoral district is bounded on theN.W. by the Moorundee road, from 
the point where it crosses the main range between Hawker's hill and mount Despond to its 
intersection with the North Para river, between sections 141 and 142, and by the N. 
branch of the said river to its junction with the South Para river; on the S. by the 
South Para, and that branch of the river running through section 669, Barossa special 
survey, and by a line thence N.E. to the main range ; thence E. by the N. boundary of 
the county of Sturt, along the S. boundary of the hundreds of North Rhine, Bagot, 
and Fisher, to the centre of the river Murray; thence N. by the centre of the river 
Murray, opposite Blancharffcown ; thence W. by the road leading from Blanche town to 
Truro till that road intersects the E. boundary of the hundred of North Rhine, at the 
If.E. corner of section 377 ; thence N. to the N.E. corner of that hundred; thence due 
W. to Hawker's hill Trigonometrical station; thence S., by the main range, to the 
point of commencement. This district comprises the hundreds of Barossa, Moorooroo, 
and North Rhine, and the town of Gawler ; and the district councils of Angaston, 
Barossa, Flaxman's valley, mount Crawford, and Tanunda, and ha fa population of 
9502 persons, and an area of 671 square miles, or 429,927 acres, of which 51,993 acres 
are under cultivation. The voting places for this district are at Tanunda, Lyndoch 
valley, Gawler, Angaston, and l^uro. Barossa is represented in the Legislative 
Assembly by W. Duffleld and J. Martin, Esqs. The number of registered electors for 
1865 in this district was, for the Legislative Council, 810; and for the Legislative 
Assembly, 1282. 

BAROSSA RANGE [Cos. Light and Gawler) is a portion of the main or Adelaide 
range of mountains. The highest peak of this range is mount Gould, which lies dis- 
tant 14 miles E. of the township of Kersbrook, and is extremely rugged and thickly 
timbered.* At a distance of 2 miles in a westerly direction from the foot of this range lies 
the agricultural plain known as Rowland's flat. The Barossa range lies 10 miles S.E. 
of Gawler, and is considered to possess a vast store of mineral wealth. Lead, silver, 
copper, and gold have all been found in it, but not, as yet, in quantities sufficient to 
pay for the labour of working. 

BAROSSA EAST {Co. Adelaide,) is a district council in the electoral district of 



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Bab — ^Bat] The South Australian Gazetteer. 27 

Barossa. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being M. J. Sandiland 
of Woodlands, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in tUs district council 
for 1865 were as follow: — assessment, £3850; rates Is. in the pound; rates collected, 
£71 148. Id.; total receipts, £143 Is. Ud.; ofiice expenses and salaries, £25 178.; 
expended on public works, £50. The population numbers 618 persons; the area is 
16 square miles, or 10,240 acres; land under cultivation, 4327 acres; and number of 
dwelling-houses, 106. 

BA&OSSA WEST (Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Barossa. It is under the control of a chairman — the present one being Mr. S. Lindsay, 
of Sandy creek, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council for 1865 was as follows: — Assessment, £10,418— rate, 61^. .in the pound; rates 
collected, £221 18s. 2d.; total receipts, £725 17s. 2d.; office expenses and salaries, 
£90 lis. 4d., expended on public works, £479 198. The population numbers 1506 
persons; the area is 51 square miles, or 32,640 acres; land under cultiyation, 11,521 
acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 277. 

BA&OSSA {Co, Light) is a hundred lying in the S. of the county, and between the 
N. and S. Para riyers, which water it on its N. and S. sides respectively. It consists 
principally of purchased agricultural land, taken up by settlers for the culture of wheat 
and other farm produce. 

BAJIBITT'S MINE (Co. JBindmarsh,) See Normanyillb. 

BA&UNGA STATION (Co. Stanley;) occupier J. Ellis. See Hummock's Run. 

BASON CREEK [Co. Eyre) is a small stream rising in the ranges to the W. of 
the hundred of N. Rhine, near mount Despond, and flowing N. into Truro creeks 

BASSXSTT TOWN {Co. Oawler) is a small village suburban to the township of 
Gawler, which township it adjoins, and of which it forms portion. It lies near the 
railway station. 

BATH'S ACCOMMODATION ttOUSE (Co. Cardwell) is a roadside public- 
house on the main road between Wellington and Kingston. 

BAUDZN ROCKS {Co. Jtobe) is the name given to 2 high rocks with a reef to 
the main land, and I S. by W. 1 mile, showing heavy breakers. They lie 10 miles 
to the S. of Oftpe Jaffa, and form the W. shelter of Guichen bay. They are 4^ miles 
N. by W. from Cape Lannes, and are visible 7 miles. 

BAUEB. CAPE, 32° 44' S. lat., 134° 1' E. long., is the name of the S. and E. head 
of Streaky bay. At a distance of 4f miles E., ^ N. lies a rocky island called Olive 
island, surrounded by reefs ; there is, however, a passage known as the inshore passage 
into the bay, between the cape and the island. This cape forms the W. head of Gibson's 
peninsala. 

BAVEB, CAPE, RUN (W. district;) leases Nos. 929, 817, and 1130; occupier, J. 
Forster; respective areas, 9, 28 and 9 square miles. This run lies on Streaky bay, the 
post town being Flinders. 

B AWLET PLAINS {Flinders district) is the name of a tract of stony country 
lying in about 29° S. lat., 141° E. lone., on the E. side of Strzelecki creek. It is so 
allied from the fact that a horse named Bawley, having given in from the intense heat 
and want of water and food, was left there by Sturt on his return from Strzelecki creek 
to the depdt at Fort Grey (New South Wales) in 1845, and was found again feeding 
near lake Torrens, and driven into the settled districts 14 years afterwards. He had, 
of course, become very wild,imd was quite white instead of the roan colour he had 
when Sturt left him behind ; his hoo& had grown to an enormous length. 

BAXTEB'S RANGE (Flinders district) is a range of lofty rocky hills lying on 
the W. side of the head of Spencer's gulf, and crossed by Eyre in 1839. It lies in a 
country densely scrubbed but worthless, and containing no grass or fresh water except 
that to be found in the holes in the rocks after rain. There are several salt lagoons in 
the neighbourhood, the principal of which are lake Gilles to the W., and Coranna 
water to the Bt The country is generally of limestone formation, with granite ridges. 

BAT OF BISCAY {Co, Burra) is the name of a pastoral flat lying to the S. of 
Kooringa, and watered by the Brady creek. The township of Apoinga is situated on 
this flat. It consists of black soil, with low scrub, and has much loose sandstone, good 
for building purposes, scattered upon it 



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28 The South AuMrcdian Gazetteer. TBat — Bed 

'. • I: . 

BAT OF SHOALS RUN {Kangaroo island;) lease No. 811; occupier, F. A. 
Howell; area, 9 square miles; rent and assessment, £5 per annum. This run. lies on 
the Bay of Shoals, the next post town being Hog bay. 

BAT, THE {Co, Adelaide.) See Lefevre's peninsula. 

BEAarSWEXJBB BUN; lease No. 38; occupier, H. B. Hughes; area, 194 square 
miles; post town, Clare. 

BEAK HILL {Victoria distnct) is the name of a hill lying in the pastoral country 
to the S.E. of Wellington. 

BEABB'8*B A Y (flinders district) is a deep indentation in the coast line, lying in 
the W. part of Anxio# bay, and 12 miles W. of Venus harbour. It lies «it the back 
of cape Radstock, and fi>om its being much encumbered with rocks at its entrance, and 
its shoalness inside, is unfit for navigation by vessels of any size. The coast to the 
E. towards Venus harbour gradually increases in height, and from its iron-bound 
shores presents a most inhospitable appealrance. 

BEAVLISU {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement in the neighbour- 
hood of Willunga, taken up by a few small farmers, who cultivate wheat and other 
produce. 

BEAVMONT {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural hamlet lying to the E. of' 
Mitcham, and inhabited by a few farmers and gardeners. The resident magistrates are 
W. Wyatt, S. Davenport, P. E. Warburton, and C. M. D. Davis, Esqs. The celebrated 
Linden vineyard, comprising 9 acres of vines, chiefly the black Portugal, Grenache, 
Mataro, and Carignan varieties, lies near this place, as does also Sunnyside, the vineyard 
and residence of the Hon. W. Milne. The Grenache, Mataro, Carignan, black Portugal, 
and Malbec ar« the principal varieties. The Auldana vineyard is in the same locality, 
and is an extensive tract of excellent land planted with numerous kinds of vines. The 
Stony Fell and Hazelwood vineyards are also in the same neighbourhood. 

BEAUTIFUL VALLEY {Co. Frome) iHthe name of a post office on the great 
N. road, where there is an accommodation house and roadside hotel, lying 16 miles N. 
of Melrose, and 24 miles E. of Stirling. Beautiful Valley is situated on the main N. 
road, about 16 miles N. of Melrose, and about 24 miles E. of Stirling. It is an eating- 
house, built on a purchased section, and the proprietor is about to build an addition to 
it, for the purpose of making it a public-house. There are 3 creeks in the 
neighbourhood— one about a mile N., called Beautiful Valley creek, but there is no 
permanent water in it; the other two lie to the S., and are called Stony creek, about 
1 J miles, having no water, and Spring creek, about 6 miles S., with a very strong spring of 
permanent water. The Flinders ranges lie about a mile W. of this; they run in a 
N. direction. Mount Remarkable is about 16 miles S., and mount Brown 10 miles N. 
The district is a pastoral one — sheep and cattle, chiefly the former, being grazed on the 
runs in the neighbourhood. There is a copper mine about 7 miles from here, 
called the Spriag creek mine; and a smelting works in course of erection at Stoay 
creek, about Ij miles S. of this place. Melrose is the nearest township, 16 miles S. 
Stirling is 24 miles W., and Port Augusta 29 miles W. A mail runs twice a week to 
Port Augusta, mostly carried on horseback, as there is a very heavy piece of road 
through the ranges. The best means of communication with Adelaide, 215 miles S., is 
by the mail coach to Kapunda (vid Melrose,) and thence by rail. The country to the 
W., N., and S. is mountainous; to the E., there is a fine large plain, rather stony in 
places. The population of Beautiful Valley and the neighbourhood numbers about 
100 persqps, but there is likely to be a larger population shortly—that is, when the 
smelting works are finished. This is a very bad country for water; there is a well 
sunk here about 150 feet deep, and no signs of water; and another at the smelting 
works (1^ miles S.,) about the same depth, with the same prospect. 

BECKWITH (Co. Gawler) is a small agricultural settlement in the neighbourhood 
of Gawler, taken up by a body of industrious farmers, who cultivate wheat and other 
produce. 

BEDA (or Elizabeth CBEEE) {Flinders district) is a stream fleeing into the 
S.W.'end of lake Torrens, and discovered by Campbell "during his exploration journey 
firom the port Lincoln, crossing to the W. side of lake Torrens, in 1857. The creek is 
salt, although there is plenty of fresh water to the N. of it, also found by Campbell 
and Swinden, and known as the Elizabeth creek. A small flat-topped range lies 



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BeM — Bel] The South Australian G€tz^teer, 29 

between this creek and the lake; and a waterhole, apparently permanent, is found at 
its head. 

BXaXIOVTy CAPE {Kangaroo island,) is a rocky point, Ijdng about 11 miles S. of 
cape Borda, on the W. coast of the island; and o£f it a reef runs a considerable distance 
in a W.N. W. direction; there is also a small low island in close proximity to. the point 
in connection with the reef. . The coasters report anchorage in the bay inside the reef, 
but the holding-ground is stated to be most indifferent. This anchorage is termed 
West bay, and has been occasionally used by sealers and the inhabitants of the island; 
it is, however, quite open to the westward. Commanders of ships should give cape 
Bedout a wide berth, as the sea breaks a considerable distance off the shore owing, 
doubtless, more to the nature of the bottom than the shallowness of the water. Bec^ 
however, do exist along this shore, on which the swell breaks with tremendous force. 

BtSEZiXnMtAB (Flinders district) is a large swamp with a spring in the middle, 
discovered, in 1840, by Mr. Ejrre, and lying 45 miles N. of Fowler's bay. The surround- 
ing country consists of alternate plains and low scrub, destitute of trees. 

BSELEaSAB GAIFE (Flinders district) is a spot on the W. coast of Denial bay, 
where good water can be obtained by digging in the sand-hills. It lies on the track of 
Eyre's terrible journey from port Lincoln to Western Australia, in 1840. The sur- 
rounding country is an arid and scrubby desert; but much of the back country is 
taken up for pastoral purposes. 

BEET CREEK {Flinders district) is a small wat#course rising in the dense 
mulga scrub and limestone rises, to the W. of the N. part of lake Torrens, and flowing 
through grassy and barren sandy and stony plains in a N.E. direction, into the S.W. 
end of lake Eyre. This creek only flows in and shortly after very wet weather. Sandy 
drift, strongly impregnated with soda over limestone, with granite boulders. 

BELAZB ( Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the hundred of Adelaide, electoral 
district of the Sturt, and under the control of the Mitcham distri^ couiicU. It lies 
in a flat about i square mile in extent, amongst sonie rugged hills, and is partly a 
pastoral and partly ati agricultural district, a few sheep and cattle being grazed and a 
little wheat and wine cultivated. There is a public pound in the township. Mitcham 
lies 1 mile distant N. and Coromandel valley 4 miles S. The Government farm at 
£. Brighton lies to the W., and the communication with Adelaide 6 miles distant, W. 
by 'bus, from Mitcham. The nearest hotel is at Mitcham. The flat on which Belair 
is situated lies about 900 ft. above the level of the sea, and is a sandstone plateau sur- 
rounded by hills. The population is included in that of Mitcham. 

BELLING A (Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement in the neighbour- 
hood of Willunga, taken up by a few industrious farmers who cultivate wheat and 
other produce. 

BEXiL POINT, 32° 18' 30'' S. lat., 133° 8' 30" E. long. (.Flinders district,) is a 
rocky point projecting from the main land into the sea. It is low, but has a knoll at 
its extremity. There is a broad flat rock, surrounded by breakers, lying 1 mile to the 
E. of the point. The country inland consists of dense scrub. The point lies between 
Fowler's and Denial bays. 

BEXiL POINT RUN (W. district;) leases No. 877, 1033, and 1153; occupiers, 
Marrabel and Miller; areas, 68, 62, and 61 square miles. This run is at Bell point. 
Fowler's bay, and is watered by wells dug in the sand hills bordering the coast. 

BELT ANA or Mount Deception {N, district) is a postal station in the Flinders 
electoral district. It is the postal centre of a large tract of pastoral (sheep) coimtry, 
and lies 30 miles N.W. of Nuccaleena, where is the nearest hotel and a copper mine. 
The communication with the place is by liorse and dray, and with Adelaide, 406 miles S., 
by Rounsevell's mail coach from Nuccaleena, running weekly whenever the weather and 
state of the country will permit. The want of a hospital for this district has been felt 
for some time, there being none nearer than Port Augusta. The surrounding, country 
is mountainous. The population at Beltana numbers 10 persons, and consists of the 
residents on the station. See Deception, Mount, Bun. 

BELTANA (or Wabenta) RUN ; lease No. 709 ; occupier, R. B. Smith; arga, 
162 square miles ; rent, £81 per annum. 

*TUE (Co. Sindmarsh.) See McLaren's Yale. 



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30 The SdiUh Australian Gazetteer.^ [Bel — Beb 

BE&TIBE&S {Co, Hindmarsh) is a postal township in the hundreds of Strath- 
albjn and Bremer, electoral district of mount Barker, and is under the control of a 
district council. It is situated on the river Angas, and in an agricultural district, the 
nearest places being Strathalbjn, the next telegraph station, 4 miles distant, and I^ng- 
horne's creek. 6 mUes distant The communication with these places is by Kounsevell's 
mail coach, and with Adelaide, 40|^ miles W., by the same means of conyeyance. 
Belvidere has a post office and 1 hotel, — the Belvidere. The surrounding country 
consists of undulating plains, much of the land being under cultivation. The population 
is smidl and scattered. 

BELTDERE {Co, Light) is an E. hundred of the county, consisting, for the 
most part, of purchased agricultural land; on which are grown large quantities of wheat, 
and other produce; the land being taken up by an industrious body of farmers. The 
area of this hundred is 53,760 acres; of which 24,144 acres are under cultivation. liie 
population numbers 1575 persons. 

BELTDEBE RANGE {Co. Light) is a range of hills lying about 1} miles to the 
W. of Marrabel. The Butcher's gap and Finniss point lie in the Belvidere range. 
Gk>ld is reported to exist in some quartz reefs near this range, but it has never been 
properly tested. There is abundance of good timber and stone, both suitable for 
building purposes— granite and freestone. 

BENAZAH [Flinders district) is a creek, flowing through the pastoral country in 
the W. part of the E. plain^ 12 miles south of Black Bock. 

BENABA (Co, Qrey) is one of the S. hundreds of the county, and consists mostly 
of land sold to agriculturists. The area of this hundred, including also those of 
the hundreds of Caroline, Macdonnell and Eongorong, is 258,560 acres, of which 
1291 acres are under cultivation. The population of these hundreds numbers 1135 
persons. 

BENBONTATAy 30° 25' S. lat., 139° 20^ E. long. (Flinders district,) is a peak in 
the main or Flinders range, lying about 20 miles S. of the township of Yudanamutana; 
the summit of this peak is supposed to be the highest land in South Australia. 

BENBONTATA RANGE {Flinders district) is the name given to a bold 
massive range of mountains, several miles in length, and running N.E. and S.W,, 
between Gammon hill and mount M*Kinlay. It is situated 4 miles S. of Illinawirtina 
station, and is supposed to be the highest land in South Australia. The extreme 
summit of this range is survey point Z. 

RUN {Murray district.) See North West Bend Run. 



BENSON, MOUNT, [Co. Robe) is a high peaked solitary hill, standmg about 3 
miles distant in a N.E. direction from the N. shore of Guichen bay, and to the N. W. of 
the Biscuit flat. 

BENSON, MOUNT, RUN {Co. Rohe;) lease No. 196; occupier, H. Seymour; area, 
47 square miles; grazing capability, 7500 sheep, or 150 per square mile ; old rental and 
assessment, £129 5s.; Goyder's valuation, £268 12s. per annum, deducting improvements 
valued at £257. This run lies on the coast 190 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 20 miles 
by road N.N.E. of Guichen bay. The sheep are shorn on purchased land in the hundred 
of Waterhouse, and this run and that of Killanoola are worked together. This run 
consists of sand-hills and valleys, with oak, honeysuckle, flags, rushes, horbs, cutting 
grass, rank coast grass, and patches of a better character ; sdso swamps and swampy 
flats with tea-tree, and mesembryanthemum, and honeysuckle flats with gum, oak, and 
cherry. This is one of the best runs in the S.E. district, but requires another run to 
which sheep suflering from the coast disease can be removed. Its carrying capabilities 
however appear to be decreasing, from the rapid growth of ferns, wattle, and native 
hops. It is watered by swamps, waterholes, and wells. The Adelaide, Guichen bay, 
and Narracoorte roads pass through this run. See Killanoola run. 

BENSON, MOUNT, E. No. 2 RUN (Co. Robe;) lease No. 1006; area, 3 square 
miles; occupiers, Ormerod and Stockdale ; rent, £5 per annum. This irun lies to the 
N.E. of Guichen bay. Robe being the next post town. 

• BEBESFOBD'S HILL, 29'' 20^ S. lat., 136"^ 40^ E. long. {Flinders district,) is a 
low range of hills lying on the S. bank of Warriner's creek, and haying several springs, 
the principal of which are known as Warburton'Si Elizabeth, and Coward's springs at 



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Ber — Bla] The South Australian Gazetteer, 31 

its S. foot. It lies in country now taken up for pastoral porposfli, and was discovered 
by Warbnrton in 1858. 

BE&nrOANA 6AIFE {Flinders district) ia a spot on the E. coast of Fowler's 
bay, near point Bell, where good water can be obtained by diggin^r in the sand-hills. 
It lies on the track of Eyre's terrible journey from port Lincoln to W. Australia in 1840. 
The surrounding country is an arid and scrubby desert, but much of the back country 
is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

BE&TBA ((7o. Gawler) is a small village lying to the N. of, and adjoining the 
the township of Willaston. It is inhabited mostly by small farmers engaged in the 
cultivation of farm produce and grapes. It also adjoins the township of Gawler. 

BETHAITT Co. Gawler)) is a small agricultural village in the neighbourhood of 
Gawle];^ There is a public pound at this place. 

BETERLT (Co. Adelaide) is an agricultural village lying on the main road, 
about 2} mUes N.E, of Findon. It has one hotel~(the Half-way house,)— and a scat- 
tered population of about 150 persons. 

BLACK BOY'S NOB (Co. ffindmarsh) is a lofty peak and survey point in the 
main range lying about 8 miles W. of Strathalbyn. 

BXJLCKFOBA RUN iS.B. district;) lease, No. 222; occupier, A. Dunn; area, §1 
square miles; grazing capability, 4000 sheep; Mr. Goyder's valuation, deducting 
improvements, £147 per annum. This run lies 170 miles by road S.E. by S. of Ade- 
laide, and 40 miles N.N.E. of Guichen Bay. It is watered by swamps, wells, and 
troughs. 

BLACK HILL (Co. Hindmwrsh) is a peak in the N. part of the Yankalilla ranges, 
lying about 2 miles W.N.W. of Myporya. 

BLACK HILL, SS"" S. lat., 138'' 58' E. long. ^Flinders district) is a prominent 
peak in the S. part of the Ragless ii|nge, forming a landmark to the surrounding pastoral 
district. 

BLACK JACK (N, district) is the name of a small roadside village lying on the 
mail route from Hollo welena to Adelaide, and about 45 miles W. of the former place. 

BLACK POINT RUN {N. district) comprises leases Nota 116 and 395; occupier, 
Hon. H. Ayers; total area, 954 square miles; total rental ana assessment, £510 1 2s. 
This run lies to the E. of the Hummocks, the next post town being Port Augusta. 

BLACK POINT RUN (Yorke's peninsula;) lease No. 48; occupier, S. Golds- 
worthy; area, 17 square miles; rent and assessment, £21 10s. The nearest post office 
is Port Adelaide, or by overland route, Moonta. 

BLACK POINT ( YorJce*s peninsula) is a prominent point on the E. coast of the 
peninsula standing out from that coast into the W. side of St. Vincent's gul£ 

BLACK ROCK CREEK (N, district) is a mountain stream flowing to the S. 
from the Black rock, through the Black rock run. 

BLACK ROCK, 32° 45' S. lat., 138° 55' E. long. [Flinders district,) is a high 
peak of the S. part of the Ragless range, attaining an altitude of 2750 feet« and forming 
a landmark to the whole of the surrounding country. 

BLACK ROCK RUN, N. {N.E. district;) leases, Nos. 400, 413, 414, 717, 671, 
670, 672, 668, 688, 869 and 670 ; occupiers, Ragless and Williams; total area, 721 square 
miles; total rent and assessment, £491 15s. Port Augusta lies 70 miles W. of this 
place. 

BLACK ROCK RUN, (N. district;) lease, 112; occupier, J. Williams; area, 
38 square miles; grazing capability, 4200 sheep, or 110 per square mile; old rental, 
£54 lis. 8d.; Goyder's valuation, £171, excluding improvements, valued at £284. This 
run liea at Black rock, 70 miles E. by S. of Port Augusta, add 170 miles from Adelaide. 
It consists of rough hills, with pines, mallee scrub, dwarf scrub, and saltbush, with 
fine grass, and is watered by the Black rock creek, and 3 wells near the head station. 
This run also comprises leases Nos. 113, 282, 405, 60l, and 645a, which have an area 
of 209 square miles, and pay a rent and assessment of £875 17s. 

BLACK SPRINGS ( Co. Stanley) is a road board and postal township in the 
hundred and electoral district of Stanley. . It is situated on some springs whence it 



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83 The South Australian tfazetteer, [Bhk 

toket its name, the Emu springs goyemment water reserve being near, and supplying 
water by means of a series of troughs. There are 2 fresh water lagoons in the 
neighbourhood, the Little lagoon, 2 miles S.E., and the Big lagoon, 4 miles, N. W., both 
ronning N. and S. The district is both an agricultural and pastoral one, wheat being 
the chief article of produce, and sheep the staple of the pastoral interest. The Ear- 
kulta copper mine (see Eabkulta) lies 2^ miles N.E. of the township, and the Royal 
iron mine on the N.E., at a distance of about a mile. The nearest places are Glendore, 
1 mile S.W.; Waterloo, 7 miles S.; and Apoinga, 5 miles E.S.;E:. There is regular 
communication with the latter place only, by means of a mail coach, and with Adelaide, 
84 miles S., by mail coach to Eapunda, and thence by rail. There Is 1 hotd, the 
Emu Inn, in the township. The surrounding country is flat, there being a range com- 
posed of hard sandstone running N. and S., with plains suitable for agricultural purposes 
on each side. The population of Black springs numbers 70 persons. 

BLACK SPRINGS RUN, (Yorke's penvnmla;) occupier, M. C, Gale. See 
TuoocK CowiB Run. 

BLAGKSTOlf {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement in the wheat 
growing district of mount Barker. It is inhabited by a few small settles. The 
resident magistrate is W. W. Ewbank, Esq.,. J.P. 

• B&AGK SWAMP (Co. ^be) is a swampy lagoon lying to the E. of Guichen 
bay, and supplying the pastoral country in its ndghborhood with water. 

BLANGHS CAPE {Flinders district) is a remarkable cliffy projection, lyi^g to 
the S.E.of Point Westall. The opening between the two points is known as Scales' bay. 

BLAWGBB {Co, Grey) is a S. hundred of the county, containing a good pro* 
portion of sold agricultural land, and having the township of Gambler on its E. point- 
The are of this hundred, exclusive of the district council of Gambier, is 25,000 acres » 
of which 165 acres are under cultivation. The population^ numbers 51 persons. 

» 

BLAirCHS GUP {N. district) is the name given to a spring of delicious water 
on the top of a hillock, and in a kind of crater or cup about 30 feet in diameter and of 
considerable depth. It is named after Lady Macdounell. It lies in Stuart's county, to 
the N. of the Freelingjanges, and to the S.W. of the S. part of lake Eyre. 

BLANCKB LAKE, or Blanchbwater {N, district^) is a large sheet of 
water lying about 30 miles N.E. of the township of Blanchewater. It was discovered 
by Babbage, who naturally considered it to form the E. arm of lake Torrens. It was, 
until recently, supposed to be connected with lake Gregory, but has been found to be 
distinct. The two lakes were imagined to form one large sheet of salt water, but ajflter 
heavy rains they both remained fresh for fully 7 months. These lakes receive the 
whole drainage of the district. Of the country to the N.E. of lake Blanche, then sup- 
posed to be part of lake Torrens, Gregory says that the geological formation was 
remarkably uniform; carboniferous shales and sandstones, with occasional beds of coal, 
and superincumbent hills and ridges of basalt extending from the 146th meridian to 
beyond the border of the colony. To the S.W. of the 146th meridian the rocks are 
covered by horizontal sandstone, with beds of chert and waterworn pebbles, extending 
as far as mount Hopeless. 

BLAirCBEPOBT {Flinders district) is a deep indentation in the S. part of 
Streaky bay, and is formed by Gibson's peninsula on the W., and the mainland on the 
E. This is a magnificent harbour with an entrance half-a-mile wide, lying between a 
sandspit stretching a mile E. to the E. of Gibson's peninsula, and the mainland on the 
E. There is however a dangerous patch of rocks, leaving 6 feet water at low tide in 
the middle of the bay. The W. portion of this harbour is generally deeper than the 
IB. Water may be obtained at Cooeyena, a sheep station, belonging to Messrs. Gib- 
son and Lindsay, and lying about 2 miles from the head of the bay, and it is confidintly 
believed that by boring a supply could be obtained close to the landing place. 

BLANCHBTOWlf {Co. Eyre) is a postal town and river port in the electoral 
district of Flinders and hundred of Skurray, and on the mail coach road between 
Adelaide and Wentworth (New South Wales.) It is situated on the west bank of the 
Murray river, about 88 miles N.E. of Adelaide, and in the midst of a fine pastoral 
district, chiefly sheep, although there are many large herds of cattle. The nearest 
town is Truro, which lies distant 32 miles W., the communication being by mail twice 

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Bla — Bli] The South Australian Gazetteer. 88 

^week, and by 2 waggons which perform the journey to and fro weekly. With 
Adelaide, 88 miles S.W., the communication is by mail conyeyance to Gawler, and 
thence by rail, or by river and ocean steamers. Blanchetown has a post office, a 
telegraph station, a harbour for shipment on the river, steamers, a customhouse, a 
shipping agency (Peacock's,) a store (Teasdale's,) and I hotel — ^the Blanchetown. 
Blanchetown is an aboriginal station. The surrounding country is high and flat, and 
lor the most part scrubby. The form Aion is limestone. Fishing is carried on in the 
neighbourhood but not to any extent, although fish of excellent quality may be had in 
unlimited quantities. Grame of all kinds is abundant, and the place is eminently 
adapted either for sportsmen or for invalids, the air being pure and the climate 
salubrious. The town is prettily situated on a high bank of the river where it is 240 
yards wide, and bordered with magnificent fiooded gums. 

B&ANCHEWATER {N. district) is a postal township in the electoral district 
of Flinders. It is situated on the George creek, there being numerous other creeks in 
the neighbourhood, the principal of which are the Macdonnell, about 14 miles S., the 
Tindilpa, 15 miles W., and the Hamilton, 30 miles S.E. The Flinders range of hills 
lies 18 miles S., and lakes Gregory and Blanche 25 and 30 miles N.E. respectively. 
The district is purely a pastoral one, and is at present only partially stocked with 
cattle. The Yudanamutana copper, and the Sir Dominick copper and bismuth mines 
are distant about 60 miles S. The nearest township is Blinman, which lies 160 miles 
S., and with which there are at present no regular means of communication for 
passengers, the mail being carried fortnightly on horseback. With Adelaide, 550 
miles S., the communication is either from Blinman to Port Augusta by Rounsevell's mail 
coach, and thence by steamer, or by coach via Melrose and Eooringa to Kapunda, and 
thence by rail. The surrounding country is chiefly plain, and elevated very little 
above the sea level. It is subject to periodical droughts, from one of which it has just 
emerged, there having been no rain from January, 1864, until January, 1866; the years 
1859 and 1860 were also dry, and the rain which has fallen up to the present time 
since January last has hardly been sufficient to do any good, so that were the country 
full^ stocked, the scarcity of grass would be greatly felt. This plain was discovered 
by Babbage, in 1856, who found it covered with quartz fragments, besides specular 
iron and ironstone, the small rises in it being of quartz rock, or of slate and limestone. 
The white population varies from about 14 to as low as 4 persons*, the aborigines 
in ^e district number about 200. 

BLANCHEWATER and MOUNT DISTANCE RUN (N. district;) leases 
Nos. 622, 630, 640, 641, 716, 903, and 968; occupier, the Hon. J. Baker; total area, 
1027 square miles; total rent and assessment, £515 10s. This run lies near the town- 
ship of Blanchewater, and is watered by the George river and Tindilpa creek. 



{Flinders district) is a postal mining township, in the electoral 
district of Flinders. It is situated at the head qf the Eurilkina creek, Partawafta hill 
a rugged mass of hard siliceous rock, lying about 10 miles N. The— district is a copper 
mining and pastoral one; the former interest being represented by several mineral 
sections which have been taken up, but^ upon which only 1 mine, the Blinman, is 
being at present worked. This mine is 25 fathoms deep from the surface, and levels 
or passages have been ariven from S. to N., a distance of 75 fathoms. The Blinman 
mine is a copper mine, belonging to the Yudanamutana mining company. There is a 
large reef of indurated clay slate, intermixed with ironstone and gossan, and forming 
the back of a lode running nearly N. and S., and distinctly traceable for about 200 
yards on the surface. In the clay slate is found small pieces of green carbonate and 
grey ore. The lode ruiys to the top of a hill, about 90 ft. in height from the creek, 
and here it forms a large ** boil," in which the ore was discovered. On the rocks being 
broken away a flne lode of exceedingly rich ore was seen, 8 feet wide, and underlying 
westwards into the hill about 18 inches in the fathom. It was nearly solid metal for a 
width of 8 feet, and had a peculiarly brilliant appearance, like a mixture of grey and 
red oxides. Some rich green and blue carbonates were occasionally met with, and 
specks of the flnest yellow ore, known as ** semi- metal." At the time of my 
'Ait No. 1 shaft w|^ sunk 9 fathoms on the course of the lode from the top of 
tff hill, and carried ore the whole way down. No. 2 shaft is about 8 fathomg 
S. of No. 1, being further into the range, the first shaft commencing very near 
the face of the hill; the same lode has been cut in this shaft, where it is' from 
8 to 10 feet wide, and the shaft sanl^ about 5 fathoms on the lode; the ore raised 

D 
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84 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Blo — ^Bltj 

ig of flmilar qaality to that in the other shaft, and the quantity raised is abont 
100 tons of first and second quality, and 150 tons to be smelted. About 18 fathoms 
larther S. No. 3 workings are going on, and which, at about 2 fathoms below the 
surface, have produced 5 tons of the finest ore, and about 10 tons for smelting. About 
10 fathoms still farther S. on the same lode, a shaft has been sunk 4 fathoms, 
from which about 5 tons of second quality oreJiave been raised, and a few tons have 
also to be reduced to regulus. About 20 fathoms N. of No. 1 shaft, another shaft (No. 5) 
has been sunk 4 fathoms through a good gossan lode containing ore of fk%t and second 
quality. 50 tons of ore of all qualities have been raised from this shaft, and 20 fathonis 
farther N., No. 4 shaft is sunk to a depth of 10 fathoms through a good ore-bearing lode 
from 3 to 4 feet wide. At the depth of 8 fathoms the lode inclines farther W., and a 
drire is being carried to intersect it, and when it is cut again drives will be carried 
both N. and S., on the course of the lode, under the various workings above-mentioned. 
Up to the close of 1862 above 600 tons of ore of all qualities were raised here, 400 of 
which were estimated to yield an average produce of 40 per cent. A fine block of this 
value, and weighing about 21 tons, has been sent to Port Augusta for shipment. The 
country was very dry, a well having been sunk 20 fathoms in the bed of the creek 
without cutting water. There are, nevertheless, some fine springs in the immediate 
neighbourhood. A number of substantial pine hut8 for the miners have been erected 
on the mine, besides a good store of galvanised iron with a cellar beneath, also offices 
and captains* apartments. The distance of this mine from Port Augusta, by the present 
road, is about 140 miles, but a new road has been cut through the Brachina creek, and 
by which a saving of about 20 miles would be effected, and a better road secured for feed 
and water for cattle. About jf 80,000Vorth of copper ore have been raised from this mine. 
Smelting furnaces are erected near the mine, and the ore is smelted by means of wood, 
which is used as fuel, and which abounds in the neighbourhood. Bricks are made at 
the Blinman mine, from stone crushed by machinery. The pastoral interest is repre- 
sented by several large cattle and sheep stations in the neighbourhood. The site for a 
new township has been surveyed, 1 mile S. of Blinman — a public-house and store (the 
North star) is erected, and a temporary police station exists there. The nearest town- 
ship is Nuccaleena, which lies about 30 miles N.W., the communication being only 
occasionally by Rounsevell's coach. With Adelaide, 358 miles S., the communication 
is by RounsevelPs weekly coach, via Kanyaka, Melrose and Kooringa to Kapunda, 
and thence by rail. The surrounding country consists generally of low hills, running 
N. and S.. Its geological formation is Taried, and is composed of ridges along the low 
hills, of silica, schist and slate; between the main ridges there are outcrops of porphyry, 
silica, hematite, magnetic iron, and copper ore; clay, mica and argillaceous slate 
abound, also gritty slate, gossan and ferro-silicic crust. Sulphate of barytes, carbonate 
of lime (in several varieties,) jaspar, common flint, and a variety of dense siliceous 
stones of peculiar structure and colour are found scattered over the ground. The 
popuUtion numbers about 100 persons, inclusive of wood-cutters, draymen and their 
families. Blinman is an aboriginal station.^ 

BLOOMFXELB, MOUNT, (Kangaroo island) is a hill lying on the N. shore of 
Vivonne bay, on the 8. side of the island. The Eleanor river flows past the W. base 
of the hill, which forms an excellent beacon for the navigation of the bay. 

BLOWHOLE CREEK (Co. HindmarsK) is a small creek rising in the Yankallila 
range, and flowing S. between Campbeirs and Cobbler's hills into the sea, about 4 miles 
S.E. of Cape Jervis. 

BLUE CREEK (Co. Eyre) is a small watercourse flowing into the Truro creek. 

BLVE LAKE {Co, Grey) is a deep lake lying at the E. end of the extinct volcano 
of mount Gambler, and forming one of the craters of that volcano. It is a large and 
deep body of water of irregular oval shape, whose longest diameter is nearly E. and W. 
It is surrounded on all sides by banks between 200 and 300 feet high, and these so steep 
and rugged that descent to the water's edge is quite impossible, except in one or two 
places. The sides are thickly wooded with varieties of the Melaleuca (the tea-tree of 
the colonists,) excepting where the rough rocks stand out in perpendicular escarpments, 
and thus the* dark green brushwood is broken by huge and crsg gy rocks, desceni^ng 
precipitously for 40 or 50 feet. These crags sometimes hang over the water, whose 
already dark blue tint is rendered still more gloomy by the reflection of their black 
and stony fronts. The whole appearance of the lake is wild and sombre in the extreme. 
The blue or rather inky appearance of the wi^r—the blackened precipices, which be*r 



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Btifr — ^Blt] The South Australian Qazstteer. 86 

80 plainly the tokens of fiery rarages— the thick and tangled vatnre of the brashwood, 
give the place an air of savage loneliness; and then the place is so quiet, so still, that 
but for the cawing of the rooks overhead, or the splashing of a solitary water -fowl, 
one might almost imagine nature to be at rest, tired with sending forth those volcanic 
fires which poured forth ages ago. Looking at the walls from any side, 4 distinct 
kinds of rocks are visible. There is first the larger ash, decomposed into soft black sur- 
face soil, covered with grass and trees, and varying in thickness from 40 to 70 feet. It 
extends, in some places^ to the water's edge uninterruptedly. Underneath this there 
is a precipitous escarpment of black lava, generally 40 feet thick, but at the western end 
of the lake much thicker and more precipitous. This extends nearly all round the 
lake, and is very seldom inclined or broken, or in any other way than a precipice, 
rough and jagged, and having no dip towards the water. Under this there is, in places, 
a lu-ge layer of greyish brown ash, about 2 feet thick, and very finely laminated. 
This is only occasionally seen. Beneath this there are about 20 feet of coralline 
rock, full of fossils, and belonging to the mount Gambier lower crag formation, with 
the strata quite horizdhtal, and bearing some marks of having been exposed to a high 
temperature, but rarely crystallised. This latter bed of rock forms a well-defined 
white line, nearly continuous rounc^the lake, at a uniform height o^ perhaps, rather 
more than 20 feet. The lava is not vesicular, or rarely so, and seems to have 
flowed from some of the lakes to the westward. 

BLVFFy THE ( Co. Hindmarsh,) is the name of a copper mine on No. 1 section. 
Encounter bay, distant from Victoria harbour (the nearest post town) about 34 miles in 
a S. direction. It is situated on a high blufi* headland of granite, st(%tching out sear 
wards from the mainland into Encounter bay, the summit of the bluflf being 240 feet 
above sea level, and having been a look-out place for whalers for over 30 years. In- 
dications of copper were first discovered in July, 1863, but great difficulty and loss of 
timAvere experienced by the discoverers in obtaining a mineral lease, or permission 
to work it. After a delay of over 12 months, however, a short bill was passed in the 
House, and permission was given, when it was found to contain a deposit of rich azurite 
near the surface, between the granitic and micaceous slate formations. The country is, 
however, much disturbed, and, in sinking, the lode was soon lost, and for lack of 
capital the discoverers, whose energy and perseverance certainly deserved a better 
result, were obliged to abandon it. Silver, lead, and oxide of tin are found in the Bluff 
section, and the country from the Blu£^ to Talisker in theN., abounds with silver, lead, 
tin and other ores. 

VIAlMXEBfi {Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Gomeracka, hunored of Talunga, and under the control of the Talunga district council. 
It is situated on the upper part of the river Torrens, in an agricultural district, where 
wheat is extensively grown. There is a steam flour mill in the township. The nearest 
places are mount Torrens, 4 miles S., mount Pleasant, 7 miles NJ2., and Gumeracka, 5 
miles TV. The communication being with the two latter places Rounsevell's mail coaches 
daily; and with mount Torrens by horse and dray. With Adelaide, 28 miles W. the com- 
munication is by Bounseveirs daily mail coaches. Blumberg has a post office, a store, 
and 2 hotels — the Napoleon Buonaparte and the Travellers' inn. The surrounding 
country is elevated. The population numbers about 150 persons. Blumberg has an 
Oddfellows' lodge (A.I.O.F.) and a public pound. 

B&TTB {Co. Stanley) is a central hundred of the county containing a small 
quantity of purchased land. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral 
purposes. 

B:LTTB creek {Flinders district) is a small creek rising in the dense mulga 
scrub and limestone, rises to the W. of the N. part of lake Torrens, and flowing through 
grassy and barren, sandy and stooy plains in a N.E. direction into the S.W. end of 
lake Eyre. As is the case with all the creeks in this neighbourhood, it ceases to run 
ii dry weather. Sandy drift strongly impregnated with soda over limestone, with 
broken granite boulders. 

B:LTTB, LAKE, {Flinders district) is a small salt lake, forming one of the chain 
of salt lakes lying between lakes Torrens and Gairdner. It is situated to the S. of the 
Oakden Hills, in barren, scrubby country. 

BliTTR, RIVER, {Flinders district) is a fine stream of fresh water, rising in tie 
broken country to the W. of the Denison range, and floKring through grassy and mulga 

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36 The SoxUh Australian Gazetteer, [Bic — ©on 

fcnib plains, past the ^2. foot of mount Youngfhasband into the Neales riyer, after a 
coarse of about 30 miles in a N.E. direction. There are several springs of fresh water 
Bear its banks. 

BZGKMORS'8 HILL. 82° 16' S. lat., 139° 20^ E. long., (Flmdera distHct) is a 
detached hill, lying in the pastoral district of eastern plains. 

BZO GORGE MINE {Co, ffindmarsh,) See Nobmantillb. 

BIG JOBN CREEK (Flinders district) is a fine stream rising by 2 heads, 
and flowing E. about 40 miles into lake Blanche on its E. side. Its N. head has its 
source near Constitution hill, and its S. in the ranges near Mudlipena gap, the point of 
junction being to the S.E. of mount Hawker. It waters the pastoral country known as 
the eastern plains. Sandstone, shales, slates, and calcareous rock. 

BIG LAGOON {Co. Stanley) is a large water-hofe lying about 4 miles N.E. 
of the township of Black Springs. 

BZMBAOUBIS HUN (.V. E. district;) leases Nos. 749, 7^0, 1071, 920, 919, 748 
723, 977, 1116, 1117, 674, 651, 1115, and 958; occupier, John Taylor; respective 
areas, 45, 53, 34, 30, 29, 45, 32, 23,48, 13, 55, 10, 99, and 161 square^miles. The post 
town is Eooringa. 

BZNNET'8 LOOK OUT E. RUN {S,E, district;) lease No. 866; occupier, J. 
Macgeorge; area, 15 square miles; rent and assessment, £7 10s. per annum. This run 
lies in the Tattjpa country, the post office being at Border town. 

BZITNEY'S LOOK OUT RUN {S.E. district;) lease No. 875; occupier, D. 
Gollan; area, 14 square miles; rent and assessment, £7 per annum. This run lies in 
the Tattiara country, on the road to Border town from Wellington. 

BZNITET'S LOOK OUT, 35° 35' S. lat., 139° 40' E. long. {Victoria distrM,) is 
a camping place on the road from Wellington to Border town, about 32 miles S.E. of 
the former town. There is a well at the place, known as the Thirty-two Mile well. 

BZirirUM""BZNirUM run {S.E. district;) lease No. 162; occupiers, Messrs. 
Jones; area, 29 square miles; grazing capacity, 7000 sheep; Mr. Goyder*s valuation, 
deducting improvements, £15. This run lies 95 miles N.E. by E. of Guichen bay, and 
205 S.S.E. of- Adelaide, and is watered by swamps and waterholes. It is situated on 
the border of the colony, 

. BZ&D ROCK {Finders district) is a granite reef Ijdng nearly midway between 
the mainland and St. Peter's island, in Nuyt's archipelago, and at tttfe E. end of Denial 
bay. As the rock' is nearly awash in high water spring tides, a pile of stones, 
surmounted by a beacon, has been erected on its S.E. end. There are some shoids to 
the N. of this rock, dry in some places at low water, but which tend to give shelter to 
the coast inside them. 

BISCUIT FLAT RUN (>S'.^. district;) lease No. 219; occupiers, Taylor and 
Dunn; area, 164 square miles; grazing capacity, 2200 sheep, or 129 per square mile; 
Mr. Goyder's Valuation, deducting improvements, £8 10s. per annum. This run lies 28 
miles E. by N. of Guichen bay. 

BISCUIT FLAT iS.E. district) is a singular plain lying to the E. of Guichen 
bay, and covered with small stones (limestone) formed in the shape of biscuits. For a 
scientific description of these remarkable objects, see the Rev. J. E. T. Woods's work 
on the '^ Geology of the S.E. district of South Australia." 

BOLB MOUNT (Co. Adelaide) is a lofty peak of the main range, lying on the 
bank of the Onkaparinga river, and about 2 miles to the N. of mount Saddle Bags. It 
is a survey station. 

BOLINOBROSE POINT (Co. Flinders) is a low cliffy projection, distant ^ 
or 11 miles N.E. of Boston point, with which it forms a bight, 5 miles deep, called 
South bay. 

BON ACCORD MINE (Co, Burra) is a copper mine, not lately worked, and 
lying 90 miles distant from Adelaide, N. by E. It lies on land in close proximity to 
the Burra. and the buildings appear almost to belong to one establishment. There 
have been favourable indications of copper, and several shafts have been sunk, but 
without any satisfactory result. 



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Bon — Boo] The South Australian Gazetteer. 37 

BONIAH GBEEK {Co, Frame) is a stream risiag in the £. part of the mount 
Lock range, and watering the pastoral country to the E. of that range. 

BOmrST [Co. RussdC) is a S. hundred of the county, lying to the E. of lakes 
Albert and Coorong. It has only a small tract of sold land lying on the shore of the 
former lake, being mostly taken up by pastoral country. 

BONNEY LAKE {N^. district) is a fresh water lake lying on the N. bank of the 
Murray river, to the E. of overland Comer, and on the road from that place to Went- 
worth (New South Wales.) It is connected by a small creek with the Murray river, 
and lies in good pastoral country. 

BONNET LAKE {Co. Orey) is a long narrow sheet of fresh water, 25 miles in 
length, but, in few places more than 2 miles broad; it is shallow, and has moderately 
high banks, with sandhills between it and the sea. 

BONNET LAKE, RUN {N.E, district;) lease, No. 86; occupier, John Cham- 
bers; area, 20 square miles; grazing capacity, 1000 sheep, or 60 per sq lare mile; 
Croyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £27 128. This run is in 2 blocks^ 
one 17 square miles, adjoining lake Bonney, on the N. side of the Murray river; and 
the other 3 squpift miles, on the S. side of the Murray, 2 miles from the river. The 
next post office is Overland comer. In addition to part of lease 86, this run includes 
leases Nos. 386 (part,) 389, 583 (part,) and 1150, which have an area of 204 square 
miles. 

BONNET, LAKE, RUN {S.E, district;) lease No. 195; occupiers, Tilley and 
Ormerod; area, 6 miles; grazing capabilities, 1100 sheep, or 183 per square mile; Mr. 
Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £23 per annum. This run lies 47 miles 
S.E. of Guichen bay, and is watered from la,ke Bonney. This run also includes lease 
195b. 

BONNET POINT {N, district) is a prominent peak of the ranges near Wilpena. 
It is a survey point. 

BONNET'S BLUFF, 31° 20^ S. lat., 137° 18' E. long. {Flinders distHct^ is the 
name given by Swinden, in 1858, to a bold flat-topped hill lying near some other similar 
hills, in the country known as Swinden's country, to the W. of lake Torrens. 

BONNET'S CAMP RUN {S.E. disU^t;) leases Nos. 787 and 807; occupier, 
J. A. Cooke; area, 45 square miles; rent, £22 per annum. This run lies to the E. of 
lake Coorong, between the M'Grath's flat and Kbgston post offices. 

BOOBOO&OWIE RUN {Co. Stanley;) lease No. 130; occupiers, W. J. and J. H, 
Browne; area, 28 square miles; grazing capability, 9000 sheep, or 320 per square mile; 
old rental and assessment, £80 10s; Goyder's vdluation, £812 per annum, exclusive of 
inaprovements, valued at £100. This station lies 14 miles N.E. of Kooringa, and 120 
miles N. of Aldeaide, and is watered by the Broughton river and 3 springs. It is well- 
grassed, and has sheoak and dwarf scrub on the spurs and slopes of Browne's hill 
range. The head station is in the hundred of Ayers, and has a good road to Kooringa. 

BOOKMARK and Chowilla, {N.E, district;) lease No. 95 ; occupier, 
R. Holland; area 60 square miles; grazing capability, 2000 sheep, or 44 per square 
mile; old rent and assessment, £67 lOs.; Mr. Goyder's valuation, deducting improve- 
ments, £45 per annum. This run lies N.E. of lake Bonney on the N. side of the 
Murray river; 200 miles N.E. of Adelaide, Next post town Overland corner. 
This run also includes a portion of ^ase No. 583. 

BOOLCAMATA RUN {N.E. district;) leases Nos. 572, 603, 1104, 702, 703, 
711, 643, 891, and 1106; occupier, J. P. Hall, Esq., J. P.; areas respectively, 46, 20, 
38, 20, 10, 10, 20, 25, and 60 square miles. The post office is at Kooringa. The head 
station on this run is a depot for the relief of Aborigines. 

BOOLGOOITBA CREEK {N. district) is a tributary of the Willochra creek, 
rising near Mochra tower, and flowing in ^ W. direction into that creek to the N.E. of 
the Dutchman's stern. 

BOOLEROO RUN {Co.Frome;) leases Nos. 301, 333d, 541, and 263; occupier, P. 
Levi; Vespective areas, 53, 50, 77, and 16 square miles. This run lies to the N.E. of 
mount Remarkable; the post office being Melrose. 



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38 The SaiUh AustrniUan OaaeUeer, [Boo — Bor 

BOOXiO^mOO STATION (N.dUtrict;) occupier, Price Maurice. See Phkina 
Bum. 

BOOMAWAmA (Co. Light) i&a small agricultural hamlet adjoming the town- 
ship of Greenock on its W. side. It has at present a, population of 5 persons only, and 
lies in the hundred of Nuriootpa. 

mOOYOOLOO BUN {Co,Vietoria;) lease No. 38; occupier, H.B. Hughes; area 
194 square miles; grazing capability, 50,000 sheep or 255 per mile; old rental and 
assessment, £502 5s. UdT; Mr. Gojder's valuation, £2716, excluding improvements 
valued at £2387. This run is situated on the Bocky river and on the N.road via Clare, 20 
miles E. of Port Peri— the shipping port, 45 miles N.W. of Clare, and 130 miles N. of 
Adelaide. It contains about 7000 acres of good purchased land, and consists of well 
grassed undulating and hilly country with gum flats. It is watered by the Bedbank 
creek, the Bocky river, and 12 wells and dams, and has good roads it all directions. 

BORDA. CAPE, 35° 45' 20" S. lat. , 136° 38' E. Ion. (Kangaroo island,) is the N.W. 
extremity of the island. -This cape is formed by high land standing nearly 450 feet 
above the level of the sea, and may be approached within a reasonable distance ; vessels, 
however, should not borrow too closely, as in the event of light winds the ocean«8well 
might set them into a dangerous proximity with the shore, on whiclf the surf breaks, 
during westerly winds, with a great violence. There is a fine lighthouse, known as the 
cape Borda light, on this point, exhibiting a bright and red flash alternately every half- 
minute. The tower stands 60 feet above the cape, or about 510 feet above the sea 
level. The bright flash may be seen 30 miles off, but the red only half that distance. 
From cape Borda the coast continues high and cliffy, and trends in a southerly direction 
towards cape Bedout; about 3 miles from the cape is the Bavine de Casoajrs. a remark- 
able gorge. The coast in this locality assumes a more rugged and rocky character ; 
straggling, detached masses appearing out of water, with the sea breaking over them 
with great violence. This portion of the coast should be studiously avoided by mariners 
during light winds, when the ocean-swell rolls in with considerable velocity; in 
westerly gales the sea is very heavy, and offers little chance for the ship, which might 
find herself jammed on the inhospitable coast presented between capes Borda and 
Bedout. There is a rocket station at this lighthouse. 

BOBBER TOWN {Co, MacdonneU) is a small post town in the electoral district 
of Victoria, lying at the edge of the Ninety-mile desert, in the direct road from Adelaide 
to the mount Alexander diggings (Victoria.) There are no rivers or creeks of any size 
near the township, and but a few waterholes. The district is exclusively a pastoral 
one, chiefly sheep. The nearest town is Narracoorte, which lies distant 60 miles S., 
the communication being by dray or horse. With Adelaide, 310 miles N.W., the 
communication is from Narracoorte via Kingston by Bounsevell's mail coaches twice 
a-week; or firom Narracoorte to Guichen bay by coach and horse, and thence by 
steamer, the distance by the latter route being about 260 miles. There is 1 hotel— the 
Border Town, a post oflice, and a store in the township, which is a resting-place for 
bullock-teams in the wool season. The surrounding country is low and flat, and 
surrounded by a low mallee scrub. The population numbers about 60 persons. Border 
town is an aboriginal station. 

BOSTON BAY {Co. Flinders) is an indentation on the N. side of Port Lincoln, 
in any part of which may be had secure anchorage in 8 fathoms on a muddy bottom, 
except on the N.E. side of Kirton point, where a bank extends a little distance off 
shore, with 5^ fathoms water on it, at half-a-mile itgai the shore. 

BOSTON ISLAND {Co. Flinders) is an island lying in the entrance of Port 
Lincoln, and dividing that entrance into 2 channels. It is about 4 miles in length, and 
has some small islands lying on its S. side between it and Cape Dorrington, called the 
Bicker islands. 

BOSTON POINT, 34° 40' S. lat., 135° 53' 30" E. long., mag. var„ 6° B. ((7o. 
Flinders,) is a low projection Arming the N.iiead of Port Lincoln, and lying opposite 
the N. pjoint of Boston island, the channel containing 10 fathoms on an even bottom, 
and leading into the indentation known as Boston bay. 

BOTT&S HILL, 31° 15' S. lat., 137° 15' £. long. (Flinders district,) is the-name 
given by Babbage to a solitary hill lymg in a patch of good pastoral country between. 



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Bou— Bra] The South Australian Oaixetteer. 89 

BooDej's bluff and the Elizabeth creek, in the plains lying to the W. of lake Torrens, 
and known as Swinden's country. 

BOVFTUOt'S CAFE, of the French {Co. Orey,) bears S.E. \ S. from cape 
Banks, distant between 6 and 7 miles, and is the S. point of a bight in the coast, 
which is formed between them. In the French chart, by M. Freycinet, the breadth of 
this bight is 9 miles, and it is there called D'Estaing bay; but, being nearly filled with 
rocks and breakers, and quite open to the southward and westward, it can never be 
used for anchorage. From Cape Boufflers to the rocks that lie off Cape Northumber- 
land, the course is about S.E. by E. \ E., 9 miles. 

BOVNBA&T CHEEK {Cos. Ifindmar$h and RutaeU) is the name given to the 
direct N.E. channel from the sea mouth of the Murray to lake Alezandrina, and running 
between Mundoo islan4 to the W. and Barker's knoll to the E. It it shallow and much 
impeded with sand-banks and patches of mangroye swamp. 

BO WAX A RUN (S.E. district;) lease No. 221; occupier, T. Morris; area, 
49 square miles; grazing capacity, 5.500 sheep, or 112 per square mile; Mr. Goyder's 
valuation, deducting improvements, £24 10s. This run lies 190 miles S.E. by 
S. of Adelaide, and 25 miles N.E. of Guichen bay. It is watered from swamps and a 
waterhole. 

BOWDEN {Co. Adelaide) is a small suburban township and railway station on 
the port line, and 1} miles distant N.W. from Adelaide. It is inhabited chiefly by 
labourers and brickmakers. The townships of Hindmarsh and Brompton lie adjacent. 
There are several brick-kilns in the township, and the South Australian gas company's 
works lie in the adjoining township of Brompton. 

BOWSR'S VALLEY (Co. Adelaide) is an agricultural settlement, lying in a 
fertile valley in the neighbourhood of Willunga. Much of the land is taken up 
by a body of industrious small farmers engaged in the cultivation of wheat and hay. 

BOWSTHO&PE (Co. Adelaide) is the name given to a smail agricultural settle- 
ment lying on a fertile flat in the neighbourhood of Willunga, and inhabited by a «few 
small settlers engaged in the cultivation of farm produce, chiefly wheat. 

BOWBKAIT'S FLAT (Co. Gawler) is a tract of fine agricultural land lying on the 
S. bank of the Wakefield river, lying about 8 miles E. of the township of Port Wake- 
field. It is taken up by small settlers, who are engaged in the cultivation of farm 
produce. 

BBAGHZXr A CREEK {N. district) is a fine stream flowing near Aroona, and 
lying between Port Augusta and Blinman, the road between which places crosses it. 
The Brachina creek has tremendous rocky ranges, from 600 to 800 feet in height, on 
either side. 

BBADFOBB MINE ((7o. Hindmarsh) is a copper mine lying 44 miles firom 
Finniss flat. See Great Bbadfobd. 

BBABT CREEK (Co. Burra) is a stream flowing in the pastoral country to the 
S.E. of Kooringa, and watering the Emu flats run. Undulating forest land and well- 
grassed sheoak spurs running into grassy flats. 

BBAMFIELD {Flinders district) is a postal station in the electoral district of 
Flinders, situated about 12 miles N.W. of lake Newland, a salt lake with several fresh 
water springs surrounding its margin. The district is exclusively a pastoral one, botli 
sheep and cattle being extensively grazed i n it. The nearest places are the townships 
of Parkin (Venus bay,) about 40 mileWN.W., and Flinders (Streaky bay,) 90 miles 
N.W., the communication being by horse or private conveyance, and the mail being 
carried overland once a fortnight on horseback. With Adelaide, 326 miles E., the 
communication is by horse or private conveyance to Port Lincoln, 116 miles, and 
^ence by steamer. Bramfield has a post office at the Bramfield head station. The 
nearest hotel is at Parkin. The surrounding country is undulating, and lightly grassed 
and timbered, principally with sheoak. The formation is sandstone and alluvial drift, 
with 'extensive beds of limestone. The population numbers about 40 persons. 

BRAMFSBLB RUN (Port Lincoln district;) lease No. 186; occupier. Price 
Haurice; area, 91 square miles; grazing capacity, 9000 sheep, or 99 per square mile; 
Mr. Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £189 16s. This run lies on the W. 
4k)list of Port Lincoln peninsula, E. of Flinders island^ about 90 miles N^. by W. of 



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40 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Bbe 

shipping, port at Coffin's bay, 110 miles N.N.W. of Port Lincoln, and 390 miles overland 
from Adelaide, and is watered by wells. The Bramfleld post office is at the head 
station of this run. This run also comprehends leases Nos. 364, 510, 930, and 1017; 
the respective areas of which are 10, 40, 2, and 31 square miles. 

B&BAKFAST""TZ1IE£ CREEK (N. district) is a stream, rising near mount 
Hemmons, and flowing in a W. direction towards lake Torrens. It rises near the main 
N. road, and to the N. W. of Blinman. 

BRSmSR (Cos, Hindmarsh and Sturt) is a district council in the electoral 
district of mount Barker. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one 
being Mr. J. Cheriton of Belvidere, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in 
this district council for 1865 were as follows:— Assessment, ^£5254 — rate, 9d. in the 
pound; rates collected, £178 9s. 8d.; total receipts, £493 15s. 9d.; office expenses and 
salaries, £140 Is. 2d.; expended on public works, £279 15s. 6d. The population 
numbers 959 persons; the area is 94 square miles, or 60,160 acres ; land under culti- 
yation, 13,284 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 191. 

B&SBUBR (Co. Hindmarsh) is an E. hundred of the county, lying on the Bremer 
river and on the N. bank of lake Alexandrina. It contains about one-half of its area 
in purchased land, principally taken up for agricultural purposes. The township of 
Milang is in the S. part of this hundred. 

B&SMSR MINE {Co. Sturt) is the name given to a copper mine, lying 25 
miles E. of Adelaide. Austin describes this mine as follows:— "This mine is the 
freehold property of the Woi thing Mining company, and is sometimes called the 
Oallington Mine— Callington being the name of the surrounding township, which has 
sprung up since the discovery of the mintt It was first discovered in 1850, and is 36 
miles Irom Adelaide, on the bank of the Bremer, a considerable creek running into the 
Murray, though only a chain of brackish waterholes in summer. The surrounding 
^country is flat, consisting of clay-slate, shaly rock, micaceous schist, and occasionally a 
little quartz. The present state of the workings may be thus described:— The engine- 
shfltft is sunk to a depth of 53 fathoms, and levels have been driven at the following 
depths:— 12, 23, 33, and 43 fathoms, on the course of the lode, N. 23^ W. The totid 
length of the drives is above 400 fathoms. Some flne courses of ore have been met 
with 5 and 6 feet wide, but occasionally rather dredgy; however, at the lower levels 
there has been a decided improvement in this respect, flne yellow ore, of a quality 
superior to most of what has hitherto been raised, as well as more solid in the lode, 
being now in course of working at the 53 &ithom cross-cut. The ores in this mine are 
sulphurets of a good average quality; the prevailing ore is yellow, there is also black, 
and a little peacock met with. -IfeOO tons of ore have been raised here in 5 years, the 
largest proportion of which has been obtained during the last 2 years. The large engine 
is a very fine one of 60-lnch cylinder, a smaller engine (40-hor8e power) works the 
machinery, and will be used for hauling. The smelting works, under the management 
of the Messrs. Thomas, are about 250 or 300 yards from the mine, and comprise 1 
calcining and '2 smelting furnaces. The copper made is of the quality of 96 per cent, 
of pure copper, the refining process being omitted. Notwithstanding the small average 
produce of the ores— only 13 per cent, — lower, I believe, than any other mine in the 
colony, this mine is made to pay, owing to the very careful management adopted by 
Alfred Hallett, Esq., who devotes a considerable portion of his time to the personal 
supervision of the mine. Everything is done with strict economy, and the important 
principle, * let nothing be wasted or lost,' is fully carried out. Machinery is made 
largely available for reducing the ores; an Ahus a mine, which must at once show a 
loss if worked as other mines of the colony are worked, is rendered profitable to the 
proprietors, besides providing direct employment for 120 hands, including smelters; 
and indirectly providing the means of living for 3 or 4 times that number. That 
useful and recently invented machine, known as *Appleton*s Stonebreaker,' is employed 
for crushing the inferior ores preparatory to their being sorted, the best of the ore 
having been previously broken and picked by hand, when it is sent to the crushing 
rollers to prepare it for the furnace. The * smalls ' are dealt with as usual, being 
jigged and washed. The most important machinery for washing the smalls and the 
slime ores is in use at this mine, consisting of a continuation of Vyan's Rake Buddie, 
self-acting plunge jiggers, and the revolving table, hitherto only used for washing lead 
ores, has been adapted by Mr. Hallett for separating the slime, and is found to answer 
admirably. It is^ perhaps, scarcely necessary to give a description of this machinery 



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Bbe — ^Bbi] The South Australian Gazetteer. 41 

in a work like the present, but from what I saw of its performances I am conyinced 
that its use in other mines would add a considerable percentage to the profits, and would 
enable some mines to be profitably worked, which at present yield nothing to the pro- 
prietors. Many of our mine adventurers would derive a useful lesson, and more than 
one, perhaps, from a visit to the Bremer mine. There has been no extravagant outlay 
in handsome buildings, and *no more cats are kept than catch mice,' yet everything 
absolutely necessary appears to be provided. I look upon this as the model mine of 
South Australia, and its enterprising manager, Mr. Hallett, deserves the highest praise 
for the judicious and persevering manner in which he has developed the property, in 
spite of difficulties that would have disheartened many." 

B&EMEBrTON {Co, Hindma/rsh,) is a small agricultural township, adjoining 
the postal town of Langhorne or Langhorne's creek, and taken up by settlers engaged 
in the cultivation of wheat. The soil is sandy, and overlies a limestone foundation. 
See also Langhorne. 



RANGES (Cos, Hindmaush and Sturt) is the name given to a long 
rugged spur of the main or Adelaide range of mountains. At a distance of about 23 
miles E. of Woodside auriferous quartz is found, and there are several parties working 
in the gullies and finding payable gold. The township of Harrogate lies at the foot of 
this range. 

VSLEKER BIYEB (Cos. Hindmarsh and ^turt) is a fine stream rising in the 
Bremer ranges, and flowing in a S. direction. It is fed by the mount Barker, BodwelFs, 
and some other smaller creeks, and empties itself into lake Alexandrina, about 5 miles 
B. of Milang. The lower portion of this river forms the boundary line of county 
Hindmarsh, which lies on the W., and county Sturt, which lies on the E. Cla> -slate, 
shaly rock, micaceous schist, and occasional quartz. 

BBlDGEWATERy postal name Cox's Creek (Ob. Adelaide,) is a postal town- 
sh^ in the electoral district of Onkaparinga, hundred of Noarlunga, and under the 
conlrol of the Echunga district council. It is erected on Cox's creek and on the main 
S.E. road, 4 miles N.W. of Hahndorf, the nearest telegraph station, 3 miles N.W. of 
the Onkparinga river and 4 miles S.S.E. of mount Lofty. The district is an agricul- 
tural one, and is to a great extent taken up by market gardeners, the soil in the gullies 
being peculiarly adapted to the growth of vegetables and fruit. The hills are thickly 
timl^red with stringy bark, which afibrds employment to a numerous body of wood- 
cutters. There is a post office in the township, a good store, an hotel (the Bridge- 
water,) and another (the Pump,) 1 mile W., also 2 flour-mills— one, the Bridge water 
mill (Dunn and Co.'s,) being worked both by water and steam — and the other, the Lion 
mill (Johnston Bros.,) by steam only. The nearest places are Stirling E., which lies 
2^ miles W.; mount Lofty, 4 miles N.N.W.; Forest road or Dry Gully, 4 miles; and 
Hahndorf, 4 miles S.E. With these places there is communication by Rounsevell's 
mail coach twice a day, and with Adelaide, 134 miles N.W., by the same means. The 
surrounding country is mountainous and rugged. The population numbers about 170 
persons. 

BRIGHTON (Co. Adelaide) is a corporate and postal sea-side town, in the 
electoral district of Sturt, and hundred of Adelaide. It lies in an agricultural districtj 
producing wheat, barley, oats and hay, and having about 50 acres under vines. The 
nearest townships are Glenelg, 2\ miles N.; and Sturt, IJ miles E. — the communica- 
tion with Sturt being by mail coach, and with Glenelg by horse and dray only. With 
Adelaide, 8 J miles N., the communication is by omnibus twice a day, except on Sunday, 
when only one runs. Brighton is a favourite place of resort by pleasure-seekers from 
Adelaide, being prettily situated on the shore of the gulf of St. Vincent, and the road 
being kept in excellent order. It has a post office and 3 hotels, the Brighton, Thatched 
house, and Sea side. The next telegraph station is at Glenelg. The country is flat, 
except on the S. side, where it rises into scrubby hills. Brighton has a volunteer rifle 
corps and a public pound. It is a favourite place of resort for holiday seekers from 
Adelaide on holidays. Resident magistrate, D. Sutherland, Esq., J.P. The population 
numbers about 560 persons, the number of houses being 205, and the area 2024 acres; 
the land under cultivation is 56 acres. Within the municipality there are 12 shops, 
kept by tradesmen of various branches of business. The receipts and expenditure in 
this municipality for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, JE3688 5s.,— rate Is. in the 
pound; rates collected, £117 16s. 6d.; total receipts from all source^, £242 10s. 5d.; 
office expenses and salaries, £55; expended on public works, £227 18s. lid. The 

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4d Ths South AuatraUan OoMUeer. [Bbi — Bbu 

population nmnberB 560 persons, being an increase of 171 since 1861, and there are 173 
dwelling-boases, being an increase of 81 since that year. The area of the munioipalitgr 
if S034 acres. 

8&IttBTOSr (<7o. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of the 
Start. It is und^ the control of a chairaaan, the present one being Mr. W. H. Trimmer 
of Fairferd, 8tort, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council fbr 1865 were as follow: — Asseisment, £6101 lOs. — ^rate Is. in the pound; rates 
ccdlected, ^£300 19s. 6d.; total receipts, 4^6 14 2s. 7d.; office expenses and salaries, 
£57 2f. 4d.; expended on public works, £507 5s. lid. The population numbers 769 
persons. The area is 18 square miles, or 11,520 acres; land under cultivation, 5974 
acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 147. 

BBlHKXiET (^Co. Eussell) is the name of a small hamlet lying at the entrance 
of the Murray river into lake Alexandrina, and being situated 4 mUes S. of the town- 
ship of Wellington. 

B&ZNKLET (Co. Stwrt) is a hundredL lying in the S.E. part of the county, on 
the N. bank of lake Alexandrina, and the W. bank of the Murray river, there being a 
quantity of purchased land on those banks, and the remainder of the hundred consifit- 
ing of scrubby pastoral country. The S. part of this hundred is crossed by the main 
road from Adelaide, via Strathalbyn, to Wellington. The area of this hundred is 
97,280 acres, of which 731 acres are under cultivation. The population numbers 214 
persons, mostly agriculturists. 

BROOK WOOLSHED (Co. Victoria.) See Crystal Brook Hun. 

BB.01IIPT0N (Co. Adelaide) is a small village adjoining the suburban town- 
ships of Uindmarsh and Bowden, and distant about 2 miles N.W. of Adelaide. It lies 
on the road and railway from Adelaide to the port. The South Australian gas 
company's gas works are situated in this suburb. See Adelaide. 

B&OWNHlXiXi CHEEK {Co. Adelaide) is a small creek rising in the mount 
Lofty ranges, and flowing in a W. direction past Unley park and Goodwood park.' It 
crosses the Adelaide and Glenelg road under a good woc^en bridge ,and runs through 
swampy land into the sea to the N. of Glenelg. Small quantities of gold have been 
found in this creek, but no workings have ever been carried on. Alluvial soil over 
limestone. 

BROWir, MOUNT, 32° SO' S. lat., 138° 5' E. long. {Flinders distHct,) iaa lofty 
peak, the highest of the Flinders range, lying about 15 miles to the E. 2° N. of Port 
Augusta, at the head of Spencer's gulf, and attaining an elevation of 3174 feet above the 
level of the sea. This mountain was first ascended by Messrs. Brown, Westall, and 
others of the Flinders expedition, who obtained from it a view of the surrounding 
country. They were much disappointed with the general aspect of the country and the 
evident lack of water, but speak in warm terms of the lovely plumage of the birds, and 
the abundance of brightly hued flowers found on the mountain. 

BROWN, MOUNT, RUN {N. diitrict;) lease No. 55; occupier, A. Scott; area, 
79 square miles; grazing capability 11,000 sheep, or 140 per square mile; old rent and 
assessment, i;'164 15s. 5d.; Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £514 88. per 
annum. This run lies about 20 miles E. of Port Augusta (35 miles by road,) and 190 
miles N. of Adelaide. It is watered by Horrock's and mount Brown creeks. This run 
also includes lease No. 241, which has an area of 48 square miles, and pays a rent and 
assessment of £96. 

B&OWV POINT, 32° 82' 35" S. lat., 183° 48' E. long. {Flinders disVnct,) is the 
name of the N. and W. head of Streaky bay, and forms the S. W. point of the peninsula 
lying between Streaky and Smoky bays. 

BaOWN POINT STATION {W. district;) lease No. 943; occupier, Henry C. 
Hawson; area, 37 square miles; grazing capability, 5000 sheep. This station lies to the 
W. of Streaky bay, the nearest post town, Flinders, being 50 miles S.E. The shilling 
port is Blancheport, on the E. side of Streaky bay. 

BBOWN'S HILL (jOo. Hindmarsh) is a slight elevation and survey point in the 
hundred of Goolwa, about 3 miles N.W. of Port Elliott. 

B&OWN'S HILL N. RUN {N. ddstrict;) leases No. 107 and 288; occupier, D. 
Cudmore; area, 73 square miles. The post town is Port Augusta. 

BBirCB, MOUNT, BUN iS.R district;) lease No, 354; occupier, E. Crow; tte% 



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£bu — Bul] The SotUh AmtraUan Gazetteer. 48 

102 square miles; grazing capacity, 16,500 sheep, or 172 per square mile; Mr. Gojder's 
Yaloation, deducting improyements, M5&S 168. This mn lies 225 miles S.S.E. of 
Adelaide, and 35 miles £. by S. of Guichen bay. It is watered by swamps, wateriiolee, 
wells, and troughs. 

VSLVHtSKXL'L {Co. Light) is a small agricultural Tillage adjoining the town^Bp 
of Ghreenock, on its S. side, and consisting of 4 residences with a population of 28 
persons. It is in the hundred of Nuriootpa. 

B&TAVT MOUNT {Co. Burra) is a lofty hill rising to a height of 3000 feet, and 
formed of blue, grey, and^ brown arenaceous slate and sandstone, dipping E. and W. 
firam 20° to Tertical. 

BRYANT, MOUNT, CREEK (Oo. Burror.) See Nbwikib Creek. 

B&TAHT MOUNT RUN, E. part of {Co. Burra;) lease No. 10; occupier, J. 
Gilbert; area, 14 square miles; grazing capacity, 2400 sheep, or 170 per square mile; 
old rental and assessment, £28 Is. 3d. ; Goy dor's yaluation, £154 per annum, excluding 
improvements, yalued at £277. This run lies 20 miles N.N.B. of Eooringa, and 120 
miles from Adelaide, and consists of fairly grassed flats and undulating country, with 
pines and wattles. It is watered by the Newikie and Fine creeks and 3 wells, and 
there are good roads to the Burra and to Adelaide from the head station in the hundred 
of Hallett adjoining. 

BUCHANAN LAKE, 27" 35' S. lat., 139° 30' E. long. {Flinders district,) is the 
name of a sheet of water lying to the north of Anlaby hill, and to the S. of 0*Halloran 
creek. On the N. shore of this lake is the spot where the dep6t camp of McEinlay was 
situated, prior to his start to cross the continent. To the £. are well-grassed flats with 
beds of dry lakes, and to the W. sandy and stony plains. 

^ BUCUfELBE is a vineyard, the property pf Dr. Schomberg, lying on the 
Gawler river, 4 milei W. of Gawler, and having an area of 5 acres. Dr. Schomberg 
makes a white wine from Madeira and Yerdeilho, and a red wine from Mataro, both of 
which are considered excellent wines. There is also another vineyard of 3 acres closely 
adjacent, owned by Mr. Winckel, who makes a good red wine from Mataro and Shiraz. 

BUC»B.LAND {Co. Oawler) is a small agricultural settlement lying in the neigh- 
bourhood of Gawler, and inhabited by a few small settlers, who cultivate wheat and 
other form produce. 

BVGZJB RANGES {Co. Hindmanh) is the name given to a postal village in the 
electoral district of mount Barker, in the hundred of Macclesfield, and under the control 
of the Macclesfield district council. It is situated on UalFs creek, which supplies the 
district with water, and is in the midst of an agricultural and pastoral district, the former 
industry having been lately somewhat on the declme, and the latter (sheep grazing) 
having considerably increased. iThere is a mine in the neighbourhood, which has been 
found to yield silver, but not to any great extent, and which may be said to be, as yet, 
undeveloped. The nearest places are Macclesfield, 5 miles W. ; mount Barker, 6 miles 
N. ; and Strathalbyn, 9 miles S. The communication is by horse or private conveyance 
along the district roads of the locality, the mails being carried on horseback, with 
Adelaide, 27 miles S.E., Ihe communication is by Rounsevell's mail coach from mount 
Barker. Bugle ranges has a post office, and 1 hotel, the Morning Star, a branch of the 
South Austiallan insurance company, and a resident magistrate, F. H. W. Erichauff, 
Esq., J.P. The surrounding country is generally of a hilly description, some of the 
ranges being very high. The geological formations ot the ranges vary, some of them 
showing slate and much quartz, and others being composed of ferruginous sandstone. 
The population is small and scattered. 

BmbSNONA CREEK {N. district) is a small creek flowing in the pastoral 
country about 40 miles from Yudanamutana. 

BV&LAPABINGA {Co. ffindmareh) is a small village in the hundred of Tan- 
kaHUa, lying on the Bullaparinga creek, about 3 miles N.E. of the township of Glen- 
bum. It is under the control of the district council of Rapid Bay, and is an agricultiOBl 
village in the centre of a grain-growing neighbourhood, the land being taken up by a 
nombeff of industrious small farmers. The population of the neighbourhood numbers 
about 200 persons. 

BVXiXiAPABING A CREEK (Co. Eindmarsh) is a small creek rising m the Bnl- 
laparinga hill, and flowing in a N. W . direction past the village of Gienbum into the 
SM at Rapid bay. Limestone and clay-slate. 



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44 The SoiUh Australtan Gazetteer. [BuL — Bub 

BITLLAPABINGA HILL {Co. Hindmarah) is an eleration io the Yankalilla 
hills, l^ing about 6 miles to the N.E. of the stockyards. It is rugged and well wooded, 
and surrounded^ by good agricultural country. The Parananacooke river and the 
Bullaparinga creek have their sources in the W. side of this hill. Clay-slate and 
limestone. 

BULLOCK WELL ( Victoria district) is a spring in the scrub country lying near 
the E. boundary of the colony in 35° SO' S. lat. 

BULL'S CKEEE {Co, Hindmarsh) is a postal Tillage in the electoral district of 
Mt. Barker, hundred of Euitpo. It is situated on Bull's creek, about 6 miles from the 
junction of that creek with the Finniss river, and near McHarg's creek. The district 
is an agricultural and pastoral one — wheat and barley being grown, and cattle and 
sheep being grazed in it. The nearest place is Meadows, 5 miles distant, the communi- 
cation being by horse or dray. With Adelaide, 33 miles distant, the communication is 
by coach once a fortnight. There is a public pound in the village. The surrounding 
country is mountainous. The population, including that of McHarg's creek, numbers 
about 250 persons, there being 40 families on Bull's creek and 10 on McHarg's creek. 

BULL'S CREEK (Co. Hindma/rsh) is a small creek rising and flowing about 8 milte 
past the village of the same name into the Finniss river, and past the township of 
Meadows. It is fed by McHarg's creek, the 2 creeks flowing through an agricultural 
district. 

BULTABOCO STATION {Eastern Plains.)— See OmAnimE Station. 

BUIOBUNGA STATION. {Qo. Stanley;) occupier, J.Ellis.— See Hummock's Run. 

BUNBALEER CREEK {Co. Victoria) is a N. tributary of the Broughton river, 
flowing past the head station of the Bundaleer run in a S. direction through fairly 
grassed country. ^ 

BUNBALEER RUN {Co. Victoria;) lease No. 115; occupier, the Hon. H. 
Ayers; area, 312 square miles; grazing capability, 90,000 sheep, or 290 per square 
mile. At the time of assessment there were 72,000 sheep, 300 head of cattle, and 
several horses on this run. Old rental, £909 18s. 2d.; Goyder's valuation, ^7 176 per 
annumj excluding improvements, valued at £2750. The head station on this run lies 
25 miles N. of Clare, on the main road to the N., and 55 miles N.E. of port Wakefield, 
and lies on purchased land on the Bundaleer creek. The run is 120 miles N. of Ade- 
laide, the wool being sent to port Wakefield. It consists of plain and undulating land 
tolerably well grassed, and having patches of scrub and spinifex. It is watered by 
several creeks and 4 wells, and has good roads to the neighbouring towns. This run 
also comprises lease No. 132, which has an area of 50 square miles, and pays a rent 
and assessment of £241 . There is an aboriginal settlement on the run. 

BUNE&OO RUN(iV. district;) leases No. 392, 425, and 508; occupier, W. L. 
Marchant. Respective ares 115, 44, and 80 square miles. This run lies near Rawns- 
ley's bluff". 

BUNGALA (or Bung4lee) CREEK {Co. Hindmarsh) is a small creek rising in the 
N. slope of a range of hills to the N. of the hundred of Yankalilla, and flowing in a W. 
direction into the sea at Normanville through a fertile tract of land known as the 
Bungala or Bungallee valley, which is highly cultivated, and produces fine crops of 
grain. This creek runs to the N. of the township ot YankalUla, and is impassable 
during flood time. Clay-slate and limestone. 

BUNGABEE STATION (N. district;) lease No. 131 ; occupier, G. C. Hawker; 
lies 6 miles N. of Clare, and 40 miles N.E. of Port Wakefield. There is a public pound 
and an aboriginal settlement at Bungaree. Resident magistrate, W. L. Beare, Esq., 
J. P. See Anama Station. 

BUBBETT {Co. RusseU) is a N. hundred of the county lying on the E. bank of 
the Murray river, and containing only a very small area of purchased land, although a 
considerable quantity is under survey. It is mostly taken up for pastoral purposes. 
The crossing over the Murray known as Thompson's is in this hundred. 

BUBNS CRAIG {Co. Hindmarsh) is the name of a small agricultural settlement - 
in the neighbourhood of mount Barker. The land is taken up by a few small fai:mers 
engaged in the cultivation of wheat. 

BUBJTSZBE {Co. Adelaide) is a small postal township, suburbati to Adelaide, in 
the hundred of Adelaide and electoral district of E. Torrens. It is situated on a small 



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BubJ 'The South Australian Gazetteer. 46 

watercourse called the Second creek, and is in an agricultural district where wheat is 
coltiyated to a small extent and hay is principally grown. There are also numerous 
small vineyards and orchards. The nearest mine is at Glen Osmond, wliere a lead 
mine exists, but is not now worked. The next places are Kensington, 1^ miles N. W., 
and Marryatville, about the same distance, the communication being by omnibus, twice 
a-day. With Adelaide, 4 miles distant, the communication is also by omnibus. There 
is 1 hotel — the Bumside, where the omnibus stops. The surrounding country is slightly 
undulating except to the E., where rise the Adelaide ranges. The geological formation 
is principally of schistoze and haiAsandstone rocks, overlaid in some places by a thin 
stratum of limestone formed of decomposed coral ree£ The soil is good and mostly 
taken np for gardens. The population is small. 

BVRNSXDE (Go, Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of E. 
Torrens. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. George R. 
Debney, of Burnside, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, £9642 — rate. Is. in the pound; rates 
collected, £466 15s. 3d.; total receipts, £979 4s. lOd.; office expenses and salaries, 
£170 28.; expended on public works, £712 lis. 8d. The population numbers 1472 
pellons; the area is 10 square miles, or 6400 acres; land under cultivation, 1966 acres; 
and nnmber of dwelling-houses, 215. 

BUBJUk TOWNSHIP (Co. Burra.) See Koobinga. 

BVBJIA COUNTY is one of the N. counties lying to the E. of the main range, 
and occupying a tract of pastoral country lying to the N. of a line drawn £. and W. 
from that range to the N. W. bend in the Murray river. It is bounded on the N. by 
the eastern plains, on the S. by the country Eyre, on the W. the counties Stanley and 
Victoria, and on the E. by the county Toung. The Burra creek flows nearly due E. 
across this country, emptying itself into the Murray at N. W. bend. The W. part of 
iihe county is divided into the following hundreds:— Hallett, Kingston, Eooringa and 
Apoinga— the three latter being taken up as purchased land; and the first, with the 
exception of a block of purchased land being, like the remainder of the county, settled 
pastoral country. The S.W. part of the county, comprehending the hundreds of 
Apoinga and Eooringa, and to some extent that uf Kingston, are celebrated for their 
mineral wealth, vast deposits of copper ore having been found scattered in the hills and 
gullies all over the district. Of these hundreds, by far the wealthiest is that of 
Koonnga, which contains the world-renowned Burra mines; although the hundred of 
Apoinga has likewise good lodes of ore. This county forms the greater part of the 
electoral district of the Burra. This county has an area of 1767 square miles, or 
1,130,880 square acres, of which 137,675 acres are purchased land, 74,801 acres being 
held by freeholders, and 918 acres under cultivation. The live stock numbers 1166 
horses, 1363 horned cattle, 136,146 sheep, 703 goats, 655 pigs and 6366 head of poultry. 
Of the land under cultivation, 367 acres are under wheat, 421 acres under hay, 115 acres 
are fallow, 12 acres garden, and 3 acres vineyard, the latter having 616 vines in bearing 
and 1611 vines not in bearing. The crops for the year ending March 31st, 1866, were 
1300 bushels wheat and 226 tons hay. The population numbers 4221 persons, being 
a decrease of 1262 since 1861: and the number of dwellings, 1008, being a decrease of 
217 since that year. 

BUBJUk CREEK (Co. Burra) is a fine stream rising in the main range to the N. 
of Kedruth township, and flowing in a S.E. direction through that place and Koorin^ 
(the Burra mines.) It is fed by numerous small tributary creeks. The formation of 
the neighbouring country is of blue, grey, and brown areuaceous slate and sandstone, 
dipping E. and W. from 20° to vertical. 

BVBRA electoral district comprises the hundreds of Saddleworth and Waterloo, 
also the towns of Kooringa, Redruth, and Aberdeen, the hundreds of Kooringa and 
Apoinga, and the remainder of the county of Burra. It has a population of 7001 per- 
sons, and an area of 2405 square miles, or 1,539,200 acres, of which 40,511 acres aire 
under cultivation. The voting places for this district are at Kooringa, Redruth, 
Hamilton, and Saddleworth. The Burra is represented in the Legislative Assembly 
by J. B. NealesandA. M*Culloch, Esqs. The number of registered electors for 1865 
in thi%district was, for the Legislative Council, 454, and for the Legislative Assembly, 
1261. 

BUBJUk-BUBBA MINES (THE) lie on bald bills of the transition series, and about 
150 feet in height from the surrounding country. The prevailing feature of the geolo- 



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46 The South Attstrtdian GazeUeer. [Bur 

gical formation is limestone. The ground being soft and easily worked, a tremendoos 
amount of timbering has to be employed to secare the drives, and in going underground 
one walks through miles of these galleries without seeing anything but timber, and in 
tome places the passages hare been so narrowed with these supports that a stout person 
would find some difficulty in squeezing himself through. There is less to interest the 
casual visitor underground at the Burra than there is in many other mines far inferior 
in mineral wealth. A large quantity of the ore consists of what is called '* noalls," 
and this, as well as much of the other ores, is so^oated with tlie ** country ''-—or soil 
in which it is found— that it would escape observflnon by the uninitiated. Here and 
there in the workings you may come upon a splendid bunch of red oxide and malachite, 
and the specimens of blue and green carbonates to be found in the mine are extremely 
beautiful. It is a singular circumstance, but the miners agree in saying that there is 
not a regular lode in the Burra mine; however, if there is no lode, there is plenty of 
copper without it, the whole country being impregnated with it. The Burra appears to 
be one vast ^* pocket*' Aill of copper. Its original appearance in a huge boU on the 
snr&ce was so remarkable that numbers of persons undertook the journey from 
Adelaide — quite an adventure to many in those days — for the mere purpose of seeing 
this wonderful deposit of ore. A vast hollow is now shown at one part of the nttne, 
about 100 yards in diameter, and 30 or 40 feet deep, whence thousands of tons of the 
richest ores were taken. This great hollow, however, is owing perhaps as much to the 
sinking of the ground, because of the large amount of excavation which has been 
performed in following the copper below. The ores obtained from this mine have been 
chiefly red oxides, very rich blue and green carbonates, and malachite. Native copper 
has also been found. Many very beautiful specimens of all the varieties named have 
been procurable from the Burra Burra, and are to be seen ornamenting the mantelpieces 
or cabinets of an immense number of houses in the colony. 

To proceed with a brief history of the mine ; it was diacorered by a shepherd named 
Pickitt, in 1845, and in order to secure the fee simple of mineral land it became neces- 
sary to purchase a special survey of 20,000 acres, paying the Government for the same 
in spef*ie. The survey was taken on August 16th, by Messrs. C. H. Bagot and G. F. 
Aston on behalf of themselves and others, afterwards called the Princess Royal mining 
company, and by Messrs. William Allen and Samuel Stocks, jun., for themselves and 
others, who afterwards became incorporated with the South Australian mining asso- 
ciation, which name is still borne by the Burra company. The&# two parties were called 
respectively the "nobs" and the ** snobs,*' the former representing the "aristocracy" of 
the colony, and the latter the merchants and tradespeople. The nobs were unwilling to 
combine with the snobs in a joint stock company for carrying on the mine, and there- 
fore, although they united to purchase the ground — as neither party could, unaided, 
raise the hard cash— bo soon as the survey was completed the land was divided by 
drawing a line through the centre from east to west. Lots were then drawn for the 
land, and the " snobs'' became the fortunate proprietors of the northern portion of the 
survey ,and on which the Burra mine existed. The Princess Royal property was ulti- 
mately sold for pastoral purposes at 18s. an acre. 

The first directors of the South Australian mining association, and who were 
apiK)inted to manage the affairs of the Burra mine, were Messrs. Charles Beck, James 
Bunco, John Benjamin Graham, John Bentham Neales, William Paxton, William 
Peacock, Christopher Septimus Fenny, Emanuel Solomon, and Samuel Stocks, jun. 
Mr. Henry Ayres was appointed secretary. Operations were commenced immediately, 
the number of miners employed being 10, under the superintendence of a captain, and 
with a smith to sharpen and repair the tools. The first shot was fired on the 29t^ 
September, 1845, blasting a large mass of rich ore, and in a short time several drays 
were loaded for the port. The workings were carried on with vigour, and the produce 
of the mine surpassed the most sanguine expectations entertained on its discovery. The 
original working capital of the company was only ^'1500 ; but with a mine so rich and 
so easily worked that amount proved si^dent. until the sale of ore increased the funds 
available for working expenses. During the first 6 years of the history of the Burra, 
nearly 80,000 tons of exceedingly rich ore were raised and shipped to £lgland, yielding 
a profit to the company of i;438,552 ; a pretty good lesult from an original outlay of 
£10,000 for the land. At the close of the first 6 years since the opening of the mine, the 
number of hands employed was upwards of 1000 ; but at this time the newly drfcovered 
gold-fields in Victoria attracted a large proportion of our population, and especially the 
miners, who left in such numbers that only 100 were left at the Burra—the Eapunda 
mine suffering in like manner ; indeed, I believe at one time only 5 or 6 men remained 



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Bub} Th4 South Austrakan GazeUear. 47 

«t Eapanda, incliidiiig khe captain and puraer. This state of things prodnoed a serious 
check on the working of the mines; at the Burra, where pumping engines bad been 
«rocted, the machinery was of necessity stopped, and the water let in ; the compara- 
tiyely few men who remained being employed in working above the water level. For 
the greater part of three years the mine continued thus ; the Grovernment then took the 
matter into their serious consideration, and rightly deeming the prosperity of the colony 
to be dependent, to a great extent,* on that ot its mining interest, they adopted measures 
for the introduction of a number of Cornish miners. When these immigrants arrived, 
the water was pumped from the mine, and full operations were resumed, and have been 
carried on with comparatively trifling interruptions until the present time. The 
greatest number of hands employed was in 1859, when it amounted to 1170 persons. 
The discoveries at Wallaroo caused some of the miners to remove to that locality, and 
several were attracted by the reports of the great richness of some of the mines in the 
fax north. A still larger departure of miners took place in consequence of inducements 
held out to them by a certain coal mining company in New South Wales. Prior to this 
time, however, the working of the mines at Wallaroo and in the far north had tended 
to raise the rate of wages, and it was deemed advisable by the directors of the Burra to 
confine their operations to those workings above the 55- fathom level; the water was, 
therefore, let into the lower part of the mine— from the 70-fathom level to the 55 — and 
it is found that at the present rate of wages larger proportionate profits can be realised, 
without incurring the expense of pumping and working the lower levels. The yield of 
ore has ranged for many years from 10,000 to 13,000 tons a year, the produce of the ore 
giving an average of from 22 to 23 per cent of copper; or about 2500 tons of pure 
copper when smelted, and yielding to the colony an average annual amount of at least 
£225,000. The total amount expended in the colony by the Burra company, up to the 
present time, is about £1,700,000, of which upwards of £1,000,000 has been paid in 
wages. The gross profits amount to £850,080, of which £7 1 4,560 have been divided 
among the shareholders, and £135,520 added to the capital stock, while £10,560 
remained undivided. The above description, from Austin's mines of South Australia, 
pretty accurately describes the state of these mines, allowing for their further develop- 
ment since 1864. 

In the Melbourne exhibition of 1866, were exhibited by the Hon. H. Ayers, the 
following 80 specimens of copper ore; — Nos. 1 to 10. Ten specimens of malachite or 
green carbonate of copper, containing from 50 to 60 per cent, of metallic copper. These 
specimens are merely roughly polished by the miners who extracted them from the 
mines, and are capable of a much higher polish if submitted to the regular process by a 
lapidary. Nos. 1 1 to 20. Ten specimens of red oxide of copper, more or less mixed 
with native or virgin copper, containing from 70 to 90 per cent, of metallic copper. 
Nos. 21 to 40. Twenty specimens of malachite or green carbonate of copper, of varied 
and singular formation, representing the smoothness and gloss which that substance 
frequently carries in a natural state. Nos. 41 to 46. Six specimens of blue and green 
carbonate of copper, exhibiting various forms of crystallisation. Nos. 47 to 56. Ten 
specimens of dark blue carbonate of copper, highly crystallised. Nos. 57 to 66, Ten 
specimens of blue carbonate of copper, in many varieties of crystallisation. Nos. 
67 to 76. Ten specimens of green carbonate of copper. Nos. 77 to 78. Two specimens 
of sub-oxide of copper, or rubby copper ore. Nos. 79 to 80. Two specimens of virgin or 
native copper. 

BVRRy MOUNT, or Bush Inn or Glencoe {Co. Grey^) is the name of a post 
office on the Glencoe station (E. J. Leake's,) and on the main road from mount Gam- 
bier to Kobe town. It lies 2 miles N.E. of mount Burr, 3 miles S.W. of mount Mac- 
intyre, 3 miles W. of mount Edward, 10 miles S.E. of mount Muirhead (volcanic,) and 
10 miles S.S.E. of mount Graham (volcanic.) Lakes Leake and Edward are 4 miles 
E., and Reedy creek 25 miles N.W. The district is exclusively a pastoral one, both 
cattle and sheep being grazed in large numbers. The nearest places are mount Gam- 
bier, 25 miles S.S.E.; Tarpeena 18 miles E. by SjMacdonnell bay 40 miles S.8.E., and 
Eobe 60 miles N.W. The communication is by horse or private conveyance, the mails 
being carried on horseback. With Adelaide the communication is by Kounsevell's 
coach twice a-week, from Tarpeena via Fenola and Wellington, or by steamer from 
Port Macdonnell or Guichen bay (Robe. ) The distance by the coach route is 329 miles. 
There is one hotel at Mount Burr— the Bush inn. The surrounding country is partly 
mountainous, with much stringy4>ark and numerous grassy rises, the remainder cob- 
tiscts of swampy flats, with patches of tea-tree scrub. The population is small and 
scattered. 

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48 Ths SoiUh Australian Gazetteer. [Bub — Cal 

smut POINT {Flinders district) is a prominent headland lying on the W. coast 
of Spencer's golf, between port Lincoln and Franklin harbour. 

BIF&SXiElS'S HILL (Co. Hindmarsh) is a point in a low range of hills lying 
in the hundred of Kondoparinga, and about 6 miles W. Strathalbyn township. 

BmT'S HILL {Flinders district is a hill in the main range on the N. road, a 
few miles 8. of Yudanamutana, and at the head of Taylor's creek. 

B VItTV a CROSSING (Flinders district.) See Stubt'b Cbossing. 

BUSH INN (Co. Orey.) See Bure, Mount. 

BUTALOO RUN, {Co. Victoria;) lease No. 57 ; occupiers, J. and R. J. B. Reid ; 
area, 57 square miles; grazing capability, 10.500 sheep, or 180 per square mile; old 
rent and assessment, JC114; Mr. Goyder's valuation, £399, excluding improvements, 
which are valued at £2000. This station lies 12 miles E. of Port Peri, and on the 
sources of the crystal brook about 30 miles S.of Melrose, and 130 miles N. of Adelaide. 
The wool is shipped at port Peri. The run lies on the W. slope of the Flinders range 
which is a mass of scrub and spinifex. To the E. are hills and gullies heavily timbered, 
and tolerably well grassed. It is fed by springs and wells. The road to Port Peri is good. 

BUTCKEB'S GAP (Co. Light) is the name given to an opening or passage through 
theBelvidere range of hills, lying about \\ miles W. of Marrabel. There is plenty of 
good stone and timber suitable for building purposes in the vicinity — granite and 
freestone. 

BUTLER LAKE (Co. JRohe) is a small swampy lagoon lying to the W. of the 
township of Robe, and near the jetty. Black mud »nd limestone crust. 

BUTT AMUCK RUN {N. District;) leases Nos. 305, 373,645b, 745 and 746; 
occupier, H. A. Short ; total area, 90 square miles ; total rent and assessment, £60 10s. 
This run lies to the N.E. of Black Rock; next post town, Eooringa. 

CABELL (Go. Albert) is a hundred lying in the N.W. corner of the county and 
forming the inner angle of the Murray river at the Great or N.W. bend. It is taken up 
for pastoral pursuits, 

CABNXA, 29° 40^ S. lat., 137° 35' E. long. (Flinders district,) is a spring lying in 
the pastoral country to the S. of lake Eyre. 

CABNXA LAKE (Co. MacdonneU) is a small swampy lake lying in the E. part of 
the county, near the boundary of the colony. 

CABNITE RUN (S.E. district;) lease No. 161; occupier, H. and D. O. Jones. 
; area, 25 square miles; grazing capacity, 6500 sheep; valuation, £430 per annum. 
This run lies 200 miles S.E. of Adelaide|Wind 95 miles N.E. by E. of Robe. 

CAZBN BANK RUN (S.E. district;) lease No. 203; occupier, J. Hensley; area, 
79 square miles, grazing capacity, 9500 sheep, although there are 16,000 sheep and 40 
head of horses and cattle on the run; Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, 
£40 per annum. This run lies 190 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 40 miles N.E. of 
Guichen bay (Robe.) 

CAL ANN A STATION (N. district) is a sheep station, at present unstocked, lying 
on the N.W. road frdtn Nuccaleena, the nearest post office, 123 miles S. 

C ALC A RUN ( W. district.) See Radstock Cape Run. 

CALLENBALE RUN (S.E. district;) lease No. 201; occupier, S. Jeffrey; area, 
36 square miles; grazing capacity, 4500 sheep; Goyder's valuation, deducting 
improvements, £18 per annum. This run lies 215 miles by road S.E. by S. of 
A&laide, and 48 miles E. of Robe. The head station is the Lake Eliza run. This 
run also includes leases No. 450 and 1004, the respective areas being 18 and 11 square 
miles. 

CALLZNGTON (Co. Start) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Onkaparhiga, hundred of Kanmantoo, and under the control of the district council of 
Nairne. It is situated on the Bremer creek, the mount Barker creek being distant 3 
miles S.W., Nairne creek distant 8 miles W., and the river Murray distant 16 miles E. 
The district is an agricultural one, wheat and barley being extensively grown. The 
Callington or Bremer copper mines lie near the township. The nearest places are 
Kanmantoo, distant 3| mUes N.; Woodchester, 8 miles S.; and Swanport, distance 16 



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Cam — Can] The South Australian Gazetteer. 4# 

miles E.,the communication being with the first-named place, or with Adelaide, 41 
miles W., by daily mail coach, and with the other places by horse or dray. In 
Qillington the hotels are the Callington and the Tavistock. There is a post and money 
order office in the township, and a booking office, whence the mail coach runs to and 
from Adelaide, Naime, and Eanmantoo daily. The surrounding country, is rather 
eleyated, and mineral traces are found in nearly every direction. The population 
numbers 600 persons, including the farming population in the neighbourhood. 

GABISL'S HUMP ((7o. Stanley) is a lofty peak lying about 10 miles N.N.E. of 
Glare, and 14 miles W. of Kooringa. This hill is a prominent landmark both on 
account of the peculiarity of its shape and of its height from the whole of the surround- 
ing country. The geological formation is dark blue and olive green shales, with quartzose 
sandstone bands, the dip being W. 46° to 60°. 

GABUPBEXiX. LAKE, dO*" 50' S. lat., 156"" 35' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a small 
saline lagoon lying in the sandy and stony plain to the W. of lake Torrens. It was 
discovered by Babbage in 1858, and is now surrounded by land taken up for pastoral 
purposes. 

GAMPBSLLTOWN (Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district 
of E. Torrens, hundred of Adelaide, and under the control of the district council of 
Payneham. It lies 5 miles N.E. of Adelaide, and is bounded on the W. by the Torrens 
liver, and on the E. by the S. branch of the N. E. road. The township has an area of 
260 acres, and was named after C. J. F. Campbell, Esq. The main reservoir supplying 
the Adelaide waterworks lies about half-a-mile to the E. The district is an agricul- 
tural one, the land being taken up as market gardens, and for the growth of hay. 
There are also numerous vineyards in the neighbourhood, and many of the farmers 
£^aze<Mittle on the outlying lands. The nearest places are Newton, 1 mile E.; Paradise 
half-a-mileN.E.; and Darley, 1 mile N. There are no regular conveyances to those 
places, and the communication with Adelaide is by omnibuses twice a-day. There is a 
. post office, a Church of England and a Wesleyan Chapel, and one hotel—the Giynde^* 
about a mile to the S. of the township on the lower N.E. road. The surrounding 
country is low, but land of good description, forming part of the Adelaide plains, and 
the formation chiefly limestone. The population numbers about 160 persons. 

GABUPBSUi'S CREEK {Co. Hindmarsh) is a small creek, flowing from the ranges 
to the E. of cape Jervis into the S.E. part of the gulf of St. Vincent. It passes the 
hamlet of Silverton, and upon it were formerly worked the Campbell's creek silver 
lead mines. (See Silverton.) The geological formation is granite and limestone. 

C ABCVBELL'S CREEK MINE (Co. Bindmarsh) is a silver lead mine, lying 54 
miles S.S. W. ^ W. of Adelaide. (See Silverton.) 

CABIPBEZiZi'S HILL (Co. Hindmarsh) is the name given to a low range of hills 
rising from the coast, in a N.N. VV. direction, and situated on the W. side of the Blow- 
hole creek, and 4 miles E.S.E. of Cape Jervis. 

^ CAMP HILL (Flinders district) is a peak of the main range, lying between the 
Freellng heights and mount Hopeless, and overlooking the N. part of the Eastern plains. 

GAHNAK'S REEF (Flinders district) is a dangerous rocky ledge in Nuyt*s archi- 
pelago; it shows about 20 feet above water, and lies 34 miles S.by W. of Fenelon 
island, with breakers on sunken rocks between the two. 

CA.VHtAWlQWLA'RUl^ (S.E. district;) lease, Nos, 149 and 150; occupier, J. 
Gordon ; area, 67 square miles; grazing capacity, 22,700 sheep and 30 horses; Goyder's 
valuation, deducting improvements, £1225 48.— the overland road- to Victoria via 
Border town passes through this run. This run lies 170 miles S.E. by S. of Adelaide, 
and 90 miles from Robe in a N.E. direction. 

CANHONBOWH (Co. Adelaide) is the name of a small agricultural hamlet, 
adjacent to the suburb of Hindmarsh on the N., and jying about 5 milAi N. W. of 
Adelaide. 

CAirOWIS RUN (Co. Victoria;) lease No. 129; occupiers, Scott and Hay ward; 
area, 140 square miles; grazing capability, 45,000, or 320 per square mile; old rental, 
£396 138. 4d; Goyder*s valuation, £3080 per annum, excluding improvements, valued 
at £.1887. This run lies 32 miles N.N.W. of Kooringa, and 132 miles N. of Port 
Adelaide. It extends on both sides of Brown's hill ran^e and is well grassed, the flaU 

• Digitized b^LjOOgle 



60 The South AtistrcUian Gazetteer, [Car 

and ralleys abundantly so. There is but little surface water, and the run is supplied 
by 25 wells, troughs and pumps. There is a good road to Eooringa. 

GA&BEXiXiA STATION {W, district;) occupiers, Heath and Wooldridge. See 
Waluanippib Station. 

GARBWSLL COUNTY lies in the S.E. of the colony, and is bounded on the 
K. by the county Russell and the Tattiara pastoral district, which district also bounds 
it on the E., on the W. by the sea, and on the S. by the county Macdonnell. It is a 
county of swamps and sandy plains, and contains in its N. part the scrubby tract (^ 
land known as Magrath's flat. The Coorong lake and the main road from Wellington 
to Macdonnell bay run from N. to S. along its W. side, and upon that side two hundreds 
hare recently been marked off, namely, those of Santo and Neville. The road from 
Wellington to Border town runs along its N.E. side, which consists of a thick belt of 
mallee scrub. This county is comprehended in the electoral district of Victoria. 
This county has an area of 1856 square miles, or 1,187,840 acres, of which 605 acres 
are purchased land, there being 96 1 1 acres enclosed, and 1 39 acres under cultivation. 
The live stock numbers 502 horses, 510 horned cattle, 62,045 sheep, 128 goats, 12 pigs, 
and 324 head of poultry. Of the land under cultivation, 135 acres are under 
hay; 1 acre under other crops; and 3 acres garden ground, having 200 vines not in 
bearing. The last crop was 133 tons of hay. The population numbers 182 persons, 
and the number of dwellings is 103. 

CAREY'S CREEK {Co. Adelaide) is a small mountain stream flowing into Cox's 
creek. 

CA&Xnr'S GIJLLY {Co, Adelaide) is a postal township, partly in the district of 
E. Torrens, and partly in that of Crafers. It is in the hundred and district council of 
Onkaparinga, and is situated on a gully through which flows a small creek (Carey's 
creek.) The district is at present an agricultural one solely, wheat being grown in 
considerable quantities, but the principal produce being fruit and vegetables. The 
nearest places are Stirling, 34 miles S., Hahndorf, 7 miles S.E., Crafers, 4^ miles W., 
and Balhannah, 5 miles S.E. There are as yet no public conveyances to those places, 
the state of the roads being such as to preclude their running; so soon, however, as 
the road, which is now in progress, is completed, a coach will be run to Balhannah. 
With Adelaide 14 miles W., the communication is from Crafers, the nearest coach 
station, by omnibus. The surrounding district is hilly, with small fertile flats in the 
valleys, most of which are under cultivation. There are at present no mines at work 
in the neighborhood, although it bears strong evidences of being a mineral district. On 
the surface of the ground, quartz, having auriferous traces, is found in various parts of 
the vicinity, but no proper trial as to its value has been made. Carey's gully has a 
post office, 3 chapels (in one of which is conducted a literary institute,) and 2 stores. 
The population numbers about 60 persons. 

GARNAJtVON MOUNT {N. district) is a lofty peak of an £. spur of the 
main range lying to the N.E. of Wilpena, and near the Appenilla mine. It is at the 
head of the Yudnapunda creek. 

GAROUNE {Co. Grey) is a S. hundred of the county lying on the S.E. coast. 
But litttle of this hundred is sold, the S. portion consisting chiefly of shifting sand 
dunes. For population, &c., see Benara hundred. 

GAROIiZNE POET ((7o. Macdonnell) is a small port at the head of Lacepedebay, 
lying in the centre of the coast of the S.E. district of the colony, within 63 miles from 
the W. boundary of the colony of Victoria, and is the nearest port to a large and fer- 
tile tract of bush country in S. Australia and Victoria. The township of Kingston 
lies at the head of this port, and is the shipping township for the neighbouring district. 
A full description of this port is given in a letter written to the 8. A, Hegister, of 
June 13th, 1^66,*by Messrs. J. and A. Cook, of Kingston, from which letter we take 
the following particulars : ** Froih cape Jafla's outlying reefs, running northwards in a 
straight line 21 miles, intersecting the coast line, there is within one of the most extra- 
ordinary harbours known; its maximum breadth is 5 miles. Without any protec- 
tion, to the eye, it is precisely the same as if it were land-locked against the ocean 
waves. To prove this, there is in all its main points abundance of nautical, official 
and non-official evidence, but of necessity brief and incomplete, from the absence to 
casual visitors and surveyors of the test that experience of years on the coast only will 
give in all weathers. This is the duty imposed on us by our position. It it beyond 

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Car — Cen] The SoiUh Australian Oazetteer. 51 

our ability clearly to explain the cause of this apparent phenomenon—the barrier — 
farther than to state that there is at all times a heavy ocean ground-swell outside the 
entrance to Lacepede bay, running its whole length, with an under power stronger 
than any cross sea, the strength of which is seen in its grandest magnificence 40 
miles northward from Fort Caroline, on the Coorong beach. Entrance — 18 miles 
wide, with a clean sandy bottom. The depth of 16 of the 18 miles varies gradually 
fom €0 feet to 45 feet on eadi side. When the lighthouse, now to be erected, ii up, ships 
can enter with perfect ease, in the darkest nights, without a pilot. Capacity— 78 
square miles. Sufficient depth and smooth water in all winds for the largest ship afloat, 
including the Great Eastern. Depth— 60 feet at its entrance, gradually sloping to the 
shore. 44 square miles contain a depth of 30 to 60 feet, 23 square miles 15 to 30 feet, 
and 11 square miles under 15 feet. There is 24 feet within three-quarters of a mile of 
the shore in several places. The entrance, capacity, and depth correspond with 
Grovemment survey. Anchorage can only be proved by a comparison with neighbour- 
ing bays, or ports, of results, during the worst weather, similarly exposed to the wind 
blowing in shore, when vessels and lives have been lost there and saved in this bay on 
the same day.*' 

GABrOQNA BUN (N, district;) lease, 109; occupiers, J. and A. Hallett; area, 58 
square ntiles, grazing capability, 58,000 sheep, or 100 to the square mile; old rental 
and assessment, £106 12s. 4d,; Goyder's valuation, £174 per annum, excluding improve- 
ments, valued at £625. It is fairly grassed and interspersed with belts of mailed scrub, 
and watered by the Newikie, Wira and Caroona creeks. The head station is at Wan- 
dillah, near Kooringa. 

CABRAGALVNOA HILL (Co. ffindmarsh) is a lofty peak and survey point in 
the N. part of the Yankalilla range, on the road from Myponga to Yankalilla, and 
about 3 miles from the coast. 

GA&BAGALUNOA CREEK (Co. Bindmarsh) is a stream rising in the coast 
range, and in the S. part of the hundred of Myponga by several bends, and flowing W» 
about 2 miles from Yankalilla into the sea. 

CASTAS ROCK {N. distrU^) is a peak in Chase's rauge, surmounted by a rocky 
top, which somewhat resembles an old fortification. It lies to the E. of the main N. 
road, near Wonoka hill. 

GASTIETON (Co. Adelaide,) a name given to port Noarlunga. (See Noarlunoa.) 

GAST&I CREEK {Flindert district) is a small watercourse, lying to the S. of lake 
Buchanan; sandy and grassy plains. 

CATASTROPHE CAPE, 35'' 1' S. lat., 135° 54' E. long., mag. var. 5° E. {Co. 
Flinders,) is a prominent feature on the main land, and forms the W. point of entrance 
to Spencer's gi^f. Its S. extremity is cliffy and has a round, smooth summit, clothed 
with vegetation, whence it trends N.E., by E. i E.,',3 miles, and forms 2 sandy bights, 
which are separated by projecting cliffs of whitish and level appearance. Behind the 
shore the land rises to a rocky range of considerable elevation, with a few trees but no 
fresh water. At the E. toot of the range is Memory cove, and still further N., Shag 
cove. It lies 48 miles E. ot cape Spencer. This cape was so called from the melancholy 
loss of Mr. Thistle and a boat's crew of Flinders's ship the Investigator, See Tuistlb 
Island. 

CATTLE COMPANY CREEK (Co. Hindmarsk) is a small drainage creek 
rising in the hills to the W. of ^ount Barker township, and flowing through good forest 
and agricultural land. ^ 

CATTLE STATION HILL (Co. Adelaide) is a point and survey station in the 
main range, lying about 4 miles S.E. of Hahndorf. 

CAU&NABiONT STATION (Co. Sturt) is the run of Mr. Robert Thomson, 
lying in the hundred of Ridley, 18 miles N.E. of Mannum, the nearest post office, 
Murray River; the area is 43 square miles, and grazing capability 3000 sheep. 

CATESSHABi {Co. Adelaide) is a suburban village lying near the township of 
Hindmarsh. 

CEMTKE, MOUNT, 35^ 30'. S.hit.j 135° lO' Klongi. {Flinders district.) is the 
name given by Hack, in 1857, to a remarkable granite hill lying in tbe midst of a circle 
of smaller elevations, forming a W.. spur of the W. part of the Gawler range. It lies 
in rough scrubby country, with no grass and but little water, £^om its summit could 



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62 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Cha 

be seen salt lakes stretching to the N.W., but there was no useful yegetatlon, and except 
a spring at the foot of the mount, no fresh watw. To the S., however, is a tract of 
tolerably good grassy country known as "Parla." 

OHABnrA RUN (W, District,) comprising Cheetingoona, Anthema, Wonln- 
gndda and Mietipy stations held under 3 leases; occupier, uncertain; total area, 111 
miles, the leases being 84, 17, and 10 miles respectively; grazing capacity, 12,000 sheep 
and 20 head of cattle. This run lies 8 miles N. of the post office at Charra. There 
are no fresh water creeks, but there is a salt one, known as the Davenport creek, which 
is suitable for shipping cargo, as vessels of 200 tons burthen can lie close alongside 
the banks, at a distance of 20 miles S. of Chadina. 

CHAIN OP PONDS {Co, Adelaide) is a postal village in the electoral district of 
Gumeracka, hundred of Para Wirra, and under the control of the central road board 
and the district council of Para Wirra. It is situated on the Chain of Ponds creek, the 
Torrens river being distant IJ miles S.E., mount Gould 5 miles E., and mount Gawler 
4 miles N.W. The district is an agricultural one; wheat, barley, oats, hay, potatoes, 
^apes, and fruit being cultivated, and a few sheep and cattle grazed. The nearest 
planes are Kersbrook, 3 J miles, and Maidstone 4 miles N., Gumeracka 4 miles E., and 
Millbrook 1^ mile W, With the two latter places there is daily communication by 
RounsevelPs mail car, and with the two former by horse and private vehicle only. With 
Adelaide, 19 miles S.W., the communication is by Rounsevell's daily mail coach. Chain 
of Ponds has a post office and 1 hotel — the Morning Star. The surrounding country is 
elevated, mountainous, and thickly scrubbed. The geological formation is of grey 
sandstone, showing ferruginous traces, and slate, with some hard freestone, forming 
good road metal. There is a public pound, and a very pretty bridge on the main road 
at this place. The population numbers about 50 persons. 

CHAIN OF PONDS CREEK (Co. Adelaide) is a small N. tributary of the Tor- 
rens river, rising near the township of Maidstone, and flowing in a S.W. direction 
through the Chain of Ponds village, where it is crossed by means of a good bridge by 
the main N.E. line of'road. This creek falls into the Torrens river near Kersbrook. 

CHABUBSXIS' CREEK {N, district) is a creek flowing through a station of the 
tame name, and situated on the road from Nucca^eena to mount Margaret, the next 
post office, from which station it lies S.E. Ill miles, or 187 miles N.W. of Nuccaleena. 
The station is stocked with cattle. 

Also a fine stream flowing into the S.W. part of lake Eyre. This creek was origi- 
nally known as Stuart's creek, but received its present name from Stuart himself. There 
is tolerably good pastoral country in the neighbourhood. 

. CHABUBSaS' MOUNT, 30° 57' S. lat., 139° 15' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a 
lotly peak and point of survey in the pastoral district of the E. plains. It lies on the 
N. bank of the Rose creek and? miles S.W. of Prism hill and 6 miles south of the 
Mooroo copper mine. The mount Chambers mine (see, Nuccaleena) lies a little 
to the S. of this hill. Sandstone, slate, shale and calcareous rock, with boulders of 
primitive limestone. 

CHANC£IiLO&'S (or Chandler's) HILL (Co. Adelaide,) a point in the coast 
range, lying about 2 miles N.W. of the township of Clarendon. 

CHANBAB A RUN ( W, district;) occupier, Jno. Forster; area, 46 square miles. 
This run also comprises the Pollitia run, which lies 28 miles from Chandada, the head 
station. It Las an area of 36 square miles. The next post office is Flinders, Streaky bay. 

CHABXES MOUNT (Co. Adelaide) is a point in the main range. 'It lies 3 miles 
N. of the township of Woodside, and half-a-mile from Charleston. It is* partly under 
cultivation, wheat and other grain growing freely in the valleys. 

CHAaZiSS MOUNT, 28° 25' S. lat., 136° 5' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a high 
hill, lying in the horseshoe-shaped pastoral country enclosed by the Denison range, and 
on the W. side of the Davenport river. There are numerous springs in the neigli boar- 
hood, the nearest being the Fanny spring, lying to the N., and goc^ water may be had 
by digging a few inches below the surface in all directions. 

CHAltL£8T0N (Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district and 
hundred of Onkaparinga, and under the Onkaparinga district council. It is situated 
on a flat on the Onkaparinga river, about half-a-mile distant from a partially-cultivated 
hiH, called mount Charles, and on the mainE. line of road from Adelaide to mount 



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Cha — Chi] The South Australian Gazetteer. 63 

Torrens. It lies in an agricultural district, producing fine wheat and good wine, and 
having dairy fiurms, where excellent butter and honej are produced. Some of the land 
Is well grassed and timbered, and is used for pastoral purposes. The nearest places are 
Woodside — the next local court, and telegraph and police station— 2f miles £.; mount 
Torrens, 6 miles W.; and Lobethal, 2 miles S.E. — the communication being by Hounse- 
yell's daily coaches. With Adelaide, 28 miles W., the communication is by the same 
means. Charleston has a post office, a district school, and 1 hotel — the Charleston; and 
there is a steam flour mill, lying 1^ miles distant N.W. The surrounding country is 
mountainous to the W. and flat to the £., the formation being of sandstone and clay, 
slate. There is abundance of pure water in the neighbourhood, and the entire district 
is noted for the excellence of the cereals it produces. The population numbers about 
150 persons, the number of dwellings being 40. 

CBABXTOH (Co, Frame) is a small township lying on the maui N. road to 
Melrose, about 15 miles S. of that place. Copper and lead have been found in this 
locality. 

GHA&BA {Flinders districC) is a postal station lying in the centre of the pastoral 
district on the W. coast, 150 miles N.W. of Streaky bay, and 500 miles W. of Adelaide. 
It lies 14 miles N. of W. of Davenport creek, and is reached by a fortnightly overland 
mail via port Lincoln. The surrounding country consists of low scrubby plains — the 
formation being limestone. The population of Charra numbers 20 persons. 

CSABE?B EANGE {N, district) is a spur of the main range lying to the B. of 
the N. road, a few miles S, of Wilpena. The principal peak of this range is known as 
the Castle rock. 



rOOONA STATION (W, district.) (See Chadina Hun.) 

GHSLLJlSTON (Ob. Adelaide) is a small agrici^tural hamlet lying to theS. W 
of the city of Adelaide, about 3^ miles distant, and inhabited by a few farmers. 



GARDENS {Co, Adelaide) is a postal village in the electoral district 
and hundred of Noarlunga, and under the control of the district council of Clarendon. 
It lies near the Onkaparinga river, 12 miles S. of Adelaide, and 5 miles N.£. of 
Clarendon, the communication being by horse or private conveyance to Clarendon, and 
thence to Adelaide by Cook?, Fox*s, or Goble's conveyances. The district is a fine 
agricultural one; wheat, peas, and potatoes being extensively grown. 1 mile from 
Qierry Gardens is a silver lead mine, known by the same name, and also as the Cuma- 
nilla mine. It is sunk 13 fathoms. The ore raised contains 75 per cent, of lead, and 
30 oz. of silver to the ton. At a distance of about 3 miles is a promising copper mine, 
known as the Wheal Maria, or Scott's creek mine. The surrounding country is moun- 
tainous with fine agricultural valleys and undulating flats, well grassed and lightly 
timbered. 

CHJBflmOO N.E. BUN {W. district;) leases, Nos. 848, 871, and 884; occupier, 
Bh Symes; total area, 54 square miles. This run lies to the £• of Venus bay, the next 
poet town. 

CBS&X&Oa N. RUN {W. district;) leases Nos. 728 and 798; occupier,^. Love; 
total area, 18 square miles. Next post town, Venus bay. 

CHILPANUNDA STATION (TT. distHct;) leases Nos. 726, 921, and 1091; 
occupiers, Carlyle and Irvine; area, 212 square miles ; grazing capability from 20,000 to 
25,000 sheep in fair seasons. This station lies near Streaky bay, about 24 miles EJN.B, 
of the township of Elinders. Water is obtained by sinking deep wells. 



f 'S WELLS {Co. Cardwell) is a spring lying on the mam road from 
Wellington to Macdonnell bay, at the Coorong crossing. ♦ 

CHXHGFOIUD (Co. Stanley) is a postal town in the eleetoral district of Burraand 
hundred of Saddleworth, the main road running by the town, being under the super- 
vliion of the central road board. It is situated on the right bank of the Gilbert river, 
near its source, in an agricultural, wheat and hay producing district. There are no 
mines in the neighbourhood, although there are numerous indications of copper and 
iron. The nearest places are— Auburn, 8 miles distant W. by S.; Mintaro, 8 miles 
N.W.; Waterioo, 6 miles N.E.; Saddleworth, 6 miles S. by W. With these placet 
there is no communication except by horse or private vehicle. With Adelaide, 78j 
miles S., the communication is by RounsevelPs mail coach from Auburn to Kapunda, 
imd thence by rail Chingford has a post-office. The nearest hotels are at Saddleworth 

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54 The South AustrdUan Gazetteer, [Cho — Cla 

or Waterloo. The surrouDding country is undulating with ranges of hills to the E. and 
W. respectiyely, and several low hills to the N. The formation is of ironstone and 
claj-slate. The population is small and scattered. 

CH00N8EZNOUX.A STATION (TT. district) lies 50 miles N. W. of the township 
of Flinders ; occupiers, Heath and Wooldridge. See Wallianippib. 

CBOWXXiLA BUN (N.E, district.) (See Bookmark.) There is an aboriginal 
station at this place. 

CHOT PONDS (Co, Adelaide) is the name given to a string of waterholes lying in 
the neighbourhood of Willunga, and surrounded by good agricultural land, mostly 
taken up by small settlers. 

CBUCKA BEND {Co. AlberfJ is the name given to a small tract of purchased 
land oh the E. bank of the Murray river, in the hundred of Morphett, and about 30 miles 
N. of Wellington. 

CLAPRAM {Co, Adelaide) is a small agricultural hamlet lying near Mitcham, and 
inhabited by a few farmers and gardeners. See also MrrcHAM. 

CZiAJtE, 33'' SO' S. lat, 138** 35' E. long. (Co. Stanley,) is a postal township in 
the electoral district of Stanley, hundred of Clare, and untj^r the control of the Clare 
district council. It is situated on the main road, via Auburn and Watervale from 
GaWler and Kapunda to the pastoral district lying to the S.E. of Port Augusta, and 
leading l^ that port, and on the Hutt river, a S. tributary of the Broughton run. Clare 
has a telegraph station, a post and money order office, branches of the English, 
Scottish, and Australasian Chartered, and National banks, and the South Australian 
insurancecompany, a large flour mill, a machine manufactory, a court-house, and a large 
and commodious town-hall, the property of a company, an English and a Boman 
Catholic church, and Wesleyan and Presbyterian chapels. There is a local court and a 
Foresters' court. It has several well-built stores and shops, and 4 hotels — the 
Travellers* rest. Northern, Bradley's, and Clare. There are several suburban residences 
on the prettily wooded hills to the W. of the township, and to the N. of it is Inchiquin, 
the residence of E. B. Gleeson, Esq., who was one of the first settlers in the locality, and 
who laid out the township. The nearest places are Pey^^^A™! 8 miles; Watervale, 
11 miles; Leasingham, 12 miles; and Auburn, 18 miles— all in a S. direction; the 
communication being by Kounseveirs daily mail coaches. With Adelaide, 93 miles S., 
the communication is by the same line of coaches to Kapunda, and thence by rail. 
The resident magistrates are A. E. Davis, E. B. Gleeson, and J. W. Gleeson, Esqs. 
The township of Clare lies on a flat and under a range of well-wooded hills, in a rich 
fkrming district, where large quantities of wheat are grown, the country to the 
N. being taken up by sheep and cattle runs. The hills surrounding the neighbourhood 
are of moderate height. The main ridges, consist of blue, grey, and brown arenaceous 
slates, shale, sandstone, and quartz rock. ^ 

GLARE {Co. Stanley) is a district council in the electoral district of Stanley. It 
is under the control of a chairman, the present one being M. C. H. Webb, of Windsor 
Lodge, Glare, and 4 cotincillors. The population numbers 2593 persons; the area is 
108 square miles, or 69,120 acres; land tinder cultivation, 11,028 acres; and number of 
dwelling-houses, 481. * 

CLARE {Co. Stanley) is a central hundred of the county, consisting almost 
exclusively of purchased land, of which much is under cultivation. The townships of 
dare and Penwortham are in this hundred, and the main road to theN. runs through it. 

CLARENBQN, 35'' 10" S. lat, 138° 40" E. long. (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal 
township in the el^oral district and hundred of Noarlunga, and under the control of 
the district council of Clarendon. It is situated on the Onkaparinga river, 18 miles 
S.E. of Adelaide, in the midst of a fine agricultural district, where wheat, peas, and 
potatoes are largely grown. Considerable tracts of country are also used for the 
depasturage of cattle, and the cultivation of the vine and the manufacture of wine 
have for a considerable 'period attracted a large share of attention, and are rapidly 
progressing. The principal wine manufactory and distillery is Mr. Peake's, and there 
are several other smaller ones. At Cherry gardens, distant about 4 miles N.E., and at 
Scott's creek, 5 miles distant, are copper mines, there being also strong indications of 
•opper at mount Bold, to the E.,and at several other places in the neighbourhood. The 
nearest places are Kangarilla, 4 miles S.E., and Cherry gardens, 4 miles N.E., the 
communication being with the latter place by horse and private conveyance, and the 

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Cla — Gu] The South Australian Gazetteer. 55 

mails beiDg carried on horseback, and with the former by weekly conveyance. With 
Adelaide 18 miles N. there is communication by three conveyances, viz., Cook's thrice 
a-week, Fox's twice a- week, and Goble's once a- week. Clarendon has a post and money 
order office, a public pound, and a branch of the South Australian insurance company, 
a licensed school, and one hotel — the Koyal Oak. The resident magistrate is K. J. 
Feake, Esq., J.P. ~ The surrounding country is mountainous, with fine agricultural 
valleys and undulating flats, well grassed and highly timbered. The population numbers 
about 200 persons. The geologiod formation is of green talcose and chloritic slates, 
with quartz in their interstratified laminsB, similar in appearance and general mineral 
character to the metamorphic green chloritic slates of Anglesey. To the S. of 
Clarendon the presence of tertiary rocks is indicated by the deep sandy soil, thickly 
covered with epacris, prickly acacia, dwarf Banksia, coarse grass, and other scrubby 
deposits. Adjoining this township is the celebrated Clarendon vineyard, situated at an 
elevation of from 700 to 800 feet above the level of the sea, and having a splendid view 
of the Onkaparinga river. The vineyard is on the summit and slope of a hill, and is 
thickly planted with choice vines, comprising the Pedro Ximenes, Falo-mino-blanoo, 
Temprana, Doradilla, Mantua, Castellano, Verdeilho, Crouais, Reisling, and Tokay of 
the white variety, and Molar Negro, Ferastes-Colaro, Schiraz, Malbec, Carbonet, Mataro, 
Carignan, Grenache, and Morastel of the red. The wine made from this vineyard is 
very delicate, and is dry, spiritous, and bright. The wine cellar is a two-storeyed 
building, the lower cellar having an area of 62 feet by 23 feet, and capable of containing 
10,000 gallons of wine. The wine is made in the upper storey, and the wine presses 
and cellar arrangements are excellent. 

GL ARENBON ( Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral districts of 
Noarlunga and mount Barker. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one 
being Mr. Jas. Morphett Tapley, of Tapley's hill, and a councillor. The receipts and 
expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, JS8562 5s. — 
rate. Is. in the pound; rates collected, £415 Us.; total receipts, £815 7s. 7d.; office 
expenses and salaries, £126 68. 7d.; expended on public works, £612 lOs. Ud. The 
population numbers 1599 persons. The area is 48 square miles, or 30,720 acres; land 
under cultivation, 2983 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 348. 

CXJL&KE'S CREEK ^Flinders district) is a mountain stream found by Hack, 
in 1857, in the Gawler ranges, to the S.E. of lake Gairdner. The country is now taken 
up for pastoral purposes. 

CLAY GULLY, or Munta Wubta {Yorkers peninsula) is a small tract of land 
lying in a vadley on the E. side of Yorkers peninsula, and adapted to agricultural 
development. A smftU stream of good water flows down the gully into the gulf of St. 
Vincent during and for some time after rainy seasons. 

CLAYTON, 35° 33' S. lat., 139° E. long. (Ob. Bindmar8h,)i8 a postal township in 
the electoral district of mount Barker, hundred of Alexandrina, and under the control 
of the Alexandrina district council. It lies on the Goolwa or lower Murray river, near 
Bankine's crossing from Hindmarsh island to the main land, the Finniss river running 
to the N.W. into the Goolwa, and lake Alexandrina being 2 miles N.E. The district is 
an agricultural one, wheat being grown in considerable quantities in the neighbourhood. 
Hie nearest places are Goolwa, 8 miles W., and Milang, 8 miles N.E.; with which 
places there are no regular means of communication. With Adelaide, 55 miles N.W. , 
there are no regular means of communication, the usual route being by horse or dray to 
port Elliot, 16 miles, or Strathalbyn, about the same distance, and thence by Rounse- 
veil's coach. The nearest hotels are at Milang and Goolwa. Clayton has a public 
pound. The resident magistrate is J. Rankine, Esq., J.P. The surrounding country 
is low and flat. The geological formation is of limestone. The population of the 
township numbers 6 persons only, although there is a considerable ^ming population 
in the neighbourhood. 

CLAYTON RIVER (Flinders dis^ict,) is the name of a stream rising in the S. 
slope of the Yarra hill, and flowing in a W.N.W. direction for about 40 miles, until it 
falls into the S.E. end of lake Eyre. 

GXiZFTON {Co. Adelaide,) is a small agricultural hamlet lying to the E. of Bum- 
ude, and inhabited by a few farmers and gardeners. 

G&INTOir (Co. Daly) is a S.E. hundred of the county lying in the N.W. head of 
he gulf of St. Vincent, and containing the township of Clinton, and a small quantity 
of purchased land surrounding it. The oulk of the hundred consists of pastoral country. 



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56 The Sovih Australian Gazetteer, [Clt — CoL 

CUTS MOUNT (N. district) is a peak of the main range lying on the S. bank of 
theFrome riyer, a few miles to the N.N.W. of Angipena, and to the W.of the mount 
Rose mine. 

OLON LISA (Co. Gawler) is a small agricultural settlement near Gawler, taken up 
bj a number of small farmers, who cultivate wheat and other produce. 

OOBBLS&'S HILL {Co. Hindmarsh) is a peak in the low scrubby ranges lying to 
the E.S.E. of cape Jervis, and on the E. bank of the Blowhole creek. It forms a 
prominent landmark from the sea, and is situated about half-a-mile from the coast. 

COCKATOO VALLEY {Co»H%ndmar8h')i% a small agriculural settlement in the 
neighbourhood of mount Barker. It is taken up by farmers who cultivate wheat in 
considerable quantities. There is a public pound in this neighbourhood. 

COCX'S-COBSB RANGE {Flinders district ;)\s a spur of the main range lying near 
mount Hack, and a short distance south of Angipena. This range encloses a natural 
pound 10 miles by 2 miles in extent. For a description of a South Australian "pound/' 
seeWiLPBNA. 

COFFIH MOUNT (N, district) is a peak in a W. spur of the main range, lying 
about 10 miles N.W. of Angipena. A copper mine, called the New Burra mine, was 
opened some time since at the S. foot of this hill, but it was not fouad to pay and was 
consequently abandoned. 

COFFIN'S BAY, 34° 29' S. lat, 135° 18' E. long. (Co. Flinders,) is a deep 
indentation running into the land in a S.E. direction, and lying between a sandy 
peninsula on the S. and the main land on the N. It is about 9 miles in width, and 
offers excellent anchorage except in N. and N.E. gales. An indentation near the head 
of the bay, and running in a N. direction, is known as port Douglas. Point Sir Isaac 
ferms the S. head of Coffin's bay. This bay, called after Sir Isaac Coffin, who had 
fitted out Flinders's exploration ship, the Investigatory has a moderately high coast, with 
but little timber, and rocky and barren. The rocks are generally granite, covered 
with white limestone of the same formation as that found all along the Australian bight. 

coffin's pay run (W. district;) lease No. 72; occupier, P. Levi; area, 56 
square miles; grazing capacity, 6000 sheep, or 107 per square mile; Mr. Goyder's 
valuation, deducting improvements, £140 per annum. This run lies on Coffin's bay, 
20 miles W. by N. of port Lincoln, and 480 miles on overland road by the Gawler 
ranges from Adelaide. It is watered by wells and swamps. This run also includes 
lease No. 440. 

COFFIN'S BAY RUN, S.E. (W . districti) leases Nos. 79 and 1061; occupiers, 
Wilson and Featherstone; areas, respectively 42 and 17 square miles. This run lies 
on Coffin's bay, to the W. of port Lincoln, 

COGimL'S CREEK {Co. Light) is' a small creek, rising in the main range, and 
flowing into the Gilbert river at Saddleworth, after watering a tract of good agricul- 
tural country. 

COGUN CREEK (Flinders district) is a good gum creek with grassy banks, lying 
to the N. of the Bagot range and on Stuart's exploration route of 1860. There is 
abundance of mulga scrub in the neighbourhood of this creek, with gum trees, having 
large gouty swellings, growing in the sandy soil. The bark of these trees is smooth 
and of a pure white; the trees are affected with gall-flies, which produce giUl-nuts as 
large as turnips, the larvae having somewhat the taste of artichokes, and being consi- 
dered a luxury by the aborigines. 

COLD AND WET {Victoria district) is a camping-place on the main road from 
Wellington to Border town, known also as the Thirty -eight mile well, from there being 
a well on the roadside, distcmt 38 miles S.E. of Wellington. 

COLLINSON POINT is a rocky point, lying between point Brown and point 
Bemole, on the W. coast of Streaky bay. Between point Collinson and point Demole 
lies a deep indentation called Gascoi^e bay. 

COliPA RUN {W. district;) leases Nos. 633, 705, 840, and 940; occupiers, W. J. 
and J. H. Browne; areas respectively, 45, 31, 16, and 25 square miles. This run lies 
at Streaky bay, the nearest post town being Flinders. 



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Com — Coo] The South Australian Gazetteer, 57 



COBKAVK ((7o. Jtobe) is an E. hundred of the county containing about a third 
of purchased land. The country is paatoral. .and the road Irom Penohi to Narracoorte 
pMees through the hundred. 

CrOlCFASS, MOUNT (Co, Hindmarsh,) is a peak and point of survey Ijing in the 
rugged country in the N.£. of the hundred of Myponga, and bearing S.S.NV. 5 miles 
from mount Magnificent, and 6 miles E. from mount Terrible. 

C0HAN]>Z3LLAlf| or Richmond (Co. Adelaide^) is a small hamlet lying to the 
W. of the city of Adelaide, and inhabited by a few small settlers, chiefly employed in 
growing hay. 

CONA&AXiUlfGA (Co, Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement in the 
neighbourhood of Willunga, inhabited by a few small farmers. 

COHpnLLAC CAPE (Yorkers Peninsula) is a low promontory on the W. shore 
of Spencer's gulf, lying about 60 miles N.K.E. of Bolingbroke point, the N. head of the 
port Lincoln bight. 

COVB MOUNT (Co. Hindmanh) is a peak and surrey point in the scrubby 
country iu the E. part of the hundred of Myjponga, lying about 3 miles W.S.W. of 
mount Jagged. 

CaiVKAJt RUN (S,E. district;) lease No. 160; occupiers, H. and D. 0. Jones; 
area. 111 square miles; grazing capacity, 13,000 sheep; valuation, £675 per annum. 
See BuiNUM Bimnuk. 

COKMEBJIY RUN (8.E, district;) lease No. 220; occupier, A. Dunn; area, 24 
square miles; grazing capability, 3000 sheep, or 120 per square mile; Goyder's yaiua« 
tioD, deducting improvements, £5S per annum. This run lies 195 miles by road S.b.E. 
of Adelaide, and 30 miles E.N.E. of Robe. The head station is Woolmit, and on the 
entire rim are 16,000 sheep and 10 horses; This run also comprises lease No. 320. 

COKKUBJIA RUN (S.E, district;) lease No. 219a; occupier, A. Dunn; area, 
16^ square miles; grazing capacity, 2100 sheep, or 124 per square mile. Groyder's 
valuation, deducting improvements, £102 per annum. This run lies 198 miles by road 
S.8.E. of Adelaide, and 28 miles E.N.E. of Robe (Guichen bay.) 

GOMSTANCE (Co. Hindmarsh) is a small agricultural settlement lying near 
mount Barker, and being under cultivation for the growth of wheat. 

COMSTAWTIA (Co, Adelaide) is a small vineyard, the property of Mr. W. 
Danoan, lying half-a-mile beyond Glen Ewin, near the source of the Little Para river. 
This vineyard is 5 acres in extent, and is planted chiefly with the grape whence it 
derives its name. 

COHSTITirriON HILL, 30'' 32 S. lat., 138'' 57' E. long. (Flinders district) is a 
loffy peak and survey point in the main range, lying about 16 miles N.E. of Angipena, 
uid at the head of the Erome river. 

COOBABLATmUTKOWENS LAKE, or Poole's Pond, 28'' lO'S. lat., 139° lO'E. 
long, {Flinders district^) is a small fresh water lake, lying on a branch of Cooper's 
creek, and dry in summer. It is situated in a polygonum flat with good grass and 
daver, lying about 30 miles N. of lake Hope. The surrounding country consists of 
sandy ranges, and plains liable to inundation. 

COTBTAN If A RUN (W. district;) lease. No. 646; occupiers, Lindsay and 
Gibson; area, 26 square miles. This run lies at the new township of Flinders or 
Blancheport, on the E. end of Streaky bay. It is well supplied with water from a per- 
manent spring. 

CUiaLATOO STATION (Co. Cardwell, S.E. district;) occupiers. Walker 
Bankine & Co. (^manager, W. Cook;) area, 36 miles. This station lies to the S, of 
S*U creek on the Coorong lake, and on the mam S.E. road, its S. boundary being 21 
miles, and its N. boundary 34 miles N. of Kingston (port Caroline.) There are no 
creeks in the run, water being supplied by swamps and wells. There is a post office 
on this station for the convenience of the surrounding district, and connection with 
Adelaide, 160 miles N.W.,by Rounsevell's coaches twice a week. The coaching 
ftlstion is known as '*Rankme's.'^ The head station, lease No. 226c, is only 3 miles in 
area, of which 2 miles are resumed in the hundreds of Neville and Duffield. 



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68 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Coo 

COONATTA AND YANYARY RUN {N. district;) lease No. 74; occupiers, 
Grant and Stokes; area, 138 square miles — of which 5 miles are purchased land; 
grazing capacity, 19,500 sheep, or 145 per square mi% On these and adjoining 
stations, held under different leases, are 90,000 sheep, 150 head of cattle, and 150 horses. 
Old rent and assessment, £235 12s. 6d.; Goyder's yaluation, deducting improvements, 
i£]345 12s. The Coonatta head station lies on the N. bank of the Coonatta Creek, 24 
miles N.E. of Melrose, and the Yanyary head station 40 miles N.N.E. of Melrose, and 
55 miles by road £. of Fort Augusta. 

COONATTA CREEK {Co. Frame) is an E. tributary of the Willochra Creek, 
rising in the main range to the S. of Mochra Tower, and faUing into the main stream 
to the N.E. of Beautiful Valley. 

COONUNDA RUN {S.E. district;) part of lease 195; occupier, P. Begg; area. 
20 square miles; grazing capacity, 500 head of cattle, or about 25 per square mile. 
The run consists of sandy hummocks and basins, tolerably well grassed, with oak, box, 
wattle, flags, herbs, mesembryanthemum, and black grass; aAd swampy basins, chan- 
nels, and islands. It lies 260 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, 42 miles S.£. of Guichen bay 
(Robe,) and 40 miles N.W. of Macdonnell bay. Bent, as valued by Mr. Goyder, 
deducting improvements, £60. 

COOPS, MOUNT, 33° 3' S. lat., 134° 35' E. long. (Flinders district,) is a hill lying 
in good pastoral country, about 8 miles N. of the head of Venus bay. This range was 
discovered by Eyre in his exploration journey from Streaky bay to the head of Spencer's 
gulf, and is described by him as a high granitic ridge, with both grass and water under 
its flanks. To the N. of it lies a scrubby and stony desert, with much spinifex {triodia 
irritans) growing upon the sand ridges, which are int.errupted by level limestone flats. 

COOPER (Co. Albert) is a hundred lying on the E. bank of the Murray river 
below Blanchetown. It is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

COOPE&'S CREEK {Flinders district) is a fine stream of fresh water, perhaps the 
most important in the history of exploration in Australia. The main stream lies in 
about 27° 44' S. lat., and extends from 140° 20' E. to across the border of the colony, 
and is known as the diamond of the desert. At this place it forms into 2 branches, one 
flowing S. W., and called the Strzelecki creek; and the other flowing N.W., and retaining 
the name of Cooper's creek. This creek was discovered by Sturt, in October, 1845, and 
was named by him after Sir Charles Cooper, the Chief-Justice in Adelaide at that time. 
Its native name is the Barcoo, by which name it is equally well known. Mitchell also 
called it the Victoria river, and it was also proposed to call it the C/Ooper's river and 
the Gregory. Sturt's name, however, of Cooper's creek is the one most used, although 
that is to a certain extent a misnomer, inasmuch as it is a river, in some places, two 
mile^ wide. Sturt describes it as a splendid creek, containing abundance of fine reaches 
of water, covered with ducks and other aquatic birds, and its pools well stocked with 
fish. The grass was beautiful round it, and the banks were lined with fine gum trees. 
Kennedy supposes this river —which certainly flows in the colony ol Queensland, under 
the name of the Barcoo — to be identical with the Thompson or Victoria river of that 
colony, a fact which was proved by Landsborough in 1862. The chief interest attached 
to this stream, however, centres in its connection with the heroic but ill-fated Burke 
and Wills expedition from Melbourne to Carpentaria. A depdt or cacAe was established 
on the creek at fort White, and a dep6t party instructed to wait there with provisions 
until the return of the exploring party; but on the arrival of the survivors— Burke, 
Wills and King— on the 20th April, 1861, Gray having died at some distance up the 
creek on the 16th, they found that the camp had been deserted that very morning by 
Brahe and Wright's depdt party. This lamentable error caused the deaths of Burke 
and Wills, who perished in the wilderness, King being found afterwards by Hewitt's 
party, living with the blacks* near the bank of the creek. The history of this disastrous 
expedition is graphically told in Wood's "History of the Discovery and Exploration of 
Australia," vol. II., p. 347. Major Warburton, who has lately been exploring the N.E. 
part of the colony, in his despatch forwarded to Adelaide in the latter end of September 
last, in speaking of his proceedings, reports that he has traced from its mouth in lake 
Eyre up to 27° S. lat., 140° 20' E. long., a fine river, which he is fully convinced is the 
Barcoo river, although he could not reach the part of it known as Cooper's Creek. 
Be says that he found on its course a large fresh water lake, many good creeks and large 
tracts of excellent well- watered country, some of it the best he has ever seen in the 
colony. He describes the banks of this river as boggy, with deep ravines, and covered 



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Coo — Cob] The Sovth Australian Gazetteer. 69 

with tangled massesof polygon am and dense forests of gigantic marsh-mallows and heavy 
timber, and says that the natives are rank cannibals, frequently eating one another. With 
r^:ard to this important discovery by Migor Warburton, it may be remarked . that the 
Rev. J. E. T. Woods, in his History of Exploration, vol. IL, p. 288, expresses his 
conviction that Cooper's creek, or, fis he speaks of it, the Barcoo river, finds a final 
receptacle for its waters in the basin of lake Eyre. 

GOORONG CROSSINa(C7o. Cardwelli is a ridge of sand-banks which crosses the 
Coorong lake, near its lower end,^ dry weather, and affords a road along the sandy 
beach of the sea to Kingston, being; a considerable saving in distance between Welling- 
ton and that place. 

COORONG LAKE ( S.E. district) is the name of an arm or inlet of the sea, having 
its opening in^ the S.E. part of lake Alexandrina, not iar from the Murray mouth, and 
nmning parallel with the coast in a S.E. direction for about 25 miles, in a narrow sheet, 
whose greatest width is only about 2 miles. There is only a narrow strip of sand-hills 
lying ^tween this singular lake and sea for the entire distance; in fact, it resembles a 
fringing reef to the coast more than anything else. The Rev. J. E. T. Woods supposes 
that this strange geographical feature may have long been a sand-bank under the sea, 
wbich has been raised by upheaval, while the intervening low land between it and the 
former coast is still covered by water. The Coorong lake covers an area of rather more 
than 50 square miles; it lies between the coast hills which border the edges of the sea, 
and a continuation of the Stone Hut range, but these two seem almost to^oin at the 
N. and S. ends, or, at least, are nearly continuous by a low range of sand-hills which lie 
between. The hills, however, on each side are almost exclusively sandy, and seem to 
attain their greatest height opposite the middle of the lake. The banks consist of level 
flats covered with black mud, limestone, and saltwater shells. The water is fresh or 
brackish and very shallow, and 1 or 2 creeks flow into it, but there are few outlets, and 
evaporation goes on very rapidly. On this lake a brittle inflammable substance resem- 
bling resin in appearance, was found some time since by Mr. J. Rankine in considerable 
quantities. It burns slowly with a clear flame, and gives out a bituminous smell. This 
discovery points out that ere long petroleum wells may be worked in that part of the 
colony. 

COORONG RUN {S.E. district;) leases Nos. 226 and 226a ; occupiers, Rankine 
and Walker; area, 12. square miles; grazing capability, 1020 sheep; Mr. Goyder*s 
valuation, deducting improvements, £19 per annum. This run lies on the Coorong 
lake, about 130 miles S.E. of Adelaide, and 50 miles N.E. of Lacepede bay (Kingston.) 

COPPEXiAXiTA RUN (W, district;) lease No. 1038; occupiers, Hosking and 
Bryant; area, 12 square miles; rent, £6 per annum. This run lies near nipunt 
Southern; the next post offices being at Venus and Streaky bays. 

COPPE&SR MINE, (TT. district,) is a copper mine, recently opened, and 
employing 6 hands. It lies on the property of Carlin & Co , and its value has not yet 
been proven. It lies near the Flinders mine in a chain of hills running S. W. and N.E., 
having an elevation of from 200 to 400 feet. The nearest shipping port is Tumby bay, 
where safe anchorage is to be obtained. 

COPPE&HOUSS {Co, Burra) is a small mining village lying 2 mfies to the 
W. of Kooringa. There is one hi)tel in the village known as the White Hart, and 
another near it known as the Racecourse inn. The population consists of miners. 

COPPIO RUN, (W. district;) leases, No. 101 and 102; occupiers, W. J. and J. H. 
Browne; area, 62 miles, and 10 miles; grazing capability, 7490 sheep, although there 
are about 20,000 sheep and lambs on this run, with its outlying stations. The Coppio 
and S. Coppio runs pay a rent and assessment of £151 168. per annum. They Ue 20 
miles N. of port Lincoln, 190 miles by water from port Adelaide, and 395 miles 
overland. The country is undulating and covered with heath, dwarf mallee, oak, 
honeysuckle, and patches of grass, and is watered by the river Tod and Fiilawarta 
creek. This run also includes leases No.. 766, 767,1062, and 100, the latter being known 
as Kapinka; the respective areas of these runs are 29, 26, 22, and 34 miles. 

CO&NY POINT (Yorke*s penirmila) is a prominent point of the S. part of Yorke's 
peninsula, standing out in a N. direction into Spencer's gulf, and forming the S.W. 
horn of Hardewicke bay. This run also includes leases Nos. 423, 1013, 1035, 329, and 
1118, having a total area of 145 square miles, including the lake Sunday run of 24 



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60 The South Amtralian Gazetteer. [Cob — Cra 

Snare milet. On the whole of this area are 23,300 sheep, 75 horses, and 340 head 
cattle. 

OORMST POINT AND WHITE HUT RUN (YorJeesPminmla ;) lease No. 63; 
occupiers, Rogers, Lander, and Stephens ; area. 33 square miles ; grazing capacity, 
2500 sheep, or 76 per square mile; rent and assessment, £36 12s. The stock is watered 
from wells and waterhoies. The Corney Point ran lies 12 miles W. of Hardwicke bay, 
and the White Hut run 20 miles W.S.W, of that bay, and 206 miles by road from 
Adelaide. The wool is shorn at Oyster bay, about §0 miles by sea from port Adelaide, 
in a W. by S. direction. 

COBJTET POINT STATION No. 2 {^orke's peninsula;) occupier, T. W.Rogers. 
See Spbnceb Capb Station. 

COROBKAHDinb VALLEY (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal Tillage in the electoral 
district oi the Sturt, hundred of Adelaide, and under the control of the district councU 
of Mitcham. It lies about 9 miles to the S.E. ot Adelaide, and is celebrated for its 
manufactories of biscuits and colonial jams. 

COB&IBEXJtY WATER {Flinders district) is the name given to a small water- 
hole in a watercourse lying at the b . foot of Uro bluff, in the sandy plain to the W. of 
Harris's crossing. 

CO&^HHA WATER {Flinders district) is a swampy lagoon, lying on the £. side 
of Baxter's range, and found by Eyre in 1839. It lies in a barren and scrubby country, 
bat fresh water may be had here most of the year round. 

COTISA&T BAY (Flinders district) is an indentation in the main land lying 
open to the sea, between Cape Bauer on the N., and point Westall on the S. In its S. 
part are some detached reddish coloured rocks, which form remarkable objects from 
the sea. 

COUSSZE CAPE (Kangaroo island) is a headland, jutting out in a S.W. 
direction Irom the S.W. coast of the island, and having dangerous rocky reefs lying 
off it. 

OOUTT'S CAPE {Kangaroo island) is a high, bold headland on theE. end of the 
island, forming the N.W. horn of Antechamber bay. It has soundings of 14 fetthoms 
within 100 yards of the shore, 

COWANDALS {Co. Hindmarsh) is an agricultural settlement in the neighbour^ 
hood of mount Barker, the district being celebrated for the excellence of the wheat 
grown there. 

COWANDZLLA (or olbnklg) RIVER {Co. Adelaide) is the name.of a branch of 
the Sturt river, flowing into the gulf of St. Vincent, near Glenelg. 

COWARD'S CLIFF, 29° 50' S. lat., 137° 25' E. long., is a detached rocky hill lying 
in the desert country to the 1^. of lake Torrens. 

COWABirS SPRINGS {Flinders district) is the name given to a batch of springs 
lying between Hamilton hill on the S.E., and Beresford's hill on the N.W., and named 
jrfter Corppral Coward, one of Warburton's party in 1858, by whom they were found 
on the return journey from the Davenport range, on the W. side of lake Eyre. See 
also Blanche Cup. 

COS&COIOB RANGES {N. district) See Cock's-comb Ranges. 

COX'S CREEK {Co. Adelaide.) See Budgbwatbb. 

COX'S CREEK {Co. Adelaide) is a N. tributary of the Onkaparinga river, rising 
in • spur of the mount Lofty range, and flowing S.E. through good agricultural country 
for about 10 miles, into the main stream, a few miles from Hahndorf. The geolo>{icai 
formation consists of thick beds of coarse siliceous brown sandstones, with black bands 
ot silicate of iron dipping S. 20°, W. 80**. 

CRAFSXS {Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of and 
hundred of Onkaparinga, and under the control of the district council of Crafers. It is 
situated about 3 miles E.S.E. from the summit of mount Lofty, near the sources of the 
Sturt, Brownhill,- First, Second, and Cox's creeks. The fertile gullies in the neigh- 
bourhood are entirely devoted to the growth of garden piroduce, for which th^ are 
eminently adapted, the soil being of good quality, and irrigation oonvsnient. 



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# 






Cra] The South Australian Gazetteer. 61 

Tbe sides and summits of the hills have bat poor soil apon them, a few cattle 
are grazed there, but being well timbered with itriiigy bark and other gum trees, 
they serve principally to supply the locality and the metropolis with firewood. There 
are several quarries of good stone, but no mining in the district. The nearest 
places are £. Stirling, 1^ miles E., and Bridgewater, 3^ miles £.. on the mount 
Barker road, and Glenosmood, 6 miles W., on the main Adelaide road. The 
communication with thes^ places, as with Adelaide, 10 miles W., is by ^Rounse veil's 
daily mail coach and by drays, &c., continually plying. Crafers has a post office, a 
licensed school, and a mechanics' institute. There is 1 hotel— the Crafers, in the 
township, and 2 others — the Halfway house and the Aldgate pump, within a short 
distance, on the mount Barker road. The surrounding country is mountainous, and the 
loQsility is remarkable for its humidity as compared with other parts of the country, 
there often being a heavy fall of rain at and about Crafers when other places are devoid 
of it. The geological structure of the hills in this neighbourhood is chiefly of thick 
beds of hard and soft coarse-grained micaceous sandstone, dipping S. 25% E. 30°. The 
population numbers about 70 persons, and the number of dwellings is 10. 



(Co, Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of B. 
Totrens and Onkaparinga. It is under the control of a chairman — the present one 
beine Mr. David Johns, of Cox's creek, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expendi- 
ture m this district council for 1865, were as follows:— Assessment, £2980 19s. — rate. 
Is. in the £1; rates collected, £124; total receipts, £356 2s. id.; office expenses and 
salaries, £56 9s. 3d.; expended on public works, £319 2s. 6d. The population 
numbers 804 persons; the area is 13 square miles, or 8320 acres; land under cultivation, 
406 acres; number of dwelling-houses, 169. 

CRAIG DOROCE {Co, Hindmarsh) is a small agricultural settlement in the 
ndghbourhood of mount Barker. Wheat of excellent quaUty is grown in the whole of 
this locality. 

C&AZCrBUItN (Co. Adelaide) is a vineyard, the property of P. Cumming, Esq.; 
lying 3 miles to the S. of Monalta, and ' 700 feet above the level of the sea. It is 
planted with Grouais, Tokay and Verdeilho for white winq, Mai bee, Shiraz and 
Grenache for red. The soil is a pliable red clay mixed with decomposed slate. There 
is a good cellar at the lower end of the vineyard, which overlooks the river Sturt. 

CRAIGLES {Co. Adelaide) is an agricultural settlement lying a few miles distant 
from Adelaide, the land being taken up by a number of small farmers. It is celebrated 
for the fine fruit grown in the numerous orchards in the neighbourhood, and for the 
excellence of the jam manufactured there. 

CIlAZXi'S CREEK (Co. Sturt) is a small salt stream lying 2^ miles N. of Eeyneton, 
and falling into the N. Rhine river. 

CRAWFO&B, MOUNT ( Co. Adelaide,) is the name of an agricultural and pastoral 
district lying to the E. of Gawler. It is also the name of the post office for the district, 
which is in the electoral district and hundred of Barossa, and under the control of the 
mount Crawford district council. The i)08t office is isolated, there being no township 
in the immediate neighbourhood. The S. Para river runs about a quarter of a mile 
S. There is apublic pound in the district, and the resident magistrate is D. Randall, 
liq., J.P., Glen Para. (See Glen Para.) Wheat and other cereals are grown, and 
sheep and cattle, chiefly the former, grazed in the district. Gold has also been found, 
but is not known to exist in payable quantities. Copper mining is also tarried on at 
Lyndock valley, about 6 miles distant. The next place is Williamstown, an agricultural 
village about 5 miles distant. The communication is by horse or dray, and with 
Adelaide, 43 miles distant S.W.,by horse or private conveyance to Gawler, 17 miles 
W., and thence by rail. The nearest hotel is at Williamstown. The surrounding 
country is mountainous, interspersed with undulating flats, many of which are cultivated. 
The population is scattered. It may be worthy of mention that a gap or break in the 
ranges admits the possibility of a railway being taken through this district from Gawler 
to the river Murray, without any trouble. The Government had a survey made some 
years ago, and all the levels taken from Gawler, via mount Crawford, to the river 
Murray <Port Mannum.) Such a line if carried out, would open up a good country 
abounding with excellent timber, mostly red gum; also the fertile agricultural district 
of S. Rhine, and it is probable that such route is the shortest practical one, considering 
oostSy &c, from Adelaide to the Murray. 



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62 The^ South Australian Gazetteer, [Cea — Cub 

CBJLWTORI^f MOirSTl( Co§, Adelaide and Light,) is a district council in the 
electoral districts of Barossa and Gumeracka. It is under th^ control of a chairman, the 
present one being Mr. J. Warren, jun., of Springfield, and 4 councillors. The receipts 
and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as follow : — Assessment, £4611^- 
rate, 9d. in the pound ; rates collected, £119 13s. 9d.; total receipts, £357 10s. 3d.; 
office expenses and salaries, £42 ; expended on public works,^188 lOs. 5d. The popu- 
lation numbers 740 persons, the area is 7109 acres, or 45,440 square miles, land under 
eoltlyation 2900 acres, and number of dwelling-houses 146. 

0&AWF0BJ>| MOUNT (Co. Adelaide,) is a lofty peak and survey point in the 
main or Adelaide range of mountains, lying in a bend of the South Para river, and in 
the S.E. part of the hundred of Barossa. It is of conical form, and is a land mark tothe 
surrounding country. This mountain is a mass of coarse-grained ferruginous quartz 
rock. At its base occur massive hornblendic rocks, passing into syenitic greenstone 
and hornblendic and schorlaceous granite, and these again into euritic and micaceous 
schists. The district was said by Mr. Menge, the German geologist, to be rich in 
precious stones, and several fine ones were collected by him. Mr. Selwyn, the Victorian 
geologist, found here some good specimens of kyanite, beryl, crystallized talc, amianthus, 
milk-white, wax, yellow and ferruginous opal, and green and silvery- white mlla, 
occurring as a constituent of a large granite dyke, in which beryls are imbedded.^ 

CBJSWKO&E (Co Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement in the neighbour- 
hood of Willunga. Much of the land is taken up by small farmers engaged in the 
cultivation of wheat. 

GRX8KNA LAKE (Flinders district.) See Pulpanee Lake. 

C&OWUt RUN {S.E. district;) lease No. 217; occupiers, J.W.and M. M*Innes, 
area, 80 square miles; grazing capacity, 10,500 sheep, or 23,000 sheep and 100 cattle 
and horses on the entire block; the rent of Grower, as valued by Mr. Goyder, is £193 8s. 
per annum. This run lies 200 miles by road S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 42 miles E, by N. 
of Bobe (Guichen bay.) 

C&OTDOH (Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural ham let adjoining the suburban 
township of Hindmarsh on the N.W., and lying about 5 miles N.W. of Adelaide. 

C&OZZSS'S HILL (Co. Hindmarsh) is an elevation and survey pointy lying on 
the N. bank of the Inman river, about 3 miles W.N. W. of Victor harbour. 

CRYSTAL BROOK RUN {Co, Victoria;) lense. No. 108; occupiers, J. W. C. and 
T. R. Bowman; area, 285 square miles; grfizing capability, 57,000 sheep, or 200 per square 
mile; old rent and assessment, £514 3s. 4d; Goyder's valuation, £3420 per annum, 
excluding improvements, valued at £8876. At the time of assessment this run carried 
62,000 sheep, 1000 head of cattle, and 100 horses, portion of which fed, howeter, on 
adjoining leases of different dates. This comprises the Naperly and Brook stations, 
held by the same occupiers. It lies in the W. plain E. and S.E. of port Peri, the Naperly 
sub-head stalk)n being 7 miles E.N.E., and the Brook woolshed 16 miles S.E. of that 
port, 60 miles N.W. of Clare, and 70 miles N.E. of Kadina. The run is 120 miles from 
Adelaide, and consists of well-grassed land, with mallee scrub and hilly country, with 
spinifex and a little grass. It is watered by the Broughton and Rocky rivers, by Crystal 
brook, 10 dams and waterholes, and 15 wells. There are good roads to port Peri, Clare 
and port Wakefield, and a scrub road has lately been cut to Wallaroo. 

CUBDZXiBA AND YANNARA (W, district) is the name of 2 stations forming 
part of the Mary vale run at Streaky bay; occupier, W. A. Horn. 

CUDZiSS CREEK (Co, Adelaide) is a small S. tributary of the Torrens river, 
rising in the main rang^to the N. of Lobethal, and flowing about 8 miles N.W.4nto 
the main stream. It drains some good agricultural country. 

CVBKMZH CROSS (Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settiement near 
Adelaide. Wheat and hay are the articles of produce. The resident magistrate is the 
hon. J. Morphett, M.L.C. and J.P. 

; GVMAMZZiLA MINE (Co, Adelaide.) See Chebbt Gardens.' 

GU&DLAWZD&Y (Flinders district) is a swampy lagoon lying to the F, of the 
Paisley lagoons, on Babbage's track of 1858, and to the W. of the N. end of lake 
Torrens. 



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Cur — ^Dal] The South Australian Gazetteer. 63 

CURBLET, (or cudlee) CKEEK (Co. Adelaide) is a small Tillage lying on a 
creek of the same name, 2 miles distant from Gumeracka; the district is an agricultural 
one, the chief industry heing the cultivation of wheat ai^ vines. 

CUTLLXW PONDS {Flinders district) is the name of a chain of hrackish swampy 
lagoons lying on the W. side of the head of Spencer's gulf, near port Augusta. 

CVRREMCT CREEK, 35° 30' S. lat., 129** E. long. {Co. Hindmarsh,) is a postal 
township in the electoral district of Encounter bay, hundred of Ngankita, and under 
the control of the district council of port Elliott and Goolwa. It is situated on the 
creek of the sanft name, and near some small lagoons connected with the Goolwa lake, 
tihere being a high hill called mount Observation lying about 4 miles distant from the 
township. The district is chiefly an agricultural one, the growth of wheat being mostly 
attended to ; sheepfarming is also carried on to some extent. Currency creek has a 
post office, a aaw mill, and one hotel— the Currency Creek. The nearest places are — 
Goolwa, 4 miles E.; Middleton, 6 miles E.N.E.; and Strathalbyn, 6 miles N.E.; the 
communication is with Adelaide, 54 miles N.W., being by Rounsevell*s daily mail coach. 
The surrounding country is hilly and scrubby. The resident magistrate is J. W. 
Higgins, Esq., J. P. The population of the township numbers about 50 persons, but 
there is a large scattered agricultural population in the neighbourhood. 

CURaSNCT CREEK {Co, Hindmarsh,) is a stream rising in the N. part of 
the hundred of Goolwa, and flowing through the township of Currency creek, and 
through good undulating agricultural land into the lower Murray or Goolwa river, about 
2 miles N. of the township of Goolwa. 

CURROWA SPRINGS (Co. ^aty.\ See Tipaba. 

CinELTZS, MOUNT {N. district^) is a peak and trigonometrical point in the main 
range, lying about 20 miles W.S.W. of Yudanamutana. 

CVTTZiSFZSB {Kangaroo island) is the name of a small village lying 6 miles 
distant from Hog bay, on the N E. part of Kangaroo island. A silver mine 1ms lately 
been opened at this place, but it is as yet only being prospected. 

CYGNET RIVER STATION {Kangaroo island;) lease No. 561 ; occupier, M. 
Calnan ; area, 10 square miles. This station forms part of the Kingscote run. 

DAIRY FLAT {Oo. Jlindmarsh) is an agricultural district situated on the Yan- 
kalilla river. There is a remarkable elevation on this flat known as the Bald hill, 
which is a landmark for the surrounding country. 

DAIRY MINE {N. district) is a copper mine belonging to the N, mining associa- 
tion, lying near Yudanamutana, but not worked (section No. 1553.) 

DAIiBY ISLAND {Spencer*s gulf.) See Sib J. Bank s Group. 

DALKSY {Co. Oav^) is a N. hundred of the county, containing a small quantity 
of purchased land on its N. side, the S. bank of the Wakefield river. For population, 
&c., see Inkebman Hundred. 

DAIiY COUNTY lies at the head of Yorke's peninsula, and is bounded on the N. 
by the river Broughton, which separates it from the county Victoria, on the S. by the 
pastoral district of Yor ice's peninsula, on the E. by the county Stanley and the head of 
the gulf of St. Vincent, and on the W. by the Spencer's gulf. It is included in the electorAl 
district of Port Adelaide, and consists principally of pastoral country; there being, 
however, the rich co{>per mines of Moonta and Wallaroo in its W. part, and several 
blocks of purchased land in some of its hundreds. Those hundreds are Wallaroo, 
Kadina, Kulpara, Tiparra, and Clinton. The townships are Moonta, Wallaroo, Kadina, 
and Clinton. This country has an area of 1236 square miles, or 791,040 acres, the 
extent of purchased land being 16,715 acres; |he land held by freeholders, 4414 acres; 
the land enclosed, 110 acres, none of which is under cultivation. The live stock is 702 
horses, 290 horned cattle, 3805 sheep, 1224 goats, 894 pigs, and 5481 head of poultry. 
The population numbers 8226 persons, being an increase of 6994 since 1861. The 
number of dwelling-houses is 1783, against 342 in 1861. 

DALY MINE {N. district) is one of the Yudanamutana copper mines, lying 328 
mflesN.^^E. of Adelaide. It has not been at work ot late in« consequence of the 
drought. It is the property of the N. mining association, and lies on a steep hill about 
200 feet- high, consisting of soft pipeclay, or fireclay country. Stoping has been done 
to some extent on the side of the hill and a large quantity of fine grey ore opened out. 



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64 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Dab — ^S^v 

lolid blocks of rery large size having been obtained, and averaging about 50 per cent, 
of copper. Blue and grey carbonates are also found here. Tlie Old Noll's and 
Bominick mines are on the adjoining sections. 

DABJTS HILL, 32° 40^ S. lat.. 139° 28' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a detached 
hill lying in the pastoral district of Eastern plains. 

DAJILET (Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural village lying 1 mile to the N. of 
Campbelltown. It has a population of about 30 persons, nearly all engaged in 
gardening pursuits. There are 6 cottages in the village. It is 6 miles distant from 
Adelaide in a N.E. direction. ^ 

DASHWOOD'S CREEK {Co. Adelaide) is a fine stream rising in the watershed 
between the basins of the Torrens and Onkaparinga rivers, and falling into the latter 
at Baker's gully, about 5 miles from Dashwood's gully. The source of the creek lies 
about 2 miles S.E. of the gully. 

DA8KW00D RrVER (Kangaroo island) is a small stream flowing in aN. direction 
from the low scrubby ranges of the interior into the sea upon the N. side of the island, 
at Dashwood's bay. 

DASKWOOD'S GULLY (Co. Adelaide) is a postal village in the electoral district 
of mount Barker, hundred of Kuitpo, and forming part of ward No. 1 of the*district 
council of Eondoparinga. It is situated on the Dashwood's gully creek, the Onkaparinga 
river flowing about 5 miles distant. The Saddle-bags range of hills lie to the N. of the 
gully and separate it from the Clarendon district. The district is an agricultural one, 
dairy farming being extensively carried on. Wheat and potatoes are the principal 
products. Sheep grazing has lately been abandoned in the neighbourhood, as the hills 
surrounding the gully are too steep and slippery for lambs in the lambing season. Gold 
has been found in the vicinity, but not in sufficient quantities to pay for the expenses 
of labour. The township of Glengrove is about I mile N.W., Kangarilla 2^ miles in 
the same direction, Meadows 5 miles S.S.E., and Wickham hills 3 miles W. by N. behind 
mount Panorama. The main (Bull's creek) road from Adelaide to Goolwa passes 
through all these places except Wickham hills, which lie on the road from Kangarilla 
to M'Laren vale, Kounsevell's mail coaches running daily, and Goble's passenger 
conveyances twice a^week. The distance from Dashwood's gully to Adelaide is 22 
miles, and via Happy valley by Goble's route 23 miles. Dashwood's gully has a post 
office and a public pound. The nearest hotels are at Kangarilla and the Meadows. 
The surrounding country is mountainous, with fine low hills and sub-ranges of decom- 
posing slate which are very fertile; there is abundance of white and blue gum, black- 
wood, and common and silver wattles. The higher ranges are sandy and sterile, with 
much stringy-bark. Quartz is freely scattered about in all directions. The material 
advancement of the neighbourhood has been severely checked by the failure, during the 
years 1863, 1864 and 1865, of the potato and wheat crops, the former having suffered 
from the dry springs and early summers, ard the latter from the ground blight and bug 
or aphis. The population of Dashwood's gully, including Glengrove, numbers about 
200 persons. That of the district (Kondoparinga) in 1861 was 1434, and is at present 
1 196, showing a decrease of 238, or 16 per cent, during the last 5 years. 

DAVENPORT (Co. Frame) is a hundred lying in the N.W. comer of the county, 
aiid containing the important seaport town of port Augusta. Only a small area of this 
hnndred is purchased, the greater portion being pastoral country. 

DAVSNPO&T CREEK (Flinders district) is a small saltwater creek falling 
into Denial bay. It is bounded by mangrove bushes, but affords secure anchorage for 
small vessels. A sand-bar extends across its mouth, upon which will be found 8 feet 
of water at low-water spring tides. Good water may also be obtained under some 
sand-hills near, by digging, but not too deeply, or the water will be salt instead of 
fresh. This creek lies 14 miles S.E. of Charra. See also Davenport River. 

DAVEHPO&T POINT ( Yorkers peninsuta) is a projection on the S. part of the 
peninsula, fbrming the W. head of Sturt bay. 

DAVENPORT (or Denison) RANGE (Flinders district) is a lofty and pictur- 
esque range of mountains discovered by Major Warburton, and attaining an elevation 
of 1000 feet above i^e level of the plains. It has immense cliffs of white quartzite 
exposed in high bluffs along its S. face. The highest point in this range is known as 
mount Margaret. This range is now marked in the maps as tl^e Denison range 



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. Dav — ^Dbm] The South Australian Oazetteer, 65 

DAVSNPO&T RIVEK (or Ckbek) {Fnndera district) is a fine stream rising in 
the Denison or Davenport range to the W. of mount Anna, and flowing through ^xxl 
country, with numerous springs and fine** grass, in a N.E. direction into the Neales 
river. The lower part of that stream, hetween the point of junction and the place 
where it falls into lake Eyre, is known both as the Neales and the Davenport. The 
water is brackish, but good frefti water may be had by digging a few incbtti below the 
Burfacie, at almost any point near the N. bank of the river. It is fed by tlie Blyth and 
seyeral smaller creeks, and has some good waterholes in its course, which contain 
water when the stream is dried up. Amongst the^best of these is the Mussel water- 
hole, upon which the mount Margaret station is situated. Sandy plains border it on 
both sides, and limestone and marble have been found near its mouth. 

DAVENPORT'S SPRINGS, 29° 40' S. lat., 137*' 40' S. long. {Flinders district,) 
is the name given to a batch of springs] lying in the pastoral country to the S. of lake 
Eyre. The overflow of these springs runs by a small creek in a N.E. direction into the 
river Munday. 

DAVETSTOH (Co. Light) is a postal township in the electoral district of Light 
and hundred of Nuriootpa. It lies in an agricultural and mining district, the nearest 
mine being a valuable one of copper known as the Wheat Nitschke. The nearest 
townships are - Greenock, 3 miles E.; Freeling, 6 miles W., and^heoak Log. With 
the latter place there is no regular communication, and with the two former as with 
Adelaide, 44 miles S. W., by Rounseveirs daily mail coach to Freeling, and then«e by 
rail. Daveyston has a post office, a steam flour mill, and one hotel — the Old Naime. 
The surrounding country is mostly fla£. The population numbers about 100 persons. 

DAWE8LEY is the name of a small and prettily situated village, lying about 
24 miles E. of the township of Nairne. It consists of about 12 cottages, and lies on 
Scott's cree^. The inhabitants are engaged in copper smelting. 

DAWSON'S HILL RUN {N", district;) leases Nos. 446, 404, 422, 458, 470a, 603, 
533, 629a, 617, 618, 621, 616, 649, and 650 ; occupier, P. Levi The respective areas 
of these leases are 74, 38, 63, 21, 20, 79» 18, 79, 40, 30, 77, 100, 10, and 180 square miles. 
This run lies on Fincke*s creek, and near Hay ward's bluff and mount Chambers. The 
next post town is Tudanamutana. 

DeXjTS hill (Flinders districtyis a peak in the Nepowie spur off the main range 
lying in the rugged pastoral country to the S. of Tudanamutana. 

DECEPTION CREEK (N. district) is a creek flowing from mount Morris, 
in a W. direction, past the N. of mount Deception, and watering the Beltana or mount 
Deception run, 

DECEPTION, MOUNT {N. district,) is a lofty hill lying to the W. of Nuccaleena . 
It is situated on the S. side of the Deception creek. Mount Deception is also the name 
. of a postal station, known by the postal name of Beltana — which see. 

DECEPTION, MOUNT, MINE (N. district.) In the neighbourhood of this hill 
IS a copper mine opened by the Great N. mining company, but not recently worked, 
and lying 235 miles N. JW. of Adelaide. 

DECEPTION MOUNT, (or Beltana) RUN (iV. district;) leases Nos. 379, 464, 
648,658, 1052, and 1051; occupier, R. B. Smith; respective areas 194, 10, 94,36, 8, 
and 8. Tbis run is watered by Deception creek, and has a post office known as Beltana 
(which see) and an aboriginal depot 

D'EC&E'S BAY {Flinders district) is a bight in the mainland, 5^ miles wide, lying 
between cape Vivonne on the W., and cape D*Estree on the E.; it affords excellent 
anchorage for vessels of any class, and cargoes may be shipped from, or landed on, the 
open beaches without risk or danger, in moderate weather. The country inland is 
scrubby and sandy. » 

DE&O&AINE (Co. Oawler) is a small agricultural settlement in the nefghbour- 
hood of Gawler, inhabited by a few farmers who grow wheat and other produce. 

DELVSION, MOUNT (Flinders district,) is a hill lying to the N. of Termination 
hill, on the route taken by Parry, in 1868, and so named by him. 

DEMO&E POINT (Flinders district) is a moderately elevated projection on the 
W. coast of Streaky bay, lying to the E. of point Brown. . A hammock near the point 

F 

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66 The South Australian Oazeteer. Dem^Dey 

mak^ Uk« an island at a distance, bM forms a remarkable object on the coast line. 
Hocks extend a mile to the S. of the W. shoulder of the point. 

DXaCOUt RIVEK (Kangaroo island) is a small stream flowing from the low 
ranges in the interior in a N. direction into the sea at the N.W. end of the island, near 
cape Forbin, and about 10 miles E. of cape Borda. ^ 

DZNxJtXi BAY (Flinders district) is a large bight in the mahi land, extending 
from point Peter, its W., to cape Vivonne, its E. head, the distance between the two. 
points being about 12 miles in a straight line. Denial bay contains sereral available' 
anchorages, the principal of which are Tourville and Miirat bays, and the mouth of 
Davenport creek. The bottom is generally even and sandy, and the shore confined by 
mangrove scrub, with occasional open grassy plains behind, and a scarcity of fresh 
water, which may, however, be obtained in some places by digging in the sandhills. 

DSSPONl^ RANGE (Flinders district) is a range of not very high hills, running 
from E. to W., in the shape of a horseshoe, and lying to the west of lake Eyre. Mount 
Margaret is the highest peak, and attains an altitude of 1400 feet above sea level. 
Numerous creeks rise in this range, and flow N.E., the principal being the Davenport 
creek. The country contained within the semicircle formed by the range is a pastoral 
one (chiefly cattle uid horses,) undulating and lightly grassed, with saltbush and 
stunted timber in tol creeks and waterholes. There are several springs, which raise 
knoUi in the plains, the water being found in a kind of cup at their summits. The 
soil is sandy, and strongly impregnated with salt and soda. See also Davbfpobt 
Banob. 

BESEIIT MOUNT { Co. Hindmarsh) is a peak and point of survey in the rugged 
ranges of the hundred of Waitpinga. 

DSSPOlf]]) MOUNT ( Co. Sturt and Eyre) is a peak lying in the ranges to the 
W. of the hundred of N. Rhine, near the head of the Basin creek. 

lySSTBrEE BAY {Kangaroo island ) is a bight in the S. coast of the island, lying 
3^ miles N.N.E. of cape Linois, and having goon shelter from S.W. winds. To enter 
D'Estree bay from the S.W., give "point Tinline," a low limestone point with a 
remarkable detached arched rock, a berth of fully a mile ; you may then round into the 
bay, and anchor, with the arched rock S., in from four to five fathoms. The^ottom 
at the above depths is sandy, with occasional patches of a limestone crust. The 
anchor will draw over the rocky portions of the bottom, but generally holds well in the 
sand, which forms the greater proportion of the anchorage. Fresh water will be found 
at the foot of some sand-hills between cape Linois and the arched rock ; a ship's boat 
will find shelter inside the reefs which run parallel to the coast about one-third of a 
mile from the shore. The Osmanli, a fine steamer, was lost on the reef which runs off 
about half-a-mile from point Tinline, in 1854. By an error in his reckoning, the 
commander of the Osmanli mistook, at night, the low land at the head of the bay for • 
the opening of Backstairs passage, imagining that cape Linois was cape Willoughby, 
and that the Sturt light was extinguished. He soon ascertained his mistake on 
steaming in, by seeing the land a-head, and it was in attempting to extricate his ship 
fipom that position, that in steaming to seaward, she struck on the reef off point Tinline, 
where she soon became a total wreck. D'Estree bay is a very valuable harbour of 
refuge for vessels on this part of the coast, and may be entered with safety by day, and 
without undue risk by night, provided the position of the ship be ascertained* before the 
shore is too closely approached. In entering at night, the preference should be given 
to the more northerly part of the bay so as to avoid the reef off point Tinline. The coast 
between D'Estree bay and False cape (E. by N. J N. 18 J miles from point Tinline,) is 
bold, and safe^to approach within 1 j^ miles. 

irEST&SX:, CAPE, is the N. head of Smoky bay, and the W. head of D'Ecres bay. 
It is a bold rocky promontory, lying S. 4b° E., 6| miles from cape Vivonne. 

BS vERHAT ((7o. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement in the neighbour- 
hood of Wiilunga, taken up by a few farmers, who cultivate wh^t and other farm 
produce. 

DEYZL'S PEAK is the name of a lofty peak in the Flinders or nmia range, lyloS 
a little to the N. of mount Br^wn, and visible from Port Augusta. 1 

iiEVOV BANK {Oq. Hindaiarsh) is a small agricultural settlement in>he neigh- 
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Dis— Dod] The South Australian Gazetteer. 67 

bourhood of mount Barker. It is inhabited bj a few farmers who cultiyate wheai and 
other produce. 

DZSHSK'S PLAINS STATION (Oo. Eifre.) See Tunoapa Station. 

• DISMAL SWAMP {Co. Cfrey) is a tract of swampy country lying near Tarpeena* 
This swamp is of considerable magnitude, extending about 30 miles from E. to W., 
and 10 miles from N. to S. It is continually run through with little island slips or 
spurs of land, which are thickly covered with trees and scrub, so that it is rather a chain 
of marshes than one yast morass. There is no doubt that it is a shallow depression in 
a.rery large surface of land, and that it collects the drainage is easily proved by the 
fiict, that in wet seasons there is a perceptible current in it flowing into the Glenelg 
river (Victoria.) With reference to the drainage of this swamp, and in fact of most 
of the swampy country of the 8.E. district, Mr. H. E. Wells, of Mingbool, writes as 
follows: — "The Great Dismal, which more immediately concerns this particular locality, 
and which is formed upon table-land, seems to have an outlet on the eastern end, in the 
province of Victoria, through which it might be easily drained; but as far as my own 
ideas go, taking a bushman's view of the country, I should say nearly all the actual swamp 
itself was a dead level, from the simple feust ot its inundating such a large extent of 
country as it does in wet seasons. I cannot be certain, but think it quite possible to 
open a channel in the N. W. end, and lead off the water in that direction. As for the 
^nda country, I believe one channel or ditch leading down from the Mosquito Plains, 
with a few smaller cuts as tributaries, would be all that would be required to clear off 
the surplus water from the whole country; and that which lodges in the small swamps 
and hollows could be easily got rid of by breaking through the clay into the porous 
limestone stratum. This could be don,e in summer when they are nearly or quite dry, 
making the openings at the lowest part. Tha^ the water will pass off in this manner I 
know from experience. One striking instance of this I noticed at my old residence at 
the Woolshed, Penola. A well was sunk for the purpose of watering the horses and 
milch cows, and to save labour a natural hollow or basin was chosen for the spot. After 
a heavy fell of rain the hollow would be completely filled from the drainage of the sur- 
rounding parts, forming quite a lagoon, with a vortex quite perceptible over the well, 
showing the rapid disappearance of the rain water into the limestone. Another instance 
was at the Sheepwash swamp, in sinking a hole to be filled from the swamp. The work- 
men went beyond the clay into the limestone, and the result was when a cut was made 
leading the swamp into it, it all disappeared, and in a very short time the whole swamp 
might have been emptied. I would strongly recommend the adoption of this simple 
method of gettmg rid of the stagnant surface-water round the township of Penola; last 
year, the effects of which and its attendant evils was felt to a most serious and alarming 
^Ltent; and there is no doubt that, if it were not for the lime formation of the country, 
the malaria— the ill effects of which are partly counterbalanced by it— would soon 
cause the churchyard to be filled. These are extremely unpleasant facts, and the 
sooner those who take an interest in the progress of Penola exert themselves to remove 
the cause of this pending evil, the sooner will they see Penola as healthy as any other 
place in the district. The next item in importance is the roads; for 1 do not believe 
in giving them the preference when the country through which they pass is useless. 
My impression is that one main line Should extend from Port Macdonnell through 
Penola and Narracoorte to Wellington, with as many branches as there are places that 
can find sufficient traffic to entitle them to consideration — such as Guichen and Lacepede 
bays — and these roads should be macadamized, or made with the most lasting material 
that can be procured in places where there is no stone; and the district, I think, should 
be satisfied with this until our trade entitles us to a railway. As for tramways and 
canals I have yet to learn how they can possibly be made to pay back the large sums 
their construction would necessarily drain from the coffers of the state. Of course, in 
writing thus freely, I lay myself open to be well castigated; but there is one consolation 
^"before my errors can' be corrected it must be shown that they exist." 

DISTANCfiy MOUNT, 29"" 50' S. lat., izr 15' £. long. (Flinders district,) i§ a 
peak of a spur of the N. end of the main range. 

DOTC>'S RUN {S.E, district;) lease. No. 60; occupiers, T. and J. Dodd; aiea^ 6 
square miles; grazing capability, 550 sheep, or 88 per square mile; Goyder's valuation, 
deductlBg improvements, £15 per annum . Part of this run is in the hundred of Bonney. 
The ran lies between lake Coorong and the sea coast opposite M'Grath's flat, about 33 
8» of Wellington, and 100 miles by road S.S. E. of Adelaide. It is only suitable for horse 
iMdc, as Bbeep and <^ttle sufilsr greatly flrom coast disease. 



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OS The South Australian Gazetteer, [Dom — D^Y 



IIOMS, (THE,) 29° 40' S. lat., 137° 60' B. long. {Flinders district,) is the name of 
a §olitary hill lying in pastoral country to the S.E. of the S. end of lake Eyre, and a 
tiw milet S.W. of mount Attraction. The Hergott's springs rise in the hill. 

DOMXMICK MINE {N, district) is one of the Yudanamutana copper mines, « 
not worked for some time past in consequence of the recent drought. It is the property 
of the N. mining association. See Dalt Minb. 

DONZKGTONy CAPE, 34° 44' S. lat, 135° 67' 30" E. long., mag. var. 5° E. 
{Co Flinders,) is a peninsula running out in a N. direction from the main land, and 
forming the S.head of port Lincoln. There is a small rock half a mile N.of its extremity, 
and a larger one near the shore, 2 miles to the S. of it. 

DOUGZLL'S HILL (CcRusseU) is a slight elevation lying on the E. coast of lake 
Alezandrina. 

DOUGLAS CBEEE or RIVER {N.district) is a stream flowing into the S.W. end 
of lake Eyre. Thevoil of the region is peculiar throughout, and is of a clayey nature, 
abounding in gypsum, in many places scattered over it in large shining flakes. The 
surface is thickly covered with 'small fragments of siliceous rocks, angular, and of a 
dtfrk reddish colour. There are undulating plains, with low ranges to the W. and 
watercourses running towards the E. in the direction of lake Eyre. The prevailing 
flora is saltbush^ except in the sandy belts of scrub, where a few acacia and cassia 
bushes are to be met with. In the vicinity of the creeks are polygonum, with rough 
barked, stunted and distorted eucalypti There are numerous springs, proceeding 
from volcanic cones, and forcing themselves through a marine argillaceous deposit 
containing numerous shells. The water, except in the springs, is generally brackish. 

DOUGLAS FORT {Co. Flinders,) is a fine sheet of water being a N. arm of 
Coflin's bay. It has not yet, however, been thoroughly surveyed, although it promises 
to become a valuable place for shipping the produce of the fine runs in its vicinity. 

DIIZVE& RIVER, or Salt Crbbk {Flinders district,) is a stream rising in the 
E. slopes of the mount Olinthus ranges and flowing in a S.E. direction through rough 
scrubby country into the W. side of Spencer's gulf, at cape Driver, or Salt cove, the IT. 
head of Button's bay. It is fed by 2 small N. tributaries, and is salt for a considerable 
distance above its mouth. 

D&UZD'S RANGE {N. district) is a spur of the main range lying on the S. side 
of the Passmore river, and to the N. of the Kirwan and Napoleon mines. 

D&UMMOND, MOUNT, RUN {W. district;) lease No. 142; occupier, Price 
Maurice; area, 44 square miles; grazing capability, 3600 sheep, or 82 per square mile; 
. Mr. Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £57 per annum. This run lies N. of 
lake Greenly, 45 miles N.W. of port Lincoln, 20 miles N. of Coflin's bay, and 440 miles 
by overland road from Adelaide by the Gawler ranges. It also includes lease No. 519, 
and is worked from the head station at Warrow. 

DRUMMOND POINT, 34° W 30" S. lat., 135°- 12' 15" E. long., is a prominent 
cliffy head which projects 4 or 5 miles from the line of coast, and forms the S. head of 
a bight of which the Waldegrave islands form the N. head. An indentation 
immediately to the N. of point Drummond is known as Hall's bay. A small dry rock 
and some breakers lie close to the extremity of the point, with 25 to 30 fathoms, on a 
sandy bottom, at 5 miles round it. The coast is sandy, and rises gradually to some 
woody ranges 3 miles from the shore. 

D&T CREEK, or Montagu (Co, Adelaide,) is a small postal township and 
railway station in the electoral district of W. Torrens, hundred of Yatala, and under 
the control of the Yatala district council. It lies 8 miles N. of Adelaide, and on a 
small insignificant creek of the same name which passes through it and flows into the 
•alt swamps to the W. of the Para plain, in which the township is situated. The 
district (known as that of Yatala) is a wheat growing one, that article of produce being 
cultivated largely and successfully. The nearest places are Salisbury, 7 miles N., and 
Grand junction, 2 J miles S.W. With the former place the communication is by 
railway, and with the latter by Bowden's daily mail omnibus. With Adelaide, 8 
miles S., the communication is by both means. Dry creek has a post office, a store, 
and 1 hotel— the Burd-in-hand. The stockade, or Dry creek prison, for prisoners 
undergoing long sentences, is at this place, and is a fine large building. There is a 
branch telegraph line from Adelaide to the stockade. The surrounding country is flat 



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Dbt — ^Eas] The South Amtralian Gazetteer. 69 

and quite free from scrub or brush, the soil is rich, and in the swamps to the W. 
excellent feed for cattle ii to be had. The land round the township is taken up hj 
smaU farmers, who rent the half-acre blocks into which it is cut up, the property being 
the estate of the late Sir Montagu Chapman. The population of the township and 
surrounding farms numbers about 150 persons. 

DRY CREEK (Co. Adelaide) is a stream rising in the Yatala ranges, and flowing 
in a W. direction in the hundred of Yatala into the swampy flat surrounding Port 
Adelaide. The Tillages of Modbury and Dry creek are situated upon it, and its course 
is through a fine agricultural district— the Stockade, for the confinement of prisoner^ 
undergoing long sentences, is situated on this creek. 

D&T LAGOON (Co, Stanley) is a small swampy waterhole, lying about 5 miles 
to the N. W. of the township 6f Apoinga, in the hundred of Hanson. 

DUBLZM (Co. OawlerJ is a W. hundred of the county, containing some small 
blocks of purchased land in its central part, near the township of Port Peri, but con- 
sisting for tlH most part of pastoral country: 

DUCKPOND CREEK ( Flinders district) is a small stream, discovered by Goyder 
in 1857, flowing into 'lake Blanche (then supposed to be lake Torrens) on its S. side. 

DUTCBBIAN'S STERN (N, district) is the name of a loHy hill in the Fllndert 
or main range, lying a little to the N. of mount Brown, and yisible from Port Augusta. 

DmrZELD (Co, Macdonnell) is a hundred of the county lying along thf coast of 
Lacepede bay, and to the N. of the hundred of Lacepede. It consists mostly of sandy- 
pastoral country and swamps, and has only two or three small patches of sold land, 
situated on the main road from Wellington to Macdonnell bay, which runs N. and S. 
through the hundred. The lower end of lake Coorong is in its W, part. 

DU&WZCB (Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural hamlet lying to the S.E. of the 
city of Adelaide, and inhabited by a few farmers and gardeners. 

DVNN'S RUN {Co. Stanley;) lease No. 105 ; occupier, Jas. Dunn; area, 5 square 
miles ; grazing capacity, 640 sheep, or 80 per square mile ; Mr. Goyder's valuation, 
deducting improvements, £46 10s. per annum. This run lies 18 miles N.E. of port 
Wakefield, and 75 miles N. of Adelaide. 

DURTXUi MINE (Yorkers peninsula;) section 471, is a copper mine in the 
Wallaroo mining diftrict, worked by a company. The ore is black and yellow, and is 
found in patches. 

BUTTON (Co. Eyre) is a W. hundred of the county, and contains about half its 
area of purchased land, the remainder being taken up for pastoral purposes. 

BUTTON LAKE (Flinders district) is a salt lake lyifig in the desert plain, to the 
W. of the head of Spencer's gulf, and about 5Q miles W. of the S. end of lake Torrens. 

BUTTON MOUNT, 34° 35' S. lat., 136° 30^ E. long. (Co. Flinders) is a high hill 
lying on the E. of the head of Coffin's bay, and about 20 miles N.W. of port Lincoln, in 
tolerably good pastoral country. 

BUTTON RIVER {Flinders district) is a small stream rising in the mount 
Olinthus ranges, to the N. of mount Hill, and flowing in an E. direction into the W. 
side of Spencer's gulf, at the head of Dutton's bay, through scrubby pastoral country. 

BUTTON'S BAY (Flinders district) is a bight in the land on the W. side of 
Spencer's gulf, between port Lincoln and Franklin harbour. 

EARTBY PLAINS, 26° S. lat., 188° 30' E. long. (Flinders district) is a tract o^ 
country watered by a few small creeks, and consisting of alluvial mud, which dries up 
in summer, and becomes an impassable bog in wet weather. 

EASTERN COVE (Kangaroo island) is a fine bay lying in the S. partof Nepean 
bay, its bight being lined by a sandy beach, and frequented by coasters and small craft 
overtaken by bad weather, although there is plenty of water for large ships. At the S. 
extremity of this bay is a shallow salt lagoon, known as the Ptlican lagoon. The cove 
lies between Kangaroo head to the E. and Ballast head to the W., the distance between 
the two heads being 5 miles, and fresh water is obtainable on the W. side of th« 
entrance. 

EASTERN PLAINS, pastoral district, is a large tract of country lying to the EL 
of the main range, and to the N. of the Murray river, and extending in an £. directiom 

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70 The South AmtraUan OazeUeer. [Eba — Ede 

to the E. boniidaiy of the colony. A large area of this country is taken up for pastoral 
purposes. The country is fairly grassed and interspersed with dense belts of mallee 
scrub, the S. portion of it forming part of the celebrated Murray belt of mallee scrub. 
There are numerous creeks running from the low ranges, but they mostly dry up in 
dry weather, when the stockowners are obliged to rely on springs and waterholes. The 
post offices in the district are those of Paratoo, Tetulpa, and Outaalpa. In this district 
tiiere are 80 acres of purchased land, 5140 acres enclosed, and 5 acres of cultivation 
land. The live stock numbers 1087 horses, 5945 horned cattle, 239,905 sheep, 857 
goats, 65 pigs and 1291 head of poultry. The whole of the cultivation land was lying 
fiUlow during the year ending March last. The population numbers 803 persons, and 
the number of dwellings is 198. 

SBA {Co. Eyre) is a N.E. hundred of the county, consisting almost exclusively of 
pastoral land; idthough a small quantity has been purchased on the bank of the Murray 
river. 

SBA ISLAND {Flinders district) is a small islet of moderate elevjiiion, lying in 
Streaky ^ay. 

EBA MOUNT {Flinders ckstrict) is a point in some low range lyings in the scrubby 
desert, to the N. of lake Gairdner, and to the E. of the Warburton range. It was seen 
from those ranges by Stuart in 1858. 

SGKUNGA {Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of mount 
Barker^^undred of Euitpo, and under the control of the district council of Echunga. 
It is situated on the main S.E! road from Adelaide to Strathalbyn, about 4 miles S.E. 
of the Onkaparinga river and in the neighbourhood of the Echunga, Jupiter, and Cattle 
Company creeks. The district is an agricultural and gold producing one. The gold- 
fields are 2 miles from the township, they are alluvial workings of small extent, but 
moderately productive, and are known as the Echunga gold-fields. There is a silver lead 
mine, the Hahndorf, lying about 4 miles distant. It was discovered about 5 years ago, 
and some rich ore raised. It is, however, not being worked at present. The holes sunk 
for gold wbrking in this neighbourhood are through quartz sand, with thin layers of 
quartz gravel much water-worn, resting on a very flat bottom of white, grey, or brown 
soft slate with sandstone bands. These diggings are situate about 1400 feet above the 
level of the sea, on scrubby hills timbered with stringy bark. The soil is a deep sand, 
and the whole deposit is analagous to the old pliocene tertiary gold-drifts of Victoria, 
which form the White hills of Bendigo and Forest creek. Sevei|^ diamonds of good 
water have been found at Echunga, where the breccia formation exists. The agricul- 
tural land is principally cultivated for wheat, but the soil being poor the crops are 
generally small. The nearest places are the German town of Hahndorf, 5| miles distant 
N., mount Barker the same distance N.E., Meadows 6 miles, and Macclesfield 6 miles 
S. There are no regular naeans of conveyance except to Macclesfield, which is reached 
by mail coach daily, the communication with the other places being by horse or private 
vehicle. With Adelaide, 21 miles N.W., the communication is by Kounseveirs daily 
mail coach. Echunga has a post and money order office, a coach office, a public pound 
and 2 hotels— the Hagen arms, and the Bridge inn. The surrounding country is 
considerably elevated and of a hilly character. The population of the town numbers 
about 150 persons, and that of the Echunga district about 1000. 

ECHUNGA (Cos. Adelaide and Evndmarsh) is a district council in the electoral 
district of mount Barker and Noarlunga. It is under the control of a chairman, the 
present one being Mr. F. H. Sonnemann of Hahndorf, and 4 councillors. The receipts 
and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, Jt*5557 — 
rate, Is. in the pound; rates collected, £332 13s 6d; total receipts, £1092 5s 8d; office 
expenses and salaries, £216 15s 6d; expended on public works, £583 16s 7d. The 
population numbers 1119 persons; the area is 90 square miles, or 57,600 acres; land 
under cultivation, 1772 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 226. 

£DZnf CREEK {Co, Sturt) is a small drainage creek, which flows past the town- 
Ifliip of Eden Valley. 

EDEN VALLEY (Co. Sturt) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Gumeracka, hundred of S. Rhine, and under the control of the S. Rhine district cuuncil. 
It is situated on the Eden creek, 43 miles N. W. of Adelaide in a direct line, although 
the postal route via Angaston is 7li miles. The river Rhine runs S.E. and S. of the 
township, in a distance of 1| to 3 miles. There is a steam flour-mill (Mr. J. B.HandalFs, 
•of Gumeracka) now in course of erection, and which will be ready for work tts soon as 



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Edo— Ele] The South AmtraUan Gazetteer. 71 

the new crop comes to market. The district is mostly an agricultural oqe ; the remainder 
. is held as pastoral land for the grazing of cattle and sheep. The nearest mines are the 
N. Rhine mine, 4 miles N., and the Eanappa mine, 7 miles N., both copper mines. The 
nearest townships are Spriugstown, 4 miles S., and Keyneton or N. Rhine, 4 miles N., 
with which place there is no communication except by hone or priyate rehicle. With 
Adelaide the communication is by horse or dray to Angaston, and thence byKoanserell's 
coach. There is one hotel in the township — the Eden Valley hotel. A couple of 
horse teams supply the township with goods from Adelaide regularly once a week. The 
country is mountainous; the top-soil is sandy, with gravel underneath, then clay; and 
the bottom sandstone and hard rock, well adapted for road metal. The roads in general 
are good, and with little expense may be kept in good order, supposing that the main 
line of road gets a good metal coat, the traffic on it being great. The inhabitants of the 
township number 150 persons. Wheat is bought at the stores of Fan tan and Gottsehalk, 
and at the mill. Of new buildings there are at the present time a steam mill, two stores, 
and scToral shops. 

SDdWXfi (N, dUtrict) is a small township lying 50 miles N.W. of the township 
of Kanyaka, on the road from Port Augusta to Blinraan. There is 1 hotel in the 
township, the Edowie inn. The formation is generally limestone. 

SUXSOWZE RUN {N. district;) leases Nos. 392, 425, and 5#8; occupier, W. L. Mar- 
chant; respective areas of leases, 115, 44, and 80 square miles. This run lies to the 
N.W. of Kawnsley's bluff, the next post office being Kanyaka. 

SDZSOWXS W. RUN {N, district;) lease No. 606 ; occupier, P. Butler; area, 
188 square miles; rent, ^^60 per annum. This run lies to the W. of Rawnsley's bluff, 
the next post office being Kanyaka. 

ED&IEXiPA STATION ( W district;) occupiers, Heath and Wooldridge. See 
Wallianippee Station. 

SDWA&D LAKE {Co, Grey) is a beautiful sheet of water lying 8 miles W. of 
Tarpeena, and 4 miles E. of mount Burr, and near lake Leake. It contains no fish at 
present, although if placed in it they would most probably thrive. 

SHWA&D MOUNT {Co, Grey) is a volcanic hill lying tRree miles E. of mount 
Burr. Lake Edward Ues at the toot of this hill. This hill is well grassed and heavily 
timbered. 

UD W ABJ>STO W M , or Hammersmith {Co. Adelaide^) is a small postal suburban 
Tillage of Adelaide, lying to the S.W. of the city. It is in an agricultural district, haty 
being extensively grown, and has 1 flour mill, not at present worked. The nearest 
places are Mitcham, 2 miles E., and Marion, 2 miles S.W., there being a public convey- 
ance to the latter place, and to Adelaide, 4 miles distant. There are 3 hotels in tUfe 
Tillage and neighbourhood — the Maid of Auckland, Heart-in-hand, and Nelson's Victory. 
The population is small and scattered, and the country generally flat. The resident 
magistrate is J. H. Biggs, Esq., J.P. 

SGG1!B.T0N (Co. Gawler) is a small agricultural settlement lying in the neigh- 
bourhood of the township of Gawler, It is inhabited by a few farmers, who cultivate 
wheat and other produce. 

SKE'S HILL {Flinders district) is a peak of the Ragless range, lymg in the N. part 
of that range. 

Sl^BOW HILL {Flinders district) is a small elevation on the N. bank of the 
DriTer river, and to the W. of point Burr and Button's bay, on the W. side ot 
Spencer's gulJ^ in Eyre's peninsula. The surrounding country is rugged and thick^ 
scrubbed. 

Sl^DO&ATBlLLA RUN {N.E, district;) lease 30 ; occupier, A. McCulloch; 
&rea, 84 square miles; grazing capacity, 13,600 sheep, or 152 per square mile; old 
I'ental, Jt'150 10s.; Goyder's valuation, £672, excluding improvements, valued at £639. 
This run forms one of several held by Mr. McCulloch, and is worked from Eldoratrilla, 
which station is 1 j miles E. of .the E. boundary of the run. The head station is 
Gottlieb's Wells. Eldoratrilla lies 53 miles N. of Kooringa, and 150 from Adelaide. 
This run consists of scrubby rises Mrith bushes and grass, and fairly grassed country, 
with clumps of pine, sandalwood, acacia, wattle, and currant and other bushes. 

SIiSAHOR RIYER {Kangaroo island) is a «niall stream flowing in a S. directicm 
into Vivonne bay, on the S. side of the island. 



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7d The South Australian Gazetteer. [Eu — ^Eme 



CREEK (Flinders district) is the name giyen hy Swinden, m 
1858, to a fine stream which he fonnd running in the plain country to the W. of lake, 
Torrens, and near Bottle hill. Much of the land is now taken up for pastoral purposes. 
See aJso Bbda Cbsek. 

SUZABSTB SPRING (Flinders district) See Berbsfobd's Hill. See also 
Blahchb Ctp. See also Emerald Spbihos. * * 

SUZA LAKE (Co. Bobe,) 7 miles hy 4 miles in extent, is a fine sheet of salt 
water, very shallow and rapidly drying up, lying 4 miles distant from Robe town, and 
separated by a narrow strip of land from lake St. Clair. The bottom is of fine sand, 
and the banks are marshy, coyered with black mud, caked with limestone, and thickly 
OTergrown with dense melaleuca, callistemon, mangroye, &c. 

SLIXAj LAKE, RUN (S,E. district;) lease, No. 358; occupiers, Johnson and 
Riddock ; area, 12 square miles ; grazing capacity, 2500 sheep, or 227 per square mile; 
Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £5 10s. per annum. This run is watered 
from swamps and waterholes, and lies 225 miles S.W. from Adelaide, and 14 miles by 
road, S.E. by E. of Guichen bay (Robe.) 

ELLEN, LAKE, '29'' 10^ S. lat., IS?*" 50^ E. long. (Flinders district,) is a small sheet 
of water lying to the K of the S.E. end of lake Eyre, and connected with that lake by 
a narrow swampy chamiel. 

ELLXOTTs FORT, 35'' 35' S. lat., 138'' 40' E. long., {Co, Bindmarsh,) is a postal 
township and seaport in the electoral district of Encounter bay, hundred of Goolwa, 
and under the control of the Encounter bay district council. It is situated on the N.* 
•oast of Encounter bay district, about 3 miles E. from the Hindmarsh river, and lies 
in an agricultural district taken up for wheat growing. There are 2 flour mills in the 
township, and although the district bears metalliferous traces, no mines have been 
discovered of a remunerative character. The nearest places are Middleton, 2 miles E., 
and Waterport, an adjunct of the township; the communication being by means of a 
tramway and a good metalled line of road. This tramway extends to Goolwa in an E., 
and to Victor harbour in a S.W. direction. With Adelaide the communication is by 
Rounsevell's daily m|»l coach, the distance being 60 miles. Port Elliott has a local 
court, a post and money order oflSce, a rocket and life boat station, a telegraph station, 
branches of the S. A. and Adelaide banks, and of the S.A. insurance company, a lodge 
of Oddfellows, (A.I.O.F.) and 2 hotels— the Globe and the port Elliott. The surround- 
ing country is undulating, with hills to the W. and N., and flats and gentle rises to the 

E. The population numbers about 450 persons in the township and neighbourhood. 
There is a small harbour at Fort Elliot, but it has been abandoned as a shipping port in 
fiivdur of Victor harbour, where there is better shelter, a fine jetty, good anchorage, 
abundance of water, and easy actiess. The importance of port Elliot will, however, be 
greatly increased when the district becomes connected with tha S.E. by means of tram- 
way, a work which has been talked of for many years. The resident magistrates are 

F. Buxton Laurie, and J. Hindmarsh, Esqs. See also Hindmabsh County. 

ELLIOTT FORT AND GOOLWA (Co. Hindmarsh) is a district council in the 
electoral district of Encounter Bay. It is under the control of a chairman, the 
present one being Mr. R. Sunman, of Currency creek, and 4 councillors. The 
receipts and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as follow : — Assessment/ 
£1 1,832— rate. Is. in the pound; rates collected, £561 4s.; total receipts, £1,676 13s. 5d.; 
office expenses and salaries, £265 16s. lid.; expended on public works, £1,063 7s. 7d. 
The population numbers 2,557 persons; the area is 199 square miles, or 127,360 acres; 
land under cultivation, 13,368 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 501. 

* ELDER'S RANGE (N. district) is a range of hills lying to the N. of Hookina; 
the highest peak is mount Alice. 



SFRINGS, 29** 25' S. lat., 137° 3' E. long. {Flinders district) is the 
name given by Babbage, the discoverer, to the first found of the series of singular hot 
springs lying in the county to the W. and S. W. of lake Eyre. This spring lies near 
the W. shore of the S. part of the lake, and near the lower end of Warriner's creek. 
It is in a basin formed by a sand-hill, about 20 feet high, and covered with reeds. The 
area enclosed is thickly overgrown with rushes, amid which the water bubbles up and 
runs over in several channels. These unite in a stream, which fiows through a break 
in the sandy basin, and from thence into a reedy swamp below, which/ drains into 
Warriner's creek. The water is so hot that the hand cannot be borne in it even for a 



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Emi— Ekf] The South Australum Gazetteer. 73 

minute, but it is quite fresh, and yields about 175,000 gallons daily. It does not appear 
to be affected by rain. The surrounding soil is principally sand, and the water, 
generally salt. 

EBUXiT, MOUNT, 31'' 15' S. lat., 138° 45' E. long. (FUnders district,) is a peak 
of a small E. spur of the main range, lying a few miles S. of Blinman, and on the main 
N. road from Adelaide. There is a copper mine near this hill, not lately worked, 
however, and lying 255 miles N. i W, of Adelaide. 

EMU FLATS' RUN (Co. Eyre;) lease No. 20 ; occupier, F. H. Dutton ; area, 150 
square miles ; grazing capability, 30,o6o sheep, or 200 per square mile; original rent and 
assessment, JS&50 ; Mr Goyder's valuation, £2700 per annum, deducting improvements, 
which are valued at £1130. This run lies on the E. slope of of the Murray range E. 
of Julia creek, about 20 miles N.N.E. of Eapunda, and 62 miles N.E. of Adelaide. It 
consists of well-grassed sheoak spurs and grassy fiats, with undulating forest land 
and mallee and pine scrub. The Brady creek and 8 wells supply this run with water, 
and there are good roads through it to Eooringa, Eapunda, Truro, and the N.W. bend. 
The head station is at Anlaby, 9 miles N. of Eapundia. 

EMU PLAINS {Co. Stcmley) is the name given to a tract of good country lying to 
the S.W. of the township of Clare. Much of the land on these plains is admirably 
suited to cultivation purposes. There is a fine spring in the N. part of these plains, 
known as the Emu spring. 

EMU BOCE (Co. Stanley) is a rocky hill, situated about 4 miles W. of the town- 
ship of Clare. 

EMU SPRING {Flinders district) is a small drainage creek fiowing into the Shell 
lagoon from the S. 

EMU SPRINGS {Co. Stanley) is the name of a government water reserve, with 
troughs attached, and lying near the township of Black springs. 

ENCpUNTSa BAY {Co. Hindmarsh) is the name given to a deep bight m tlie 
S.E. coast, lying between Rosetta head on the W., and the N. part of Younghusband's 
peninsula on the E. iM^omprises Victor harbour, port Elliott, and the mouth of the 
Murray. There is a small postal township at the head of the bay, having a rocket and 
life-bdat station, and a branch of the S. A. insurance Company. See also Hindmarsh. 

ENGOUMTE& BAY (Co. Hindmarsh) is a district council in the electoral district 
of Encounter bay. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. 
J. Grimble, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district councilf or 
1865 were as follows : — Assessment, £5,852 7s— rates, Is in the pound, rates collected 
£42 4s.; total receipts, £523 5s. 7d.; office expenses and salaries^ £70 Os. 7d.; expended 
on public works, £435 lis. 6d. The population numbers 810 persons. The area is 158 
square miles, or 101,120 acres ; land under cultivation, 2634 acres, and number of 
dwelling-houses, 182. Encounter bay electoral district is bounded on the S. and 
N.W. by the sea-coast, from the sea-mouth of the Murray, to the S. angle of 
the district of Noarlunga; bounded on the N. and N.W: by the districts of 
Noarlunga and mount Barker, to the southern angle of the last named district ; thence 
by the boundaries between the counties of Uindmarsb and Sturt, passing the E. side of 
Mundoo island, to the point of commencement; together with the whole of Eangaroo 
island and Troubridge shoal. It also comprises the district councils of Encounter 
bay, Myponga, port Elliott and Goolwa, Rapid bay, and Yankalilla, and has a 
population of 7260 persons, and an area of 2293 square miles, or 1,467,520 acres, of 
which 33,138 acres are under cultivation. The voting places for this district are port 
Elliott, Goolwa, Yankalilla, and Rapid bay. Encounter bay is represented in the 
Legislative Assembly by W. Everard and D. Sutherland, Esqs.- The number of 
registered electors for 1865 in this district was— for the Legislative Counill, 596; and 
for the Legislative Assembly, 974. 

ENCOUNTER BAY (Co. Hindmarsh) is a hundred in the S. part of the 
county, and on the coast of the bay of the same name. The township of Victor harbour 
is in this hundred. About a third of its area is purchased land, mostly agricultural. 

ENFIELD (^Co. Adelaide) is a postal village, suburban to Adelaide, and lying on 
its N. side, about 4 miles distant. It is the hundred of Yatala, and under the control 
of the district council of Yatala. Enfield lies in an agricultural district, the chief 
products being wheat and hay. It has a post office, one hotel (the Northern), and a 



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74 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Eng — Etr 

manafactoiy of winnowing machines. The commanication is by omnibus and mail 
coach daily. The resident magistrates are E. Bowman and T. Magarey, Esqs. The 
surronnding country is undulating, and the soil is generally of a loamy nature, oyerlyiAg 
magnesian limestone. The population numbers about 200 persons. 

EKGZiZSH {Co. Eyre) is a recently formed hundred in the N.W. part of the 
coi^nty, containing but a small quantity of purchased land. 

SUBlZiKZMA CREEK (N. district) is the name of a small creek flowing past the 
township of Blinman. It runs in a S. direction iato the Ooteapina creek, at Parachilina 
gap. 

SVAHBAAE CREEK (Co. Eyre) is the name of a small tributary of the N. 
Rhine river, which it joins at the township of Keyneton. 

ETAKB ISLAND (Flinders district) is a rocky islet of considerable eleyation, 
lying 3^ miles W. N.W. of the Flinders reef . Being a prominent feature in Nuyt's 
archipelago, it is an excellent mark to steer by at night. 

EVANSTON {Co. Gqwler) is the name of a suburb of the township of Gawler, of 
which it forms part. 

EWAVFA STATION (N.E. district,) the head station of E. R. Hallett. See 
WnraiNiE. 

SY&E COUNTY lies on the E. side of the main range, and is bounded on the N. 
by the county Burra, on the S. by the county Sturt, on the E. by the river Murray, and 
on the W. by the county Light It contains a small area of purchased land on its W. 
side, but consists principally of pastoral country. The principal township is Blanche- 
town, on the main road from Adelaide to Melbourne, and on the W. bank of the river 
Murray. Eyre contains the hundreds of Eba* Hay, English, Neales, Anna, Skurray, 
Bagot, Fisher, Dutton, and N. Rhine. The N. part of this county is included in the 
electoral district of Flinders, and the S. part in that of Barossa, the division line being 
the main road, which crosses the county. The area of this county is 1340 sq|iare miles, 
or 857,600 acres, of which 91,374 acres are purchased land, 48,956 acres are held by 
freeholders. 113,480 acres are enclosed, and 10,196 acres are #nder cultivation. The 
live stock numbers 998 horses, 1339 horned cattle, 64,163 sheep, 158 goats, 724 pigs, 
and 4375 head of poultry. Of the cultivated land 6594 acres are under wheat, 222 
acres under barley, 1278 acres under hay, 20 acres under green forage, 2 acres under 
peas, and 6 acres under other crops, 1729 acres are fallow, and 14 acres under potatoes. 
There are HI acres of orchards, 52 acres of gardens, and 168 acres of vineyards, the 
latter having 105,714 vines in bearing, and 43,343 vines not in bearing. The crops for 
the year ending March 31st, 1866, were 56,488 bushels wheat, 4337 bushels barley, 677 
tons hay, 6 tons potatoes, 17,918 gallons wine, and 178 cwt. grapes. The population 
numbers 1372 persons, being an increase of 275 since 1861; the number of dwelling- 
houses ia 357, being an increase of 92 since the same year. 

ETBrS LAKE {N. district) is a large shallow sheet of salt water, formerly 
supposed to be part of lake Torrens, but now known to be'totally distinct from it. It 
lies about 40 miles E. of the Denieon range and mount Margaret postal station, and has 
as yet been but little explored. It is supposed to be about 140 miles in length. Near 
the S.W. end are some small islands with springs of fresh water upon them. There 
are several creeks falling into it upon the S.W. , the principal being the Chambers, 
Warriner's and Douglas, and Warburton states that he has lately discovered that the 
Barcoo river or Cooper's creek falls into it on its E. side. 

STRS MOUNT {N. district) is a lofty hill lying in the barren country on the E. 
side of lake Torrens. This hill stands 10 miles distant from mount Arden, and is bold 
and rocky, ^eing formed of abrupt escarpments of quartzite, or steep declivities of clay- 
slate. From the summit of this hill Eyre got the first view of lake Torrens, lying to 
the W. and N.W. ; and apparently about 25 miles distant. 

ET&E, MOUNT, RUN {N. district;) leases, Nos. 462b, 307 and 551; occqpiw, 
P. Levi; respective areas of leases, 3, 20^ and 60 mil«». This run lies to the W. of 
mount Eyre. 

EY&S FORT (Flinders district} is the name given to a small anchorage in Fowler's 
bi^— which see. 

SimE'S GROSSING (.Flinders district.) See Fobt Lincoln CfioSBiRa. 



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Etr— Fin] The South jMsk-aUan GazeUeer. 76 



ISLAND {Flinders cUsi/rict) is a small sand-bank in Nuyt's archipelago. 
It has a few sand-hills oii its W. coast, and a long siuidrspit stretdhes from its N. 
pomt in a N.W. direction. 

MB EnxrS, (or Eyria) peninsula (Flinders district) is the name given to the vast 
tract of country lying between Spencer's gulf on the W. and Anxious bay on the E., 
and being the country trarersed by Eyre in his exploration journeys of 1839 and 1840. 
It consists chiefly of rugged, densely scrubbed plains, almost destitute of water, although 
some country available for pastoral purposes has been found along the border of the 
<M)ast. The middle of this tract is a table land lying about 1300 feet above the level of 
the sea, with seteral peaks and flat-topped hills. There are low ranges of hills, known 
as the Baxter, Middleback and Olinthus ranges to the E., the Liverpool to the S.E., 
and a iolty granite range, the Gawler, to the W, Near the S. point of the peninsiia, 
which is triangular, the apex being to the S., is the county of Flinders, and the settlement 
and township of port lincdn. The entire country consists of sandy and limestone 
plains, with a few granite ridges and numerous salt lagoons. There are also a few 
freshwater springs on the W. side of the triangle. 

FAZRFZSLD (Co. Gawler) is a small agricultural settlement in the neighbourhood 
of Gawler. It is inhabited by a few scattered farmers, who cultivate wheat and other 
produce. The resident magistrate is W. W. Hugnes, Esq., J. P. 

FAZRFORD {Co. Adelaide) is a vineyard on the banks of the Sturt river, about 
8 miles from Adelaide, and at the foot of Flagstafl* hill. The soil is alluvial, of great 
depth and richness. The grapes grown are Verdeilho, Gouais, Black Portugal, and 
Grenache. There is a grape mill on the ground, and good wines are produced there. 
The vineyard is the property of W. H. Trimmer, Esq. 

FA2&VZSW RUN {S.E. district;) lease No. 228; occupier, Thos. Taylor; area, 
42 square miles; grazing capability, 3700 sheep, or 88 per square mile; Groyder's 
valuation, deducting improvements, £73 12s per annum. The run is watered from 
swamps, waterholes, and wells. It lies 195 miles by road S.E. of Adelaide, and 50 
miles N.E. of Robe (Guichen bay.) This run also includes lease No. 983, which has an 
area of 60 miles, and on the entire block are 5000 sheep, and 100 head of cattle and 
horses. 

FALSE CAPE (Kangaroo island) is a bold headhmd on the S. coast of the isknd, 
lying E. by N. f N., 18j miles from point Tinline, the E. head of D'Estree bay. It has a 
reei stretching out about half-a-mile to the S. 

FAZiSE BAY {Oo. Adelaide) is a shallow opening into Torrens island, running 
from the E. side of the channel of Port Adelaide^-which see. 

FANNY SPRINGS (Flinders district) is the name given to a spring, lying on 
the N. slope of mount Charles, in the pastoral country to the N.W. of the Davenport 
river. 

FEUXSTOW {Co. Adelaide) is a vineyard, the property and residence of 
A. Stow, Esq., situated near Payneham and the German hamlet of Klemzig, on the banks 
of the Torrens river. It is planted with Shiraz, Verdeilho, Tokay, and Carbonet, the 
latter grafted with Mataro and Grenache. There are also the varieties of black Portugal, 
Mataro, and Dolcetto, producing a favourite light red wine. Mr. Stow's white wine 
is made from the Verdeilho. The Zante currant is grown in this vineyard, and there is 
a fine orangery attached. 

FENELON ISLE (Flinders district) is a rocky islet of Nuy t*s archipelago, lying 
to the S. of the St. Francis's group. 

FZFTB CREEK {Co. Adelaide) is a S. tributary of the Torrens river, rising to 
the S.E. of the Black hill, and flowing in a W. and N.W, direction for about 10 miles 
into the main stream,''about 7 miles above Adelaide. 

FZFTY-SZZ MILE WELL (Go. CardwelL) See Limestone Well. 

FINGBE'S CREEK (Flinders district N.) is a fine mountain stream, rising by 2 
heads in mount Tilley, to the N.W. of Blinman, and flowing S.E., past the Chambers 
mine into the S. end of lake Blanche. 

FINGBJB'S CREEK {Flinders district TT.) k a small N. tributary of the Neales 
river, flowing from the N.W. through a sandy plain with ranges of sand-hills. It was 
discovered by Stoart in 1859. 



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76 The South AustraUan Gazetteer. [Fin— Fla 

mrOXE MOUNT, 30"* 55' S. lat., 133" 4(/ E.Iong. (Flinders dutriety) U a granite 
mountain, much aboye the ordinaiy height of the hills in that part of the continent, 
lying in the midst of a densely scrnbb^ desert, and discovered by Stuart in 1858. 
From its summit he had a Tery extensiye riew, but not a cheering one. He describes 
the desert as being surrounded by dense scrub, with open patches, but no water ; and 
says that the desert surrounding this mountain is worse than that found by Sturt in 
the interior, inasmuch as there was at least saltbush upon that, whilst here there was 
absolutely nothing but spinifex. 

FUTBON {Co. Adelaide) a postal township in the hundred of W. Torrens. It lies in 
an agricultural, wheat and hay growing district, near the N. bank of the Torrens river, 
and to the E. of the Reedbeds. The nearest places are Woodville, \\ miles N., and 
Barerley, 2^ miles N.E., the communication being by horse or private vehicle only. 
With Adehiide, 6 miles E., the communication is from Woodville by train. The 
nearest hotel is at Woodville. The surrounding country is flat and swampy. The 
population numbers about 200 persons. 

mmZSS {Co. sturt) is in E. hundred of the county, lying on the W. bank of the 
Murray river, and consisting almost exclusively of pastoral country. This hundred 
lies in the belt of mallee brush known as the Murray scrub. In the S.E. part of the 
hundred, and at the junction of the* Reedy creek (which flows through it) with the 
Murray river, is the township of Mannum. For the population, &c., of this hundred, 
see Anoas HmtDSED. 

i'lMMiSS' FLAT {Co, Eindmarah). See Ashbourne. 

Fin MISS LAKE {Flinders district) is a small salt lake, forming one of the chain 
of salt lakes lying between lakes Torrens and Gairdner. 

nNNISS POINT (C7o. Light) is the name of a peak in the Belvidere range of 
hills, lying about l^ miles W. of Marrabel, and abounding in good timber and 
building stone— granite and freestone. 

mrMISS RIVER {Co, Hindmarsh) is the name of a stream rising in the main 
range, near Reynell's hill, and flowing in a S.E. direction into the W. end of lake 
Alexandrina, on the Lower Murray, opposite Hindmarsh island, and at the township of 
Clavton, which is built at its lyouth on the F^ side. It enters the Murray by a wide, 
shallow estuary, which commences about 6 miles above the township, and is navigable 
for small vessels for about 7 miles. This river flows past the elevations known as Black 
Boy's Nob, Morphett's Hill, and Mount Observation, and through the hundreds of 
Kondoparinga, Nkangkita, and Alexandrina. There is an aboriginal station on the 
lower part of this river. 

FZNNZSS SPRINGS {Flinders district) is the name given to a numerous 
collection of springs lying at the foot of the Hermit range, and discovered by MajcMf 
Warburton. Some of these springs are deep and large. 

rZlTMZSS SPRINGS RUN {N. district)— leases No. 781, 786, 928, and 1046- 
is a cattle station on the road from Nuccaleena; the nearest post office distant 160 miles 
S. E. Occupiers, Davenport and Power. Respective areas, 80, 160, 77, and 129 square 
miles. 

mrmSS vale (Co. Hindmarsh), See Rapid Bat. 

FIRST CREEK {Co, Adelaide) is a S. tributary of the Torrens river, "sing in 
the mount Lofty ranges, near Crafers, and flowing in a N.TV^ direction ^^^^ ^ 
agricultural country, past the village of Beaumont, and through those of Norwood, 
Kent-town, and Hackney, into the main stre^jn at Adelaide, where it waters the grounas 
of the botanical gardens. 

FZSBS& {Co. Eyre) is the S. E. hundred of the county, consisting almost 
exclusively of pastoral land, although a small quantity has been purchased on the oanK 
of the Murray river. 

rzSHE&Y CREEK (Co. Hindmarsh) is a small creek rising in the hills of Cape 
Jervis, and flowing S. into the sea, about 1^ miles S.E. of that cape. 

• FLAGSTAFF HILL {Co. Adelaide) is a peak and survey station in **^®^®^^ 
ranges, lying on the W. bank of the Light river, about 8 miles S. of the village of Manon, 
and 3 miles N.E. of O'Halloran hill. 

Also a hill lying 2} miles distant from mount Pleasant. 



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Fla— Fli] The South Australian Gazetteer. 77 

FLAT HILL (Co, Eyrt) is the S. extremity of a low range of hills forming an £. spur 
of the main range, and being at the W. border of the county, and in the hundred of 
Julia creek. * 

ZXAT TOP BLUFF {Flinders district) is the name of a precipitous hill lying on 
the W. side of the N. point of Spencer's gul^ and between that gulf and the S. part of 
the Baxter range. It is the £. termination of a range of low scrubby hills lying nearly 
opposite to Port Augusta. 

FZJLZMAXrS VALLEY {Co. Light) is a district council in the electoral diatrict 
ot Barossa. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. H. A. 
Firbeyer, and 4 councillors. The population numbers 389 persons; the area is 22 
square miles, er 14,080 acres; land under cultivation, 3370 acres, and number of 
dwelling-houses 64. 

FUNDEBB BLACK BOOKS (Go, CardweU) is the name given to a reef of rocks 
lying in the N. part of Lacepede bay, and off cape Morard de Galles. 

FUNDEBS (Flinders district W,) is a newly settled township lying on the E. side 
of Streaky bay, 90 miles N.W. of Bramfield. It contains 1 hotel and 1 store. See ^ 
Streaky Bat. 

FLZNDE&S COUNTY is the most W. county in the colony, and lies at the S. W. 
side of Spencer's gulf, which bounds it on its £. side. It is bounded on the N. by the 
western pastoral district, and on the W. and S. by the sea, and is included in the < 
electoral district of Flinders. It consists for the most part of pastoral country, with 
some blocks of purchased land in the hundreds of South and Lincoln, which lie on the 
E. side, and the shores of the bays bearing their respective names. The chief town is 
port Lincoln, on the bay of that name. The area of this county is 1100 square miles, 
or 704,000 acres, of which 22,716 acres are purchased land ; the land under cultivation 
being 1850 acres, of which 1260 acres are under wheat, 7 acres under barley, 286 acres 
under hay, 44 acres under green forage, and 66 under other crops; 135 acres are fallow, 5 
aci^s under potatoes, 5 acres orchard, 21 acres garden, and 21 acres under vines, having 
10,728 vines in bearing and 9150 not in bearing. The produce for the year endLp 
March 31st, 1866, was 9761 bushels wheat, 93 bushels barley, 278 tons hay, 6 tons 
potatoes, 30 gallons wine, and 37 cwt. grapes. The live stock amounts to 1136 horses, 
152,268 sheep, 2281 horned cattle, 119 goats, 201 pigs, and 2417 head of poultry. The 
population numbers*] 190 persons^being an increase of 432 over that of 1861, and the 
number of dwellings is 199. 

Flinders electoral district comprises the county of Flinders, and all those 
portions of the province to the westward of the W. coast of Spencer's gult, and 
all the remaining portions of the province lying to the N. of the districts of port 
Adelaide and the Burra and Stanley ; bounded on the E. by the boundary of the said 
province, together with all islands being W. of the meridian of cape Jervis, with the 
exception of Kangaroo island and Troubridge shoal, and other portions of the said pro- 
vince not included in any other electoral district. It contains the following sub-districts 
— county Eyre (northern portion), county Young, country E. of county Young, county 
Victoria, country N. of county Victoria, Burra, and Young; county Frome, country N. of 
county Frome to Wilpena, country between Wilpena and mount *Serle, country N.'of 
mount Serle, country N.W. of Port Augusta, country N. of county Flinders to Port 
Augusta, county Flinders, lake Hamilton district. Streaky bay district; and has a popu- 
lation of 7346 persons, and an area of 164,676 square miles, or 105,392,640 acres, of 
which 4019 acres are under cultivation. The voting places are port Lincoln, mount 
Bemarkable, and port Augusta. Flinders is represented in the Legislative Assembly 
by J. Williams and A. Watts, Esqs. (the latter gentleman has lately tendered his 
resignation, and the vacancy is not at this time — November, 1866 — filled.) The 
number of registered elecfors for 1865 in this district was—for the Legislative Council, 
215 ; and for the Legislative Assembly, 963. 

FUNDS&S ISLAND [Flinders di8t}'ict) is the largest and most central of the 
Investigator group of islands, which lie off the W. part of the coast to the S.E. of 
Anxious bay. In shape it is nearly square, each side of which is from 3 to 5 miles in 
length, with rocks projecting from the intermediate points. Bights are formed on the 
4 sSes, but that on the E. alone offers good anchorage, although Flinders anchored in 
the Investigator, in 1802 on the N. side of the island. The anchorage on the E. side is 
safe, although there is a reef of rocks lying 2 cables, length from the beach at the S. end« 
The liuiding place lies on the beach under the reef, and is frequently rendered difficult 



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78 The South AustraUan Gazetteer. [Pli— Pou 

from the heary sarf which occasionally rolls in. There is excellent pasturage on the 
island, and a sheep station has been established there for some years. There are seye^ 
good welfs near the anchorage^ 

IXZNDERS ISLAND RUN (TT. district-;) leases Nos. 143 and 1082; occupiers, 
Elder and Schlinke; respectiye areas of leases, 23 and 16 square miles. The nearest 
post town is Parkin (Venus bay.) 

FUNDSRS ISTHMUS {Kangaroo island) is the name of a narrow neck of sandy 
land ieparating the Pelican lagoon on the N. from the sea at Penniagton bay •n the 
S. The isthmus is less than a mile across at its narrowest part, near Prospect hill, and 
connects the main body of the island on the W. with a smaller portion oi^ the E. 

rLZin>S&9 LAKE {Flinders district. ) See Fkanklin Habroub. 

rLZin>E&8 MINE ( TT. district) is a copper mine employing about 6 hands, and 
lying on the property of Mr. W. R. Mortlock, about 2 miles N. of Tumby bay. Its 
Tidue has not yet been proved. See Coppeber Minb. 

• FZiZHBSRS REEF {Flinders district) is the name of a reef of rocks, with the sea 
breaking over them, lying 4 miles to the S.W. end of St. Peter's island, in Nuyt's 
archipelago. See also Franklin Islands. 

FZJNT, MOUNT, 29° 5' S. lat, 138° 55' E. long. {Flinders district N.,) is a smaU 
'solitary hill, lying on the S. bank of Lake Blanche. 

FLO&SirCS LAKE, 28° 50' S. lat, 138° 20 E. long. (Flinders district N.,) ia the 
name of a sheet of water lying to the S. of the W. part of Lake Blanche, and forming 
part of it in wet seasons. 

FOBJBXH, CAPE, {Kangaroo island) is a prominent cape of the N. coast of the 

• island, lying to the N.W. of Cape Borda. 

FORDHABi' S {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural, vine growing and wine makiag 
seUlement, lying about 7 miles from Adelaide, on the road to mount Lofty and Craferi. 
T^ftre is a well-known hotel (the Eagle on the Hill) at Fordham's, the drive to thaf 
place being a favorite one with excursionists, and the view being an extensive and nK)st 
magnificent one over the heavily timbered gorges of the Adelaide range to the waters 
of the gulf of St. Vincent beyond. On the ranges about here the geological formation 
consists of hard quartz rock, and quartzose sandstone* in thick beds, dipping E. 10° to 
16° S., 30°, also yellow gritty sandstones, dipping W. 10°, S. 20°. , 

FO&EST ROAD, {Oo, Adelaide.) See Drt Creek. 

FOBAESTON {Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Qumeracka. It is situated on the north Gumeracka creek, near mount Gould, and lies 
in an agricultural and pastoral district, 2^ miles from Gumeracka township* on the 
main North-eastern road. With Adelaide, 26 miles S. W., there is communication by 
means of Rounsevell's 4- wheeled conveyance, which runs daily. Forreston is under the 
control of the Gumeracka district council, the surrounding country being of an elevated 
and ruggedly mountainous character. The population is small and scattered. 

FO&T&ESS HILL {N. district) is the name given to a lofty hill in the main range. 
It lies near the Frome river, and rises to a height of 200 feet above the surrounding 
country. The summit is rocky, and upon it are a number of large stones deposited with 
almost the regularity of mason's work, giving it the appearance of a hill fortification, 
whence the name; The diameter of the hill is 120 feet at the top and 350 feet at the 
base. Beneath the cap of stone the hill is covered with scrub and small loose stones. 
Near its foot is the Murrywyannia lagoon, an expansion of the Frome river. The sur- 
rounding country consists of clay-slate, with outcropping sandktone, and numerous low 
abrupt hills are seen in the vicinity. 

FO&TY-EZGKT MILE WELLS (Co. CardioeU.) • See Jem Crow's Flat. 

FOUNTJLZN RIVER {W. district;) lease No. 78; occupier, H, J. Smith; area, 
19 square miles; grazing capacity, 2200 sheep, or 115 p^ square mile; Mr. ^^^^^ 
Taluation, deducting improvement, £36 6s. per annum. This run also oompreheno* 
lease No. 525, having an area of 12 square mUes, and on the entire block are 39iH) ^^ 
and 240 horses and cattle. The run is watered by swamps, and Ilea 10 milef N.N; W* 
of port Lincoln, and 410 miles by the overland road from Adelaide. 

VOVm HUMMOCKS (Co. Flinders.) See Whidbst Island. 



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Eou — Ebb] The Squth Australian Gazetteer, 79 

: . ._ ^ 

FOmtTB CREEK {Go. Adelaide) is a S. tributary of the Torrens rirer rising in 
the Adelaide range, and flowing about 10 miles in a N.W. direction, through flat well- 
cultirated country into the main stream, about 6 miles above Adelaide. 

FOWItEB. POINT, 32° i' 46" S. lat, 132° 29' 40" E. long, (i^wuiera district:) is a 
rocky point running out ajiout 3 miles in a S.E. direction from the main land, and 
standing about 120 feet above the sea leveL It forms the W. side of Fowler's bay. 
There are a few rocks within a short distance of the eztreqpie point. ^ Near this point, 
Eyre^s depot was situated. 

FOWLE&'S BAY, 32° 1' 45" S. lat., 132° 29' 40" E. long., mag. var. 3° 8' E. 
{Flinders district,) is a bight formed by a projecting point called point Fowler, which 
lies on its S. side. The country inland consists of sandy and scrubby ridges, with salt 
swamps and brackish water. There is a small anchorage in this bay known as port 
Eyre; it has a sandy bottom, holding well outside 3 fathoms, under that depth there 
being frequent patches of limestone. This bay was called after Mr. Fowler, the first 
lieutenant of the Investigator, the ship in which Flinders made his explorations on the 
S. coast. The cliflFs and rocks are calcareous. There is no timber in the neighbour- 
hood, and but very little fresh water. Near the bay are numerous islands, the bases of 
which are composed of granite, and upon which curious animals and plants have been 
found. At the head of this bay Eyre made his depot, or cache for stores, whilst on his 
journey over the desert, from port Lincoln to Western Australia, in 1840. For a 
graphic account of this terrible undertaking, see the Rev. J. E. T. Wood's '* History of 
the Discovery and Exploration of Australia," vol. ii., chapter 1. The surrounding 
country is a pastoral (sheep) district; lying 90 miles N.E. of the great Australian bight, 
and the most W. settlement in the colony. It is situated on the bay, 200 miles W. by 
N. of Streaky bay and has a post ofl^e; the communication with Streaky bay (Flinders,) 
port Lincoln, and the intermediate postal stations, as also with Adelaide, 900 miles E., 
by land being by fortnightly overland maiL The distance by sea is 500 miles, there 
being communication by occasional coasting vessels. Eyre's depot lies at the W. side 
of the bay, and the country surrounding it is taken up for sheep runs. Water is 
obtained by digging wells in the sand-ridges, and at Mobeela Gaipe, Wadeemar Gaipe. 
Beringana Gaipe, and Beleemah Gaipe, are wells of good water. Wallianippie, a postal 
station, lies on Denial bay, about 70 miles to the E. The country is undulating^ 
consisting of lightly grassed plains and scrub. The Ibrmation is generally limestone. 
Tlw population of the district numbers about 200 persons. 

FOWXiEXt'S BAY RUN (W. district.) See Macdonnell Lakb Run. 

F&ANS£Ain> ISLAND {Flinders district) is a small island lying at the entrance 
of Smoky bay. 

F&ANKLZN HARBOUR, or Flinders Lake (Flinders district,) is a deep 
indentation in the land on the W. side of Spencer's gulf. It is shallow, and is bordered 
by a large tract of pastoral land, taken up by^ Messrs. J. and P. McKechnie and 
P. Levi. There is an aboriginal station at this place, and the resident magistrates are 
H. A. Strong and J. McKechnie, Esqs. 

F&AirSZiXli' ISLANDS ( W. district) is the name given to a group of 3 islands, 
lying to the S. of St. Peter's island, in Nuyt*s archipelago. They are of ^moderate 
elevation, and have a reef of rocks above water, of a circular shape and nearly half-a- 
mllein diameter, lying 5i miles N.W., called the Flinders reef, over which the sea breaks 
with great violence. . 

F&EEIaXNG (Co. Light) is a postal township and railway station in thd hundred 
of Nuriootpa and electoral district of Light. It is situated on a high plain, 37| miles 
N. of Adelaide, on the main line of road between Eapunda and Adelaide, and is the rail- 
way entrepdt for the traffic from the Murray river, Blanchetown, Truro, Angaston, ' 
Greenock, JNuriootpa, Angas Park, and Daveystown, to which places daily coaches run, 
carrying passengers and the mails. The district is an agricultaral one, large quantities 
ol ezceUent wheat being grown on the plain upon wbich the township is built. At a 
. diBtance of 3 miles E. is situated the Wheal Nitschke mine. The nearest places are 
Sheoak Log, 4^ miles S.E., Daveystown, 5 miles S. by E , and Lin wood, 8 miles N.W, 
The communication being by coach, and with Adelaide, 37| miles S.S.W., by rail. 
Preeling has 1 hoftel, called the Freeling, and 3 stores, a post office, a telegrapk station, 
and' a railway station (terminus.) The population numbers about 60 persons, and there 
are about 16 dwellings. * 



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80 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Fre — FuL 



ntEELZlTG (C7o. Sturt) is a S. W. hundred of the county lying on the N. hank 
of lake Alexandrina, and on the E. hank of the Bremer riv^r. On these banks is a 
quantity of purchased land, the remainder being scrubby pastoral country. This 
hundred is crossed by the main road from Adelaide to Wellington. 

FBJBSLZirG HEIGHTS, 30° 10' S. lat., 139° 25' E. long. (Flinders district,) is 
the name given to a range of rugged mountains spurring to the E. from the N. end of 
the main range near Tudanamutana township. It lies in good pastoral country, and is 
the source of the Farabarana, Fapagoona, Arcaroola, and several other creeks. 

X'&SELZNG ISLAND (binders district) is one of the St. Francis group of islands 
in Nuyt's archipelago. See St. Fbancis Group. 

X'&SXSLZNG SPRING {Flinders district) is a fresh water spring lying on the 
S. bank of the Freeling creek, near its junction with the Neales river. 

ntESLZN G WATER [Flinders district.) See Macdonnell River. 
F&EN CHMAN'S ROCK {Kangaroo island) is a small rocky patch lying oppo- 
site Western cove, in Nepean bay, having 12 feet on it at low water. 

ntEESTONS CREEK RUN {Kangaroo island;) leases No. 67, 1 158, and 1159' 
occupier, M. Calnan; the respective areas are 6, 10, and 10 miles, and the rental £13 
per annum. 

mESHFORD VINEYARD {Oo. Adelaide.) See Athelston. 

FRESH WATE& CREEK {Oo. Victoria) is a stream flowing into the N. side of 
the Broughton river, and watering the S.E. part of the Bundaleer run. 

F&OBiE COUNTY is the most northern county in the colony, and lies at the head 
of Spencer's gulf on its E. side, being bounded on the W. by that gulf, on the east by 
the E. plains, on the N. by the N. pastoral district, and on the S. by the county 
Victoria. It forms part of the electoral district of Flinders, and is, for the most part, 
a pastoral country, watered by the Willochra creek and its tributaries. There is a 
lofty peak near its centre known as mount Remarkable, and the chief towns are Port 
Augusta, at the head of the gulf, and Melrose. There are 3 hundreds in this country, 
those of Gregory, Wongyarra, and Davenport, each containing small areas of pur- 
chased land. In the two former 'copper is found. The area of this county is 1404 
square miles, or 890,560 acres, of which 74,737 is purchased land, 68,180 acres being 
held by freeholders, 13,425 acres enclosed, and 75 acres under cultivation. The live 
stock numbers 987 horses, 3514 horned cattle, 134,405 sheep, 818 goats, 250 pigs, and 
3255 head of poultry. Of the land under cultivation, 49 acres are fallow, 5 acres are. 
orchard, 17 acres garden, and 4 acres vineyard — the latter having produced 1 cwt. of 
grapes during the year ending March 31st, 1866, and having 3817 vines in bearing, and 
770 vines not in bearing. The population numbers 1908 persons, being an increase of 
919 over that of 1861. There are 423 dwelling-houses, as against 273 in 1861. 

FROKE MOUNT, 31° 5' S. lat., 139° 10' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a peak 
lying on the S. bank of the Rose creek, and to the N. of the Chambers mine. 

FROBiE RIVER {Flinders district) is a fine stream, rising by 2 heads — one on 
the E. and the other on the W. of the main or Flinders range. The principal head is 
the E. one,«and rises in the ^Jilly country near Angipena, whence it flows in a N. 
direction about 40 miles past mount Serle and mount Rose. It then turns in a N.W. 
direction for about 60 miles, until it falls into the S.E.. end of lake Eyre. During the 
course of |his stream it expands into a* large lagoon called Murrywyanna, near 
Fortress hill. 



RIVER {Flinders district) is a large stream, tributary to the Neales river 
and flowing into it upon its N. side, near Mount Hafvey. There is another stream 
flowing to the N. of this, and known by the same name, Stuart having supposed it to 
be the upper part of the same river; but it flows to the E. between Mounts Elunter and 
Robinson into lake Eyre, through a sandy plain interspersed with sand-hills and patches 
of mulga scrub. At the upper end of this river fine, smooth-barked gum trees, and 
splendid hakeas, 20 feet in height, with bark like cork, are found. 

FULRABi {Co. Adelaide) is a postal village, in the electoral district of W. 
Torrens, Hundred of Adelaide, and under the control of the W. Torrens district 
council. It is situated on the embouchure of the Torrens river into the Reedbeds, at a 
distance of lialf-a-mite £. from the sea, and on a small creek or break^oat from the 



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Fui>--GAift] TU South AuUraUan Gaeettsmr. 81 

7oiTeDS, ronning N. and S., oyer which a good bridge (Moore Farm bridge) has lately 
been built, near the farm and yineyard of the late A. H. Bayis, Esq,, Moore farm. 
The sorromidii]^ country, the Reedbeds, is noted for its fine pasture all the year round, 
and sheep and cattle are g^razed upon it in considerable numbers. Large crops of hay 
4ire also grown upon the more eleyated parts of the flats. The nearest places are 
Lockley's, 1^ mile E.; Henley Beach, 1 mile W.; Flndon, 3 miles N.; Glenelg, 4< miles 
IS.; Port Adelaide, 5 miles N.; the communication being by horse or dray only. 
With Adelaide, 5^ miles E., the communication is by horse or dray to Thebarton, 
4' miles, and thence by car. The surrounding country is low, flat, and swampy, and 
covered in parts with reeds and salsolaceous plants, which form excellent fattening food 
for cattle. The soil is rich, black alluyial, oyerljing limestone, the latter outcroppiog 
in many places, and being used for building purposes and road-metaL Fulham has the 
reputation of being a pleasant and cool retreat from Adelaide during the heat of 
summer, and is a flne drive, with facilities for bathing on the beach. The population 
numbers about 100 persons, chiefly small farmers. 

FUA&A&TON {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural yillage, lying 1 mile 
E.N.B. of the suburb of XJnley, and to the E. of Mitcham. The land is taken up by 
the residences of persona haying business in Adelaide, or by small farmers and 
gardeners. 

GAXSmiSft LAKE {Flinders diatriet) is an immense salt lake lying to the K. of 
the Crawler ranges, in a sandy, stony and densely scrubbed desert plain. This lake 
forms the S.W. part- of what was formerly thought to be the great inland sea of the 
continent, and lies at an elevation of 366 feet above the level of the ocean. Little or 
nothing is known of its N. shores, which have never been explored, but its S. part was 
travelled over by Warburton and Hack, in 1857, the latter of whom found, besides 
much sterile country, large salt-bush plains, with grass and numerous springs of fresh 
water, and a very large portion of thai part of its coast is now taken up for pastoral 
purposes. It forms part of the N. boundary of Eyre's peninsula, and its extent, as 
known, stretches from about 31** 20' to 32** 20' S. lat., and from about 134° 25' to 
136° lO' E. long., measuring from N.W. to S.B. In the N. part are numerous large 
isMnds covered, however, with saline incrustations, and glittering like snow, and near 
the S. end are two similar islands. The whole of its shores for a considerable distance 
fh>m the water are also covered with this white and glittering salt crust. On its E. 
side are a number of salt lakes, probably connected with it in times of flood; some of 
these are very large, and are known as lakes Younghusband, Hart, M'Farlane, and the 
Island lake, and appear to stretch across, with intersections of scrubby and mosUfr 
worthless land, to the W. shores of lake Torrens. 

OAMlEOir HILL {N, district) is a peak in the main ranges, lying near Illina- 
wurtina. There is a small creek, known as the Gammon creek, flowing past its base. 



{Co, Chrey) is one of the S. hundreds of the county, containing a 
considei^ible amount of sold land. The township of Gambler lies to the W. of this 
hundred. 

OAJUmat ISLES (Spencer*8gulf) lie nearly in the middle of the entrance to 
Spencer's gulf, and are four in number, besides two peaked rocks lying near the south 
side of the largest and southernmost, which is 3 miles long, and is in 35° 11' S. and 136° 
29' E. This is called Wedge island, from its shape, the high cliffy end being to the 
SwE,; and there are 20 or 30 fathoms in mid channel between it and cape Spencer. The 
W. island is detached 6 miles W. from Wedge island, and is about the same distance 
B.S.E. from the S.E. end of Thistle island. A reef lies to the N. of the N. island. 
Mag. var. 5° E. 

OAJKBnat, MOUNT, E. {Co. Orey) is a district council in the electoral district of 
JKetoria. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. James 
Sacpherston, and. 4 councillors. The population numbers 1350 persons; the area is 100 
square miles, or (S4,000 acres; land under cultivation, 9152 acres; and number of 
direlling-houses, 244. 

qAWmBR, MOUNT, W. {Co. Grey) is a district council in the electoral district 
of Victoria: It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. C. Fisher, 
aad 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were 
a*' follow :— Assessment £19,000;— rates Is in the pound; rates coUected, J&861 4s. 3d.; 
totil peoeipts^ £2212 IBs. 5d. ; office expenses and salaries, £291 5a lOd.; expended on 

a 

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89 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Gam — Gaw 



pablic works, £1203 68. 8d.; the population numbers 2584 persons,- the area is 60 square . 
miles, or 38,400 acres; land under cultivation, 10,005 acres; and number of dwelling- 
houses, 446. 

GABUIS&TOWN, 37° 50' S. lat., 140° 50^ E. long. {Co. Grey,) is a postal town- 
ship ill the electoral district of Victoria, hundred of Gambler, and under the control of 
the district councils of mount Gambler E. and W. It lies near the extinct volcano, 
mount Gambler, the crater of which forms the celebrated Blue lake. The district is 
agricultural and pastoral ; wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, &c., being grown, and sheep 
and a few cattle depastured. There are 2 steam flour mills in the township. The 
nearest townships are Penola, 36 miles N.; Allandale, 14 miles S.; and Port Macdon- 
nell, 18 miles S. The communication is by the mail coach twice a week, and 3 traps 
run from Gambiertown to Port Macdonnell, to meet the steamer from Adelaide and 
Melbourne. The communication with Adelaide, overland, is by Rounseveirs coach, 
826 niiles by mail route—the mall carries 2 passengers ; and by steamer, via Port 
Macdonnell, once a fortnight. Gambiertown has a Destitute board branch, and a hospital 
is about to be erected in the township. The hotels are— the South Australian (Long's,) 
the Mount Gambler, the Globe, Mac's, and the Farmers' inn. In the township are a 
post and money order office, a telegraph station, a local court, a public pound, and 
branches of the National, English, Scottish and Australian Chartered, and Savings 
banks, and the South Australian and Adelaide insurance companies ; also, an Oddfel- 
lows' lodge, M.U., a Foresters' court, and a tent of Rechabltes. Gambiertown is an 
aboriginal station. The resident magistrates are J. N. Wood, J. Umpherstone, J. C. 
Lyon, J. A. C. Hunter, A. Hobbs, G. Glen, C. G. Doughty, andH. Cunningham, Esqs., 
and Dr. Wehl. The surrounding country is undulating and intersected by numerous 
swamps and lagoons. Much of the land In the immediate neighbourhood is adapted for 
agricultural purposes. It is thickly timbered, the general aspect being fertile and 
pleasing, even seen at a distance. That portion lying to the S., between mounts Gam- 
bier and Shanck, consists of beautiful meadow land, equal to any In England. The 
population of the township is but limited, but the whole district Is well populated by a 
body of Industrious farmers. The geological formation is fossillferous limestone, with 
deep alluvial deposit, and numerous streams of volcanic lava and ash. Near the volc^ic 
hills the soil becomes less rich, as is evidenced by the quantity of stringy bark [Euca- 
lyptus fabrorum) and grass-tree {Xanthorrliea Australis,) and the ferns (principally 
Pteris esculenta, Asplenium laxum, and A.Jlabelli/olium,) and underwood becomes thiclc 
and intricate. 

GANTBEAUBiE CAPE {Kangaroo island) is a projection on the S. coast of 
Ihe island. 

GASCOZGNS BAY (Flinders district) is a deep indentation on the W. coast of 
Streaky bay, and lying between point Demole on the N. and point Collinson on the o. 

OASKMORE {Co. Gawler) Is the name of a smairagrlcultural settlement in the 
neighbourhood of Gawler. It is inhabited by a few farmers, who cultivate wheat ano 
other produce. 

GASSXNGTON (Co. ffindmarsk) is an agricultural wheat-growing settlement 
in the district of mount Barker, inhabited by a few farmers. 

GAWLK&, 34° 35' S. lat., 138 50' E. long. {Cos. Gawler and -4^f^«'^^») ," ? 
postal township and municipality In the electoral district of Barossa, and "J°^^ ,^^ 
Nurlootpa, Mudla Wirra, and Barossa. The town of Gawler Is situated on the ^aj*^^ 
river, or rather between two branches thereof, which, meeting at the western bounaarj 
of the park lands, form one river called the Gawler river. It Is 26 miles N. of Adeiaiae. 
The town is situated on a flat or hollow near the foot of the Barossa ™f ""^*\*°1' 
continuation of the Mount Lofty range, which lie about 10 miles S. and E. of ^'^^ ^°^ * 
These ranges are generally considered to possess mineral deposits, lead, silver, "[^ PPm 
and gold, but, as yet. these have not been found In quantities to V^Y \^^ ^^l^S^ 
working. No rivers or lakes of note exist near the town beside those mentionea a . 
There are 2 mills of large power, both in the hands of Mr. W. Duffield, ^'^'* . 
which large quantities of flour are exported to all parts of the ^^J^*"^"^. Australian 
which have done as much as any other mills to raise the fame of South a .^ 

flour. The enormous quantity of wheat purchased at these mills constitute ine '^ 

feature of Gawler trade and give a market for the surrounding wheat crop . ^^^^ 
are four extensive agricultural Implement, factories and a foundry in .^ .^ rg^Jorles. 
which more reaping machines have been turned out than from the Adelaide 

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Gaw] The South Australian Gaxetteer. 83 

These factories and mills give employment to a great number of men. The district in 
the neighbourhood of Gawler is chiefly agricnltural, alihost exclusively wheat-growing. 
The resident magistrates are J. A. Buchan, W. Duffield, P. F. Ferguson, W. H. Lewis, 
J. Martin, G. M. D. {fott, J. Pile, R. J. Turner, and J. Warren, Esqs. The nearest 
places to Gawler are Lyndoch, 10 miles K., beautifully situated at the foot of the 
Barossa mountains; Tempters, 9 miles N. on the old North road, prettily situated in a 
Talley about 3 miles W. of Freeling station; Virginia, about 10 miles W., near the sea 
coast; and Smithfleld 6 miles S., on the Adelaide road; Willaston, Bertha, Gawler 
South, and Gawler West, being adjoining townships may be considered as part of 
Crawler generally; also Evanston and Bassettown near the railway station. The 
communicHtion with these places is as follows :— Between Gawler and Smithfield, by 
railway; Sandy creek, Lyndoch, and Tanunda. by daily mail carts; also a mail 
conveyance to Williamstown and Mount Crawford, 3 times a-week, and to Willaston 3 
times a-day. The telegraphic communication ramifies throughout this and all the 
adjacent colony. With Adelaide, 26 miles S., the communication is by railway, 3 
times a-day, and the same northward to Kapunda, distance 25 miles. Gawler has 
branches of the South Australian, National, Adelaide, and Savings banks; also of the 
Adelaide and South Australian assurance companies. It has 2 volunteer rifle com- 
panies, a Masonic lodge (lodge Fidelity, 584 E.G.,) an Oddfellows* lodge, M.U., a 
Foresters' court, and a Rechabites' tent. The Gawler institute takes a leading part in 
the literature of the colony, and almost every religious denomination is represented and 
has its place of worship. There is a police court and local courc, police station, pound, 
telegraph office, post office with money order office in connection; also a printing office, 
whence issues the Bunyip newspaper. The hotels are the Commercial, Globe, Old 
Spot, Prince Albert, Gawler Arms, and Old Bushman, in Gawler proper; in the 
adjoining townships, the Willaston, Mill inn. Terminus, and Criterion; at Templers, 
the North Star, one of the best family hotels to be found in the colony, the Lord 
Lyndoch, and the Smithfleld hotels, in these respective townships ; also, the Wheat 
Sheaf inn on the Tanunda road, about 2 miles from Gawkr. The country on the S. 
and £. side generally is hilly, as before mentioned; on the W. and N. generally flat 
and woody, and well adapted for agricultural pursuits. Some of the best wines in the 
colony are made on the Gawler river, at the vineyard of Mr. Duffield (Para Para) and 
those of Dr. Schomburgh and Mr. Winckell (Buchsfeldt,) and others of smaller note. 
The extensive forest of Mudla Wirra lies on the N. and W., but, being all sold by the 
Government, is fast disappearing before the axe and tiie plough. The immediate 
neighbourhood is of the carboniferous formation, afibrding abundance of limestone for 
road making and building purposes. 

The municipality of Gawler has an area of 487 acres and a population of 1694 
persons. The amount of assessment for the year ending 1865 was £10, 334— the rate 
being Is. in the pound; the rates collected were £480 15s. 6'J., the amount ot Government 
grant-in-aid £460; the amount of private subscriptions £158 Os. 6d., and the Govern- 
ment grant-in-aid £276 I9s. 7d; the amount raised from other sources was £163 Os. 7d., 
making a total amount of £1538 16s. 2d; the disbursements were £180 16s. for office 
expenses and salaries, and £1,519 lOs. Id. expended on public works. Within this muni<« 
dpality are the works of 6 agricultural implement makers, 3 brick yards, 6 coach 
builders works, 1 brewery, 2 foundries, 1 pri^ng press, 3 saw mills, and 1 tannery; 
also 199 tradesmen's shops. 

GAWLER COUNTY lies in the S. part of the electoral district of Stanley, and 
is bounded on the N. by the county Stanley, from which it is separated by the river 
Wakefield ; on the S. by the county Adelaide, from which it is separated by the river 
Gawler ; on the E. by the county Light, and on the W. by the N. part of the E. coast of 
the gulf of St. Vincent. It is divided into the hundreds of Alma, Dalkey, In^mann, 
Balakiava, Dublin, Grace, Mudla Wirra, and port Gawler, and is the smallest of the 
South Australian counties. Its E. and S. portions are nearly all purchased land, and 
its N. and W. part is mostly taken up for pastoral purposes. This county is watered 
by the river Light, and by the N. tributaries of the Gawler, and the S. trilfutaries of 
the Wakefield rivers. The county is generally flat, and contains the N. portion of the 
great Gawler plains ; and the W. part consists of low swampy country, running N. and 
S. along the coast. This county has an area of 979 square miles, or 626,560 acres, of 
which 310,462 acres are purchased land ; the extent of land held by freeholders being 
136,381 acres, the land enclosed 169,214 acres, land under cultivation 84,146 acres, 
and laud enclosed, but not cultivated, 85,068 acres. The live stock numbers 3974 

oa 

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84 Ths South AustraUan Gazette. [Gaw— Gfeo 

hones, 5341 horned cattle, 54,796 sheep, 898 goats, 8050 pigt, and 2S,87S head <tf 
poaltry. Of the land under cnltiyation, 54^497 acres are under wheat, 815 acres 
under barley, 38 acres under oats, 7951 acres under hay, 288 acres under green forage, 
S tuves under peas, and 13 acres under other crops, 20,484 aerea^re fallow^ and 2 hctm 
under potatoes. There are 20 acres of orchard, 53 aores of garden, and 53 acres of 
Tineyard, the latter having 32,500 Tines in b^^ng, and 30,660 Tines not in bearing, 
llie crops for the year ending 31st March, 1866, were 312,972 bushels wheat, 7108 
btishels barley, 272 bushels oats, 4729 tons hay, 2 tons potatoes, 2508 gallons wine, and 
65 cwt. grapes. The population numbers 6493 persons, being an increase of 2709 since 
1861. The number of dwelling-houses is 1331 against 874 in that year. 

aAWLEB. MOUNT {Co. Adelaide) is a surTey station and peak in the S. part 
of the Gawler ranges, aud in the hundred of Para Wirra. It lies about 2} miles W. 
of the township of Maidstone, and 4} miles N.W. of the chain of ponds. 

Oik^WlXR MOUNT {Co. Itinden) is the name gtren to a peak of the liTerpod 
ranges lying 15 miles to the N. of port lincoln, and to the W. of Louth bay. 

GAWXiER FORT (Co, Gamier) is a S. hundred of the county, consisting prh»- 
cipally of purchased land, much of which is under cultiTation by a body of industrious 
small farmers. This hundred is watered by the Light and Ghiwler riTers, the latter 
flowing along its S. side. The township of Crawler and the port of Gawler are both in 
this hundred. 

OAWLEB. PORT {Co, OawUr) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Stanley. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr R. Warren 
(of Two Weils) and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district ■ 
council for 1865 were as follow : — ^Assessment, £13, 218 J 3s. — rate, 6d. in the pound; rates 
collected, £302 14s. 6d. ; total receipts, XI 302 8s. S^d. ; office expenses and salaries, 
*X68 7s. 8d. ; expended on public works, i£ll33 Os. 7d. The population numbers 1370 
persons ; the area is 149 Muare miles, or 95,360 acres ; land under cultiTation, 31,606 
acres ; and number of dwelling-houses, 262. There is a public pound in this district. 

OAWUai RANGE (Flinders district) is a range of rugged mountains, rising ia ^ 
Taat mass out of the low, scrubby countiy, lying in a line with the W. part of the 
coast, and at a considerable distance from it. Their principal eleTation is about 2000 
feet. The mountams are of granite, with only coarse Tegetation, and no water except 
a few surface pools. From one of the summits. Eyre, the discoTerer, obtained a Tiew 
oTer an interminable scrub, with salt lakes. The E. part of the range consists of reddish 
quartzite and porphyritic gi^anite. It is a singularly high and barren range, stretching 
in lofty, rugged outline as far as the eye can reach. This part of the country is 
remarkable for its sterility. This range was discoTered by Eyre, during his joum^ 
from Streaky bay to the head of Spencer's gulf, in 1839, and was found by him to be of 
granite, with coarse Tegetation, and no water, except in a few surface pools. From one 
of the summits he obtained a Tiew oTer interminable scrub, with salt lakes. To the N. 
of the range there is grass in patches, but little water, the rock changing to reddish 
quartzite. 

OAW1JB3A REACH (Co. Adelaide) is a pordon of the channel of Port Adelaide^ 
which see , 

0AW1XR RIVER {Co. Gawler and Adelaide) is a stream formed by the con- 
fluence of the N. and S. Para riTers, which meet at the township of Gawler. From 
that place the riTer flows in a tortuous course in a W.S.W. divection, for about 20 
miles in a straight line, until it falls into the gulf of St Vincent, at Port Gawler. The 
township of Milner is on its N. bank, about 2 miles from its mouth, and \t flows past 
Virgin^ and Roseworthy. It runs generally about 5 months in the year. 

GAWXiSA TOWN HILL (Co. Adelaide) is a peak and sunrey stetion in the 
range to the S. of Gawler, and lying about 5 milies to tho S. of that town: 

0£A&78 SWAMP (CcMucdonnett) is a swampy lagoon, which lies 5 mitei 
IT.W. of Narracoorte, and receiTes the overflow of lake Ormerod in wet seasons, feom 
this swamp the surplus water flows into Mma creek, and by it into the sea at Eingstdii' 

O E mmXUVn hill «7o. Mindmarsh) is a peak in a range of low hills lying^ 
tbehundredofEondoparinga, and about 1^ miles &W. of StratbalbyB. a^smrroun*- 
ing country is an agricultural one, 

WSJjAKR {C& Ihbefis an Irreguhlrljrfomwd^ sheet' of frttttw^ter, wHh 

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m 
Cb)0 — GIE.J . The Setoh AmtvaUm Gmetteer. 85 

Teedy..ftD(i inuddj banks, lying t<f the S.ELof Bobe (Ooichen bay.) There are two or 
three small fresh water creeks flowing into it, but no apparent outlet. . , ' 

OEO&GE (or WBKTA^WBXTAyfMVER {FUndcir^^ district) is a fine stresm itsing 
in tbeN. part of the nudn range^ and flowing in a N.E. direction through the township 
oflSlanchewater into lake Gregory. It is f<^ by seyeral small nnnam^ creeks, which 
water tolerably, good pastoral country. These, as well as the main stream, subside in 
dfy weather ioto chains of witteriiolesjf sometimes connected, bat usuaUy detaohdd. 

OSO&CRE LAKE RUN {S:E. District) See Johnson's Coast Rtm. 

OE&BULN FLAT, or Tjsa Tbeb Swamp (Co. Gfrey^) is the name given to a long tract 
of swampy or marshy country lying at the back of the hill which form the E. boundary 
of the S.E. coast lakes. This iwamp is 25 miles long and 3 miles broad. Here and 
there places may be found "where it i^ passable, but, in general, it is an immense 
quagmire, thickly orergrown with dense reeds. There is little doubt that it was 
&rmeriy a lake, and received the drainage of the large flat to the E. of it. It has bdsa 
remarked that this swamp grows drier every year, and the land consequently more 
availkble, and it is confidently hoped that ere long the whole will be fit for cultiva- 
tion. This may be due to a greater dryness in the seasons than those which formerly 
prevoiled-^a fact to which all the older «ettlers bear testimony— or it may be due to an 
ofkheaval of the land. 

^ASRMAM FLAT RUN (JS,E. ditU^ot;) lease No. 186; occupier, J. Ellis-, area, 
8 square miles'; grazing capacity, 1400 sheep, or 175 per square mile ; Goyder's valua- 
tion,( deducting improvements, £50 per annum. This run is watered from swamps, 
and lies .270 miles S<S.E. from Adelaide, 66 miles S.E. of Robe, and 30 miles N.W. 
of port Macdonnell, where the wool is shipped. 

OERMiklf PASS {Co, Light) is a pass or opening in the ranges Ijring to the 
£. of Augaston, And on the main road from that place to Blanchetown. 

n ASBMAN PORT (Spencer's gtdf) is a deep bight in the land in the N. part of 
the E. coast of the gulf. There is a shipping port on the S. part of this bay, known 
as port Peri, where wool -and produce from the pastoral district to the S. of Port 
Augusta is shipped. A large sand-bank runs out firom the main land at this place, 
dry at low water. 

.OE&TT'B HILL, 28° 55' S: lat., 138** 50' E. long. (Flinders district,) is the name 
of a solitary hill lying to the S. of lake Blanche. 

GIBSON'S PENINSULA (Flindeis (it«^tW) is the name of a prominent headkad 
mnning in a northerly direction ^om the mainland, and forming the S. head of Streaky 
bay. A deep indentation on the E. side is known as Blancheport. Cape Bauer, the 
S. head of Streaky bay, is the W. point of this peninsula. 

^ZLBJEAT (jQo. Light) is a hundred lying in the N.W. part of the county, and 
consisting of purchased land, the most of which is used for agricultural purposes. The 
township of Riverton, on the main N. road, idd Clare, lies in this hundred. It is watered 
j)y the upper part of the Gilbert river and its tributaries. There are 2 flour mills 
in this hundred, working 4 pairs of stones, by an aggregate of 22 horse steam power. 

OUASATOir, 84** 10' S. lat., 138"* 40' E. long. (Go. Light,) is a postal township 
far tile electoral district ot Light,^ and hundred of Gilbert. It is situated on the river 
Gilbert, and on the main rof^ irom Adelaide to Clare and Kooringa. The nearest 
place»areRiverton (the next telegraph statioi^, 7 miles N; Rhynie, 7 miles S.; Navan, 
3 miles N. ; and Stockport, 7 miles S . With Rhynie the communication is by Rounsevell's 
daily mail coach, and with the other places by horse or private vehicle. With 
Adelaide, 62 miles S., the communication is by RoonsevelFs daily mail coach to 
Kapunda, and thence by rail. Gilberton has a post Office, a store, and one hotel — 
the Bow and Arrow. The country to the E. is flat, to the W. it rises in gentle 
slopes to hills lightly grassed and sparsely timbered, and to the N. is low, and 
Udobirabiy adapted to the growth of wheat, which is largely cultivated in the district. 
It is intended shortly to form a district oooncil in the neighbourhood, under the name 
•t the district council of Gilbert. The population numbers about 100 persons. 

cClt&BSftT RIVER. (Go, Light) is an important N. tributary of t*(ie Light river, 
imrlng in a. S. direction through a tract of cultivated country, and past the townships 
of Gilberton and Rtverton into the main stream in the hundred of Alma. The banks 
#i Hit rives ar& taken up byia body of IndHttiioas settleni, who eoltivate^good oroips 

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%% The SotUh Australian Gazetteer. [Gil — Glb 

of wheat and other farm produce upon them. The water is for the most part hrackish, 
bat catHe thrive well upon it. 

GZX.BEB.T'S RUN {N.E. dittrict.y See M'Vittib's Run. 

QILE8 (^^' -^i^^rt) is a hundred lyin; on the E. bank of the Murray rirer, 
below Blancbetown. It is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

OZX1E8' FLAT {Hindmarah) is the name of a tract of fiat asrricultural country 
lying 2 miles to the E. of Finnis flat. It is inhabited by a scattered farming population. 

OZLE8' HILL {Co, BindmarsK) is an elevation on the road from Strathalbyn to 
Currency creek and lying about 5 miles S.E. of the former place. 

OIXiULP, RUN (S,E, district;) lease 356a; occtpiers, Palmer, Murphy an^ 
Henty; area, 79 square miles; grazing capacity, 11,000 sheep, or 140 per square mile; 
Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £345 Ss. per annum. This run is 
watered from swamps, wells, and waterholes, and lies 230 miles S.S.E. from Adelaide, 
and 35 miles E.S.E of Robe (Guichen bay, ) *where the wool is shipped. On this and 
other leases taken up by the same occupiers under different dates, are 34,200 sheep, 
250 head of cattle, and 40 horses. 

OZXiLES LAKE, 32"" 45' S. lat., 136'' 50' E. long. {Flinders district) is a large 
marshy salt lagoon, found by Hack in 1857, and lying to the S.W. of the Baxter 
range. It lies in barren and densely scrubbed country, with little grass and scarcely 
any water. 

GILLXEB'S BXrS (N. district;) leases Nos. 119 and 120; occnpier, M. Gillies; 
area, 34 square miles ; grazing capability, 9500 sheep; Goyder's valuation, deducting 
improvements, i;'51 per annum. This run is watered by the Willochra creek, and lies 
about 45 miles N. by ^. of Port Augusta, and 230 miles N.W. of Adelaide. 

OZLLE8 PLAINS {Go. Adelaide) ia a tract of agricultural country lying to the 
N. of Adelaide, and near the village of Walkerville. It is inhabited by farmers and 
gardeners. 

OLAB8T0NE MINE (N, district) is a copper mine lying about 20 miles N. of 
Melro*e» and 32 miles distant Irom Port Augusta. It has been but little worked, 
although the indications are favourable. The country consists of clay-slate and quartz, 
several outcroppings of ore and copper stains being found in many places. Small 
particles of galena and silver have also been found. This mine has not been worked 
for some time. 

GLANFXtiLD (Oo. Adelaide) is the name of a small village lying on Lefevre't 
peninsula, on the W. side of the port Adelaide creek, and connected with port Adelaide 
by a wooden bridge. 

OLANVZXiXJB {Co, Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of port 
Adelaide. It is under the control of a chairman, tlie present one being Mr. D. Brown, 
of Lelevre's. peninsula, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council for 186,3 were as follow :— Assessment, i:i766 168. 6d.— rate. Is. in the pound ; 
rates collected, £66 13s. 4d.; total rectiits, £366 13s. 4d.; (face expenses and salariei, 
£30; expenses on public works. £366 13s. 4d. The population numbers 195 persons; 
the area is 3 square miles, or 1920 acres; land under cultivation, 21 acres; and number 
of dwelling.||ouse8, 44. 

OLEESON'S MIDDLE RUN, (O). Stanley;) lease. No. 1 16 ; occupier, H. Ayers; 
area, 67 square miles ; grazing capacity, 7000 sheep, or 122 per square mile ; Goyder*i 
valuation, deducting improvements, valued at £637, £442 12s. per annum. This run 
lies 25 miles N.E. of port Wakefield, and 90 miles N. of Adelaide. It is watered by 8 
wells at the N. end of the run. 

GLENBROOK (Co. Hindmarsh) is a small agricultural settlement, in the district 
of Encounter Bay, and lying to the N. of Victor harbour. It is settled upon by a few 
farmer , engaged chiefly in the cuLivation uf wheat. 

GLENBU|tNy formerly known as the STOCKTAitDS {Co. Hindmarsh) is a postal 
township, in the electoral district of Encounter bay, hundred of Yankulilla, and nnder 
the control of the district council of Rapid bay. It is situated at the head of the Yoho 
creek, the Stockyard creek flowing at a distance of half-a-mile, and the Sissiconing, 
and BuUaparinga creeks flowing at a distance of 9 miles. The district is an agricultund 



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Gle] The Sovih Australian Gazetteer. 87 

piKoral, and mining one; wheat and other cerStls being grown, cattle and sheep grazed, 
and a silver lead mine having been opened on Mr. Collins' property, althoug)) not jet 
worked. Tne Wheal Coglin, Talisker, Campbeirs creek, and some other small mines, 
are also in the neighbourhood^ and silver lead is being found all over the district The 
nearest places are BuUaparinga, 3 miles N.E., and Silverton, about 4 miles distant, S. 
The communication with the former place is by horse or dray, and with the latter by 
car 4 times a-week. With Adelaide, 67 miles N., the communication is by Rounsevell'f 
coach twice a-week. Glenbnrn has a post office. The nearest hotels are at Silverton 
and Finnisft vale, each distant about 4 miles. The surrounding country is very moun- 
tainous, with intervening plains, whose fertility is unsurpassed in any part of the 
colony, the soil being admirably adapted to the growth of wheat and other grain. From 
this cause; and also from the mineral resources of the surrounding district, Glenburn 
promises to become a highly important township. The uncleared country i» covered 
with thick scrub and some magnificent timber, and the whole district is well watered. 
The geological formation is of clay.slate and limestone. The population of Glenburn 
and its neighbourhood numbers about 400 persons. 

OZiENCOE STATION (8. E District) is a station occupied by E. J. Leake. Esq., 
and lying near mount Burr. There is a post office at the Bush Inn, on this station, 
known as the Mount Burr post office, which see. See also Molong Run. 

GLENDO&E {Co. Stanley) is a small, agricultural village, lying 1 mile S.W. of 
tlie township of Black Springs, on the road to Adelaide. It consists of a few scattered 
houses and a store, and has a chapel, and a scattered population of about 70 persons. 

GXiENEXiG is a municipality and postal township, in the electoral district of 
W. Torrens, and hundred of Adelaide. It is iiituated on the Holdfast bay, on the 
E. shore of St. Vincent^s gulf, and on the embouchure into that gulf of the Sturt river. 
There is also a salt-water creek flowing through the township, the entrance to which 
might, at a reasonable outlay, be converted into an excellent harbour. This creek or 
rather arm of the sea is known as the Thames river. At this port is a green, fixed 
light, which may be seen at a distance of 6 miles. Glenelg is the principal and favourite 
watering-place of the colony, and, being within an easy distance (6^ miles) of the 
capital, is very much frequented during the summer months by persons desirous of 
enjoying the sea air and bathing. It is also rapidly growing in favour as a place of 
permanent residence, by merchants and others having business in Adelaide, on account 
of its great salubrity. Agriculture is carried on only to a very limited extent, and 
pastoral pursuits not at all. The principal occupation followed by the working part of 
the population is that of fishing. A large number of boats go out daily, when the 
weather permits, and their produce is mostly sent to Adelaide for sale; but the absence 
of a good fish-market there prevents the disposal of it at so great an advantage as 
would otherwise be the case. The nearest places are — Brighton, a small township on 
the coast, about 3 miles S.; Marion, a small village, about 3 miles S.E.; and Plympton, 
a yery scattered village, about 3 miles N. With these places there is no regular 
communication at present, the population not being sufficient to support it. A mail 
coach runs from Adelaide to Glenelg and back twice every day. A line of telegraph is 
always accessible, and 6 or 8 omnibuses each way, during the winter months, but • 
considerably more during the summer. A tramway has for some years past been 
contemplated, aii^ several attempts made to form a company for its construction ; no 
steps have yet, however, been tak^n for the carrying out of the work, beyond making 
surveys and plans. The distance from Adelaide to Glenelg is 6^ miles. There is a 
mechanics' institute, and a good government school-house, with a residence for the 
master. There are 4 places of religious worship— viz.. Episcopalian, Congregational is t, 
Wesleyan, and Primitive Methodist — a post and money order office, telegraph-station. 
Foresters' court, public pound, volunteer rifle corps, and a branch of the South Australian 
insurance company. In Glenelg are the following hotels: — The Pier, the St. Leonard's, 
the Berkshire, and the Liverpool. Mr. Rounsevell, mail contractor, is the proprietor 
of most of the conveyances running to and from Glenelg. A spring-van runs to and 
from Adelaide daily, for the carrying of heavier merchandise— Wright, proprietor. 
Glenelg has for the last 9 or 10 years had the advantage of a municipal government. 
It is divided into 3 wards— Glenelg ward, St. Leonard's ward, and new Glenelg ward- 
its corporation consisting of a mayor and 6 councillors. In the immediate neighbourhood 
the country is flat ; but there is a lofty and picturesque range of hills running from 
S. to N.E., within a distance of 3 miles. The soil is sandy in some places, and swampy 
in others, and lies over a formation of limestone and dolomite. The resident magis- 



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88 The South Austrc^n ffm^fUeer. [Q^ns 

mjtesAre H. 3..J. Strangways, J. Peacoek, A. Scott,*a»d*R.'B.<GdUej,=£iqt. ThAe 
is an el^rant and substj^ntial iron jetty, extending about a quarter of >« niikiiito^lil» 
flea» which if a very fashionable promenade during the summer months, having 'been 
erected About 9 years ago, at a cost of nearly £30,000. The receipts and expenditure 
of this municipality for 1865 were as follow :~ Assessment, '£9061-^Tate 1«. in the pound;, 
rates collected, £474 9s. 5d.; total receipts from all sources, £905 13s. 9d.; Office 
expenses and salaries, £125 I3s. 4d.; expended on public wotks, £797 17s. ^d. The 
area of the municipality is 589 acres, the population nuti^ring IV4^ persons, 'a& 
increase of 439 since 1861. The dwelHng-houses number 603, being ^an increase 'of'SS- 
since that year. Within the municipality there are 97 shops, kept by tradesnien of 
. 7«nou8 branches of business. 

mUaUSLQ BIYJSB, (Co. Adelaide.) See CowA]!n>iLi.A Biybr. 

SftElfO&OffQB {Co, Adelaide) is a ^mall agricultural t<yvens]up,* lying about a 
ndle N.W.of Basbwood's gully post offioe, and on the main Adelaide axid ,Goo1imi 
road. It forms part of the Dashwood's goUy postal district-^which see. 

O-UBNE-lVllf (Go. Adelaide) is a vineyard, ^e propeit^r and retiflenee of 
0. McEwin, Esq., J. P., situated near Houghton, about 14 miles from Adelaide^ ontho 
main road to Qumeracka. It is on the W. spur of mount Lofty range, and about 1000 
feet above the level of the sea. A gully runs through the enclosed grounds E. and W., 
and on its flat, and on the alopes of the hills rising from it, Mr. McEwin has planted 
his vineyard and oroluurd. The Frontignac and black Hambro' are the principal 
varieties, and fine pure wines are made from them. 

QIJ9NOflllOm> (Co. Adelaide) isa small village, suburban to Adelaide, in the 
eleetoral district of £. Torrens and hundred of Adelaide. It lies otT the main E. road 
from Addaide to mount Torrens, 4 miles S.E. of Adelaide, the communication being by 
Bounsevell's daily line ^of coaches. The district is an agricultural one, inhabited by 
small farmers, gardeners, and vignerons ; there being also several suburban residenoea 
of gentlemen having business in Adelaide in the surrounding locality. The country, ia 
hilly, with fine fertile valleys and slopes, many of them in a high state of cultivation. 
GUenosmond has a public pound, an Oddfellows' lodge (A.LO.F.), and 1 hotel— the Vine. 
Tbe resident magistrates are T. Elder, J. Toung,> C. Smedley, T. Graves, and 
C.Lindsay, Esqs. There is a silver lead mine in this village, on the property of Osmond 
Qilles, Esq., who has leased it on royalty to an English company. It contains several 
good lodes, and many hundred tons of ore have been raised. There is a fine vineyard 
at Qlenoemond, theprop^tyof Mr. Osmond Gilles, growing Tokay, Riesling, Mourasti^,. 
Gftrignan, Gouais, Verdeilho, Malbec,Shiraz, Grenache, and Mataro, the wines produced 
being of excellent quality. A large cellar, and some good wine-making machinery 
have been erected on the ground. There is also a vineyard called Birksgate, the 
property and residence of A. Hardy, Esq., situated on the Glenosmond road, on thp^ 
slope of the first hill approached from Adelaide. The whole of the vineyard is on 
rising ground, and is supplied with water from the Glenosmond creek. The soil is a 
rich brown loam, on a subsoil of decomposed limestone and slate. The varieties or 

fapes are t^e red and white Madeira (both used lor a white wine,) Gouais, Pedro 
imenes, Verdeilho, Frontignac, and Palo-vino-blanco. There is a capital fruit 
garden on the property. At the entrance tto the hills are the Glenosmond quarries, in 
which blue alaty shales and hard greenish-grey fine grained sandstoSs are exposed, 
having a dip W. 22**, S. about 10°. The beds are intersected by numerous N. and S. 
and E. and W. nearly vertical parallel joints, and by veins containing galena. The 
beds ure similar in lithological character and general structure to some of the Ludlow 
rooks of tbe upper Silurian series of N. Wales. No traces of fossils have been found 
in them. , 

QL&N PAKA (Co. Adelaide) is a vineyard, the property «nd residence of 
D. Randall, Esq., J. P., situated in the neighbourhood of mount Crawford, about 3 
miles from Pewsey vale, on the road to Gumeracka. The soil in this vinej^urd is li^t, 
and the subsoil varies from clay to micaceous sandstone, mixed with gravel and iron* 
stone. The vineyard is bounded on the W. by the Barossa range, which riielters it 
from the prevailing W. winds. The chief varieties of grapes are Shiraz, Riesling, Cav^ 
bonet. and Pedro Ximenes. There is an excellent wine cellar, 2 storeya high, each stovey 
being 12 feet high and 40 feet by 82 feet in the dear. The walls are of atone, with a 
limeash and composition roof. The Glen Para wines have attaiaed greatoelebrity, bolh i» 
the S. Australian and Victorian nmrketa. Mr. Randall has also another ?inS9«cd^oa ^ 



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6ifi~6ooJ Tk$ 8ou^ Auatraii&n Gazettur. 80 

Hw S. Bbine, 10 miles due E. from Glen Pan, ibe 2 Tineyardt b«Ting mn aggfegste 
k of aboat 80 acres. 



HILL, 29r W S. lat, 137° ¥f £. long. {Flinders district,) is a low hill 
lyil^ on tbe S. of Davenport's springs, and in tbe pastoral country to the S. of 
lakeEjre. 

mVOMQim WLJLE (FUmdirB ditkia) is the name of a reef of rooks lying half^ 
mile from the S.W. end of 8t. Peter^s isbmd, in NnyVs archipelago. The sea geoMaUy 
*^ ' 1 orer this fee£ 



CM>AT ISLAND {Co. Hindmarth) is a small sandy island lying in tke lower 
Ifanay, near Kankiiie's ferry and to the 8 J!, of the township of Clayton. 

^OjB:T island (Flinders district) is a small granite Ishmd lying to the W. of 
at. Piter's island in Noyt^s arch^ieU^^ and divided from that isUad by a channel 
hi^f ■ wile in width, and impassable for reseels. Its N. and W. sboMS are bold a&d 
niky, and its S. coast has sereral daagerous reefs ranniog from it. 

.BOVnLBT ISLAND {Co. Bobe) is a small rocky island lying off cape Thomas» 
in the N. part of Guicben bay. 

QOBOD {Co. ffindmarsk) is a amall agricnltursl settlement in tbe district of 
Encoonter bay, lying to the N. of Victor harboor, and inhabited by a few farmers. 

"QOTUDIOK QROVE {Oo. ^ddaide) is a small agrienltnral village under the 
control of tbe district council of Tea-tree gully. It lies 1 4 miles distant 8.W. fr«m 
the Upper Little Para river, 4^ miles N.E. of Modbury, and 14 miles frt)m Adelaide. 
^Fhe -surrounding country is undulating, consisting generally of bald hills, capable of 
cultivation. The population numbers about 40 persons, nearly all engaged in agiteol* 
tural pursuits. * ' 

GOODWOOD PARK {Co. AMaide) is a small residential suburb of Adelaide, 
^jring I mile 9. of Unley, on the fiMrnhiU creek. It is 3 miles from Adelaide, with 
irhich place there is communication by 'bus throughout the day. 

QOOXiWA, SS"" 35' S. Ut., 139*' E. long. {Go. Bindmarsh,) is a postal township and 
port in the electoral district of Encounter bay, hundred of Goolwa, and under the control 
of the district council of Goolwa and port Elliott. It is situated on the W. bank of the 
Murray river (about 7 miles from the Murray mouth,) which has been sucoessfuUy 
navigated by the various steamers trading between the Goolwa, the upper Murray, 
Mmnmbidgee, and Darling rivers, and is about to.be made more generally available by 
the introduction of vessels specially built in Great Britain for the purpose, and under 
tiie supervision of Captains J. Johnstone and King, who have been for some years 
engaged in the river trade. The Finniss river flows into the Murray about 6 railes,«iid 
the Currency creek about 3 miles, E.N.E. of the township. The district is partly agri- 
cultural and partly pastoral, the farmers dividing their attention between wheat growing 
and- sheep grasing, by which means the land is yearly improving in quality. There is 
a.«team flour mill (Barker and Co.'s) in the township, 1 brewery, and 1 iron foundry, 
the latter establishment being entitled to the credit of having constructed tbe first iitta 
vessel (the Jof^f Miller) built in South Australia. It has all the appliances for doing 
every kind of shipbuilding and engineering required on tbe rivers. The nearest placea 
are — Middleton, 4^ miles N.W.,on the line of tramway to port Victor; Port Elliott, 
^ miles W., and also on the tramway line ; and Currency creek, 4 miles N. The com- 
munication with Currency creek is by Bounsevell's bi-weekly coach, and with the other 
places by the tramway. With Adelaide, 55 miles N.W., the communication is daily 
from Port Elliott, a bi-weekly via Strathalbyn by Bounsevell's mail coaches. Gk>olw« 
h*s a post and money order office, a telegraph office, and 3 hotels— the Goolwa 
(Yarcoe's,) Corio (Neville's,) and Australasian (Willcock's,) a local court, a volunteer 
oavalry corps, an aboriginal station, and branches of the South Australian and Adelaide 
banks, and the South Australian and Adelaide insurance companies. The. surroundiug 
country for a distance of about 6 miles is flat, gradually forming to the N. W. into a range 
of hills. The soil is black and sandy, and overlies a limestone formation. The pppu- 
lotion numbers about 600 persons. 

OOOXiWA DISTRICT COUNCIL (Co. ffindmarsh.) See Eluott Post. 

CM>0&WA {Od.iMindmMfsh) is a S. hundred of the county, lyhig on the W. side 
of Jlska iUAxaodiioa, and oa the eoast of Encounter bay. The townships of pott 



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90 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Goo — Gba 

Elliott and Goolwa, the latter the depdt of the Murray navigation, are in this hundred. 
About half of its area is purchased land, mostly agricultural. 

QOOLWA (or Lower Murray) RIVER {Co. ffindmarsh) is the name given to 
the navigable channel leading from the sea mouth of the Murray to lake Alexandrina. 
This channel turns sharply to the W. immediately after entering, running in a N.E, 
direction for about 6 miles, when it forms a bend past the port ot Goolwa to the E. for 
14 miles, and opens into the lake at point Sturt. The steamers trading up the Murray 
come down the Goolwa river, as far as the townsliip of Goolwa, which is situated upon 
its W. bank. 

GOOSE ISLAND {Co. Hindmarsh) is a small sandy island in the lower Murray 
river, near the township of Clayton. Rankine*s ferry crosses the stream at this place. 

GORDON'S RUN {SE. district;) lease No. 167; occupier, Jas. Gordon; area, 10 
square miles; grazing capacity, 2000 sheep, or 200 per square mile; Goyder's valuation, 
deducting improvements £150. This run is watered by swamps, and lies on the 
border of the colony, 220 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 95 miles K.N.E. of Guichen 
bay. This run is worked from the head station, near Apsley (^Victoria,) the road from 
Karracoorte to Apsley passing through it. 

GORGE MINE (^Co ffindmarsh.) See Normanvillb. 
ZT GOTTXiZEB'S well run (AT. district;) lease No, 26; occupier, Alexander 
M'CuUoch; area, 93 square nriles; grazing capacity, 18,000 shieep, or 195 per square 
mile; Goyder's valuation, £930 per annum, deducting improvements, valued at 4;'2977. 
This run lies 35 miles N. of Kooringa, and 135 miles N. of Adelaide. It is watered by 
wells and a few small springs, and lies 12 miles N. of Ulaloo creek, and to the E. of 
Black rock. This run also comprises leases Nos. 30, 239, 372, 597, 229, 428, 331, and 
524, which have a total area of 407 square miles, and graze 40,000 sheep, and 30 head 
of cattle. 

GOVZ»D» MOUNT, {Co. Adelaide) is the nAe of a lofty peak, th^ighest in the 
Barossa range. It lies 14 miles to the E. of the tawnship of Eersbrook, and is 
exceedingly rugged and thickly timbered. The Chain of Ponds creek and village lie 
5 miles W., Maidstone 2 miles W., and Gumeracka 3 miles N.Wi 

GOULD'S CREEK (Co. ^c^ZazVfe) is a tributary of the upper part of the little 
Para river, rising in the Gawler ranges, and flowing W. 

GOYDE& {Co. Stanley) is a S. hundred of the county containing a small quantity 
of purchased land. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

GOVERNMENT FARM (Co, Adelaide) is the country villa of the Governor of 
the Colony, and is situated in a natural basin, nearly surrounded by hills, along the S. 
side of which the Sturt river wends its way. It lies 4 miles beyond Mitcham, and 8 
miles S. from Adelaide. 

G&ACE {Go Gawler) is a central hundred of the county, containing about three- 
fourths of its area of purchased land, much of it under cultivation. It is watered by 
the Light river. There is a public pound in this hundred. 

GRACE PLAINS {Co, Gawler) is the name given to a tract of good flat agri- 
cultural and pfstoral land, lying in the hundreds of Grace and Dublin, on the N. side 
of the river Light. It consists of lightly grassed plains, having occasional belts of 
malice scrub, and patches of pine timber, useful for building purposes. The township 
of Mallala lies on these plains, the country being sandy and having abundance of lime- 
stone, which is used for building. 

G&ABAM, MOUNT {Co, Robe,) is a volcanic hill lying about 10 miles N.N.W. 
of Robetown. 

GRAHAM SWAMP (Co. Robe) is a large morass of black mud, very boprgy, and 
covered with reeds, lying at the foot of mount Graham, 45 miles frftm Guichen bay. 
This trends away to'the N.W. until it forms a perfect channel about half-a-mile wide, 
but containing little or no water. It continues for a long distance until it becomes a 
stream, which flows into the Salt creek, and thence into the Coorong. 

GRAND JUNCTION (Go, Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district 
and hundred of W. Torrens, and under the control of the Yatala district council. It 
Ifl situated on a flat called the Para plain, wliicb is bounded on the E. by gentle hills, 



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Gra — Gre1 The South AmtraUan OazetUer, 91 



aad on the W. by a salt swamp. The name is given to the place in consequence of 5 
roads meeting there. The district is an agricultural one, and produces excellent cropa 
of wheat and bay. The nearest places are Dry creek or Montagu, distant 2} miles N.E., 
the means of communication therewith, as with Adelaide 6 miles S., being by Bowden's 
mail omnibuses along the great and lower N. roads. There are 2 hotels — the Grand 
Junction and the Bird-in-hand. The surrounding country is flat, and the soil good. The 
population numbers about 100 persons. 

O&ANZTX: ISLAND {Co, Hindmarsh) is a small rocky island Ijdng in Encounter 
bay, opposite the mouth of the Inman river. It lies about half-a-mile from the land, 
and has a small rock, known as the Seal rock, about 14 miles to the S.£. 

GRANITE MOUNT [Flinders district) is a peak of the Gawler range, lying a 
short distance from mount Centre in a N. direction. There is a good rocky waterhole 
under this hill, discovered by Hack, and known by the native name of Ponara. 

G&AMZTE RANGE {Flinders district.) See Warburtom's Range. 

G&ANTHAM ISLAND {Co. Flinders) is a small island lying off a projecting 
point on the N. side of port Lincoln. The Investigator anchored here in 4 fathoms, 
soft bottom. Fresh water may be obtAed on this point by digging pits about 100 
yards behind the beach at the head of the port, and although discoloured by whitish 
clay, through which it passes, it has no pernicious quality, nor is it ill-tasted. From 
Captain Flinders' observations at this point, there appears to be only one high water 
in the 24 hours. 

O&EAT BEND (Co. Burra,) See North- West Bend. 

GREAT BRADFORD MINE (Co, Hindmarsh,) is a copper mine, not^ow worked* 
lying 4^ miles from Finniss flat. * 

G&EEN BANK {Co. Hindmarsh) is a small agricultural settlement in the neigh- 
bourhood of mount Barker. It has a small farming population engaged in the cultiva- 
tion of wheat and vines. 

OaEENXiY ISLES, 34° 40' S. lat.. 134° 47' E. long. {Co. Flinders,) is the name 
given to two peaked rocky islets of abrupt granite formation, the peak of the larger 
island being 636 feet in height, and visible about 30 miles in fine weather. They lie 
to the S.E. of point Sir Isaac. • 

GBEENLY LAKE {Flinders district) is a swampuhallow lake lying between the 
coast of Coffin's bay, and the Greenly range of hills. It is surrounded by pastoral 
country, and is to the N. W. of port Lincoln. 

OBEENLY Mf)UNT, 34° 20' 15" S. lat. {Flinders district,) is a peak in a low 
range ol hills lying a few miles from the coast, opposite the entrance to Coffin's bay, 
for the navigation of which it forms a landmark. The surrounding country is taken 
up for pastoral purposes. The district to the S.E. of this, hill is a scrubby limestone 
table land, mostly covered with thick scrub, and lying from 600 to 1000 feet above sea 
level. This hill attains an elevation of 1000 feet above the level of the sea. 

GREENOCK {Co. Light) is a township in the hundred of Nuriootpa, and in' 
the electoral district of Light, and is a polling place for the same district, situated on 
the Greenock creek, 44 miles N.N.E. from Adelaide, on the main line of road between 
Freeling and Blanchetown (river Murray,) and on the main line between Gawler and 
Kapunda. A daily mail runs from Truro and Angaston, via Greenock, to Freeling, to 
meet the first train to and from Adelaide ; and three times a week runs a conveyance 
from Angaston via Nuriootpa and Greenock to Freeling, to meet the same train. The 
nearest townships are Victorville E., Brunskill town S, and Boomawanda W., all 
three townsliips are adjoining Greenock. The next nearest townships are, then, 
Nuriootpa, 4 miles E., on the main road to Blanchetown, Angaston and Tanunda. 
Kapunda, 9 miles Jf.,on the Adelaide and Kapunda railway; Daveyston, 4 miles S. W., 
on the main road to Freeling; Moppa hillb, 3 milts N.K ; and Seppelsfield, due S., 2 miles 
from Greenock. Greenock is situate in a valley 600 feet above the level of the sea. It 
has a post office and register office. The nearest telegraph office is at Victorville. The 
population is 122 ; the number of dwellings, 37; and the area in acres, 85. It was 
surveyed as a township in 1853. Victorville, in the same valley, with a population 
of 89, dwellings 18. Brunskill town, the sanje, whh a population of 28; dwellings 4. 
Boomawanda, on a hill, with a population of 5; dwelling, 1. The hotels are:— in 



Digitized bvLjOOQlC 



Od Ths 8mah AttHraHan GazeUar. [Obb 

dreeaoek, Oreenock Anat ; io Viotonrine, Greenock Oreek taTern. Greenoek 4s 
oeiorly tnrrotinded b^rtoMll hillt, iiioely timbered, and a'good'mimberofprettygstdeat, 
whioh h«Te<aHrayf •• food iiKpretBionon trayellers, ooming partioolarty^from the^W. 
iide. TbetorrovndiBg oowitry is allavial, wdl-grassed • and tiosbered, and 'well 
itdapted ^ragrUmHinraL pnrsuils, wliit^ are extensir^lj fi>liowed in She neighbovrliodd. 
Wlieatis frown heveto « great extent. Opper mining is- also •carried on in'thw 
district, particularly to the S.W., 4 miles from- Greenock, where a^nine is opentd 
named Wheal Nitsohke. All the ranges and neigiibourboodr' from WheabNitsoltke to 
Kapanda mine, contain«a,good deal ef copper, and ina few years, no 4oubt, more mines 
will be opened with soccess on the Jkbore^aimed ranges. There is a steam aiill 
(Palmer's) in full work, at Victorvilla Greenock has 1 Wesleyan chfkpel and 1 
school/ also one German chapel (Latheran) and school. 

O-RXm PATCH RUN (TT. dittrict;) lease No. 99; ooeiq»ier, Jaaies SincUiii; 
area, 29 square miles; grazing capacity, 2900 sheep, or 100 per square mile ; Goyder's 
Taluation, deducting improvements, £1 18 per annum. It is watered from springs, and 
lies ^ miles N;W. of port Lincoln, and 405 miles overland from Adelaide. 



PLAINS (Co^Dcdy) is. a tr# of flat pastoral land lyi^ in the 
bondred of Kulpara. 

I (Ob. Adelaide,) a name sometimes applied to GrUnthal — whioh see* 



WATERHOLES (Co, Light) is the name given to some deep water- 
holes on the river Gilbert, and on the direct road from Gawler to Saddleworth. 

'Q&EGO&Y ( Co, Frome) ts a hundred lying in the central part of the county, on 
the main N.'road via Clare, and to, the N. of mount Remarkable. It contains some 
purchased land, and a copper mine known as the Spring creek mine. The oountry 
geaerally is ased for pastoral purposes. 

O&SQO&T LAKE (Flinders dittriet N.) is a fine large sheet of water lying 
about 25 miles N. of Blanchewater, and fed by the Tindllpa, Hamilton, George, and 
Bomerous other creeks on its S. side. It stretches for a considerable distance irom £. to 
W., (although in dry seasons very fnuch of it subsides into a reedy swamp. This lake 
and lake Blanche or Blanchewater to the K., were formerly supposed by Babbage to be 
one continuous sheet of salt water, and to form the E. arm of lake Torrens, but they 
have been found to be quite s^>arate, and after heavy rains remain fresh for iully 7 
months. They receive the wMe dniaage of the country. 

OREGOaT's CROSSING, 29'' SO' S. hit., \4<f E, long. {FUnden district,) ig ttie 
name given to a crossing over the bed oi lake Blanche, available#xcept in wet seasons, 
when the country becomes a shallow swaipp. There is, however, a range of sand-hills 
which runs across the bed of the lake, and Vhich is most probably always above water. 
This crossing lies to the E. of Blanchewater, and to the N.E. of mount Hopeless. This 
crossing was first discovered by Gregory, who crossed, and states that the passage 
between the lakes was a level space about half-a-mile wide, and that it was sandy, .and 
covered with salicomia, without any connecting channel or creek of any kind. 

CrSfiOO&l^'S SPRINGS (N, dUtrict.)See Wblcomb SpRiims. 



' COUNTY is the most soathem comty of the colony, and is sitoaied at Its 
S.E. extremity, being bouivded on theW. and S. by the sea, on the N. by the county* Bohe, 
and on the E. by the colony of Victoria. The N. boundary of the county is an imaginary 
line rooningifrom cape Rabelais to the boundary of the colony in 37° ' 6. lat. The 8. 
and E.. parts of the county are settled and taken up by a number of -agriculturists and 
sheep-fiuners, the setlled district being divided into the fallowing • hundreds :-^N. 
hundreds, Monbvila 'and Penola; central hundreds. Grey, Hindmarsh, and Yo«ng;-€. 
hundreds, Benara, Bianche, Gambler, Eongorong, 'MaodctMiell, and Caroline. The 
principal townships in this county are— Penola, Gambiertown, and MaodonneU iny, 
the lauer beiag the pert of that part of the colony. There are no rivers in the county* 
hut numerous small swanpy creeks, and several underground streams, connected witii 
its volcanic formation. The W. ^ or ooast side of the county, is taken i^ by lai^ge swan^j 
lagooas, the principal of whidi are known as lakes Bonney, Frone, George, aad St. Glidr. 
The S. coast consists of ranges of ^shifting saodKhllis or4unes, and the centre is4ibBMt 
entirely ef volcanic formation, the celebrated volcanic hills known as memts Gamhitr 
asd Sdianck, with their singular lake craters (for a canoise description of whociiii^ 

. Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Gbs— Gm] The South AustraUim Gazetteer, 98 

the Bev. J. £. T. Wood's *' Geological ObserTationt in Soatk Australia,'' p. 224,) and 
the tmaller ones^ moants Burr, Muirhead, Leake, Graham^ and Macintyre being the 
principal. Lgrlng«t the bates of these hills are vast swamps, and shiUlow lagoons^ 
witk sandy and Iknestone beds, and many of them encrusted with saline deposits. At 
CKfe Nor^mberiand, the S.W. part of therounty, is a lighthouse, and along the CQA«t 
are nomerons bays, the principal of which, after Macdonnell bay on the S., is RivoU 
bayCn the W. This county is comprehended in the electoral district of Victoria, and 
has an area of 2347 square miles^ or 1,502,080 acres, of which 306,446 aerea a«e 
purchased land, there being 239,700 acres held by freeholders; 500,720 acres enclosed^ 
and 2i,420 acres under cultivation; the live stock nnmbers 5275 horses. 26,883 homed 
cattle^ 556,029^ sheep, 135 goats, 2555 pigs, and 16,423 head of poultry; of the cultivated 
land, 13,571 acres are under wheat, 145 acres under barley, 879 acres under oats, 2023 
acres under hay, 3139 acres under green forage, 14 acres under peas, and 18 acres under 
other crops; there are 717 acres of fallow land, and 587 aores under potatoes; 108 acres 
are orchard, 212 acres are garden, and 7 acres are vineyard, the latter having 3429 
vines in bearing, and 2427 vines not in bearing. The crops for the year ending March 
3l8t^ 1866, were 245,483 bushels of wheat, 3071 bushels of barley, 18,292 bushels of 
oats, 2975 tons of hay, 1184 tons of potatoes, 441 gallons of wine, and 88 cwt. of 
grapes. The population numbers 6517 persons, being an increase of 3180 since 1861; 
and the numb^ of dwellings is 1853, being an increase^f 835 since that year. 

Q&ST {Co. Orey) is one of the central hundreds of the county. About half the 
land in the hundred is sold. The township of Ealangadoo lies near the middle of 
this hundred. 

OmiNDAX ISLAND (Co. Flindtn) is a rocky island lying la the N; part of 
Thorny passage, upwards of 2 miles from the mainland to the W., and 4 miles N. W. 
£mm the N. point of Thistle island. It is three-quarters of a mile long. • 

O&UNTHAL or Grebnthal (Co, Adelaide) is a postal township in the elec- 
toral district and hundred of Onkaparinga, and under the control of the Onkaparinga 
district council. It is situated on the Onkaparinga river, which passes through the 
town, the village of Cox's creek lying 2 miles S.W. on the Adelaide road, and Bal- 
hannah 3 miles N.E. ; communication with both places, as also wiAi Adelaide, 18 miles 
"W., bemg had hj Rounsevell's daily mail coaches. The district is an agricultural one, 
large quantities of wheat and hay being grown there. It also possesses numerous fruit 
and vegetable gardens, and the cultivation of the vine is particularly and successfully 
atten<j^ to. There is one hotel in the township, —the Stanley bridge. The surrounding 
country is mountainous, the hills being rugged and containing much quartz, some of 
yr^Ach are sKghtly aurifierous ; and, although there are no regular diggings, small qnim- 
tities of gold have been obtained at various places on the Onkaparinga river. In the 
deep gullies lying between the hills the soil is exceedingly rich, and in many places 
highly cultivated, producing almost every kind of fruit and vegetable known in 
the colony. The population numbers about 150 persons. 

Q&UNBYy MOUNT {Flinders district^) is the highest peak in the Anderson 
range of hills. 

gray's CBEEK, 26° 30' S. lat., 139** 25' E. long. {Flinders distinct,) is a smaU 
watercourse lying in a grassy oasis in the Stony desert of Siurt. This creek was 
found by the Burke and Wills expedition, and named after Gray, one of the party. It 
consists of a reach of water 1 mile long, 3 chains wide, and between 2 and 3 feet deep. 
To the N. of this stream is another smaller watercourse, running between banks from 
20 to 30 feet high, having permanent pools of water, slightly brackish. The country to the 
N.W. consistsof sandy and stony plains, with high red sand-hills, covered with spinifex. 
Tliere is much box scrub on the flat, but no grass. To the S. is good grass and 
salt bush. 



• BAY, 37** 9' 45" S. lat., 189° 44' 15" E. long. {Co. Robe) is a fine 
bajiformed by cape Lannes, on its southern extreme, and Baudin's rocks and reefs^ 
If: by W; 4^ 'miles ttom thence at its northern extreme. From ci^ Lannes, a reef of 
reokf-nm N.N;W. \\ miles ; from Baudin's rocks, another reef stretches 1 J .miles in a 
&£; dfrectionr; Oape Lannes may be known by an obelisk on its extremity, 46 feet in 
height, painted red and white in horizental stripes, which, being about 100 feet above 
the ^e» level, is visible 12 mtfes from the deck of a moderate sized vessel in clear 

lier. The «ottst to the southward is composed of sandy hMlocks, lightly timbered. 

ker»«xtMid IUljr24nilfis off this part of tl» ooasi'; and, from tbehr treaeherovf 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



94 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Gul — Gum 

nature, and the heavy ocean swell setting directly on them, should be most carefully 
EToided. Baudin's rocks form a group of islets situated from cape Lannes, N. by W., 
4) miles ; they are visible about 7 miles. The bay, inside the reefs, off cape Lannei 
and the Baudin's rocks, is 3 miles deep, and lined by a clean sandy beach, the bottom 
quite clear and of excellent holding ground, with gradual soundings from 5 fathoms in 
Uie stream of the reefs to the shore, with the exception of a few rocky points, n^ the 
township of Robe, which terminate a few fathoms from the beach. Frigates' modnngs 
have been laid down in 4 fathoms, under the shelter of cape Lannes and its reef. Two 
vessels of any tonnage can be accommodated, the water being rather deeper at the 
eastern buoy. A convenient jetty, with a tramway from the road to the end, is now 
completed, having, at its extremity, 6 feet at low water ; boats can load here in any 
weather, by having a line fast to a grapnell outside, to steady them and haul off by. 
The township of Robe lies at the head of this bay. The whole of the E. and N. sides 
of Guichen bay are composed of low sand-hills, scarcely 30 feet above the water level, 
but on the S. side a change takes place. The sand is replaced by rough craggy rocks, 
which, though not rising very high, are bold and abrupt, sometimes presenting a 
perpendicular face to the heavy surf which beats upon that coast. Amongst the rocks 
on the SL side of this bay are several blowholes, caused by the wash of the waves 
having bored caves into the rock, and then upward to the surface by a channel, through 
which every wave which falls upon the shore sends up a column of spray into the air, 
even on the calmest day. 

GULF OF ST. VINCENT (Flinders district and Torhe's peninsuh^f See St. 
Vincbnt's Gulp. , 

GUXiLETT^ MOUNT, RUN (Oo.Frome;) lease No. 110; occupier, J/H. Angas; 
area, 45 square miles; grazing capability, 5000 sheep, or 111 per square mile; Goyder's 
valuationpleducting improvements, £279. This run is watered by the heads of Spring, 
Stony, Beautiful valley, Horrocks, Nectar, and mount Gollett creeks. It lies 20 miles 
S.E. of Port Augusta, and 180 miles N. of Adelaide. 

OUM CREEK (Co. Burra) is a small stream, subsiding into a chain of waterholes 
in summer, and flowing into the Burra creek. It lies 7 miles S. W: of Kooringa. 

OUME&ACXA* 34'' 50' S. lat., 138° 56' K long. (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal 
township in the electoral district o\ the same name, and hundred and council district of 
Talunga. It is situated on the Kenton and Smith creeks, which run N. and S., the 
Torrens river being a quarter of a mile from the township, and running W, The 
district is both agricultural and pastoral, wheat being grown in large quantities, and 
sheep and cattle grazed to a considerable extent. The nearest places are Foreston, %\ 
miles distant, Curdley creek, 2 miles, and Kenton valley, half-a-rr.ile. The communi- 
cation is by horse or dray, and with Adelaide, 24 miles W.S. W., by RounsevelPs mail 
coach daily, or by Day's coach twice a week. Gumeracka has a post and money order 
office, a telegraph office, a literary institute, a court-house, a police station, a Wesleyau 
and a Baptist chapel, and a public school; also a local court, the resident magistrates 
being W. B. Randall and H. Dawson, Esq8.,and a branch of the South Australian 
insurance company. There are two hotels— the District and the Kenton Inns, a steam 
flour mill (Randall's,) and a brewery (Moger's.) Gumeracka lies in an undulating 
plain, surrounded by hills. 

Gumeracka electoral district is bounded on the W. by the E. boundary of the 
district of Yatala; #n the S. by the centre of the river Torrens between E. side of 
preliminary section 508 and section 5521, hundred of Para Wirra, by Kangaroo creek 
to the Striqgybark Trigonometrical station, by the range to mount Torrens, and by 
the spur of the said mount Torrens to the main range, and by the N. boundaries of 
hundreds of Kanmantoo, and Monarto ; and by the S. boundary of the hundred of 
Finniss to the centre of the river Murray; on the E. by the river Murray from the 
last-named point to the N.E. corner of the hundred of Ridley; on the N. by the N. 
boundaries of the hundreds of Ridley and Angas; thence W. to Keyne's Hill Trigono- 
metrical station; thence westerly by the N. boundary of the county of Sturt to 
its N.W. angle; thence by a line in a S.W. direction to a point where the S. 
Para river enters the N. boundary of section 669 in the Barossa special survey; 
thence, following the course of the S. Para river generally, in a westerly direction, to 
the point of commencement. It comprises the district councils of Uigberconibe, 
mount Crawford (portion of,) Para Wirra, S. Rhine, Talunga (E. and W., portions of,) 
Tea- tree gully (portion of,) Tungkillo, and the hundreds of Angas, Ridley, and Finniss. 
It has an area of 867 square miles, or 554,880 acres, of which 38,529 acres are under 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



^r7 



Grb — Kal] The South Australian Oazetteer. 95 

eoltiyation, against 32,816 acres in 1861. The population is 7662, of whom 1770 are 
adult males. The voting places for this district are Gumerauka, Tea-tree gully, mount 
Pleasant, and Maidstone. The representatives in the Legislative Assembly are the 
hon. A. BIyth, and A. B. Murray, Esq. The number of registered electors for 1865 
in this district was, for the Legislative Ck>ancil, 750, and for the Legislative Assembly. 
1239. 

O-REYt MOUNT {N. district,) is a peak in the Druids* range to the S. of the 
Passmore rive^, and the N. of th§Kirwan mine. 
' OUM ILAT RUN {W. District;) occupiers, Acraman, Main, Lindsay & Co.; 

area, 127 square miles under lease; and 8 square miles under claim; grazing capability 
14,000 sheep. This run lies near Mount Wedge, the nearest post office being Brumfleld. 
The sheep are watered from wells. 

OUM FLAT (or Mount Rat) RUN (Forjfce's peninsula;) lease No 18; occupiers, 
Anstey and Giles; area, 167 square miles; grazing capability, 18,000 sheep; Goyder'g 
valuation, deducting improvements, £1075. This run is watered from wells. It lies 
12 miles W. of Oyster bay, 66 miles W.S. W. of port Adelaide by sea, and 160 miles 
by road from Adelaide. This run also includes leases Nos. 1127, 708. 385, and 1126, 
the respective areas of which are 13, 15, 10, and 18 miles, the entire block carrying 
44,000 sheep, 350 head of cattle, and 330 horses. 

HACKHAM (Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the hundred and electoral 
district ot Noarlunga; and under the control of the Noarlunga district council. The 
district is an agricultural one, the principal product being wheat. Morphett vale lies 
Ij miles N., Noarlunga 34^ miles S.W., and Castletun (port Noarlunw) 3 miles W. 
With these places, and wfth Adelaide, 17i miles N., the communication is by Roun- 
sevell's daily line of coaches. Hackham has a poiit office, a licensed school, with an 
average attendance of 40 scholars, and one hotel— the Golden Pheasant. The sur- 
rounding country is hilly. The population numbers about 2(i0 persons. The resident 
magistrate is E. Castle, Esq., J. P. 

HACK, MOUNT, 30** 50' S. lat., 138** 60' E. long., {Flinders district) is a peak and 
survey point lying in the main range, about 4 miles S. of Angipena. This hill, and the 
Cock's-comb I4II enclose a pound about half-a-mile wide by 10 miles in length, 
extending in a W. direction to the Sliding Rock creek. 

BACKNSY {Oo. Adelaide) is a small suburban township lying adjacent to 
Norwood, and forming part of that township. See Nouwood. 

HAHNDORFy 35° 3' S. lat., 138" 57' E. long. {Co, Adelaide,) is a postal 
township in the electoral district and hundred of Onkaparinjfa, and under the control 
of the district councils of Echunga and Onkaparinga. It is situated on the Hahndorf 
creek, to the E. of the river Onkaparinga, and lies in an agricultural, wheat-producing, 
and vine-growing district. There is a rich silver lead mine, discovered about 5 years 
ago, but not now worked, although much ore has been raised from it. This mine lies 
near the township, 14 miles S.E. by E. from Adelaide, and 4 miles from Echunga. 
Hahndorf has a post and money order offiee, a telegraph office, 2 good schools, 3 
churches, and several stores and tradesmen's workshops. There are 2 hotels — the 
Grerman Arms and the Union, also a public pound and an Oddfellows' lodge (A.I.O.F.) 
The nearest places are— mount Barker, 4 miles S.E., and Griinthal, 2 miles N. W. by N., 
the communication being by Rounseveirs daily mail coach. With Adelaide, 18 miles 
N.W., the communication is along the main E. road, by Rounsevell's daily mail coach, 
or by carrier's waggon. The surrounding country is hilly, many of the slopes and 
valleys being under culture. The soil is good, and overlies sandstone, slate, and quartz. 
The population— chiefly a German one— numbers about 450 persons. The geological 
formation of the neighbourhood is post-pliocene tertiary drift, consisting of large 
fragments of schist, sandstone, and quartz, but slightly waterworn. 

BALF-WAY GULLY {Co, MacdonneU) is a singular limestone basin, lying to 
the S. of Swede's flat. It is like an immense crater, with a break on the eastern side, 
as if for the passage of lava. It is densely covered with brushwood, through which the 
coralline limestone peeps from time to time. Standing on its edge, the depression of 
the centre appears about half a-mile wide, and no other rock hut the coralline is 
aay where visible. There is no sudden declivity from the side, which is covered with 
scrub and sand. Probably the hill is over a thousand feet high; but it is joined to the 
range, and, therefore, very little elevated above its neighbours. There are only two 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Hal— Ham] Th» South AtutraUan GazeUem; 96 

tyofft to which it oooM be'csompared — a crater or an aocient atbll; and; as' th«re an 
DO toup roeks witbia mites, it mighty thoagh pertiaps^n weak evidence, bO' supposed 
to hare beea the- latter. 



(Oq^ SfcnUey) isn S. lAindred of the county; containing a small quantity 
of purchased laud. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

BALUBT (Co, Btwra) is a hundred in the N. W. part of the county, containing 
a large block of purchased land, probably a third of iUi area, the remainder* being taken 
up for pastoral purposes. * 

BAZiXi, MOUNT, 88° S' S. lat., 134° SO' E. long. {Flinders diBtrict,) is a hiU 
lying in the pastond country to the N.W. of Venus bay and near Cape Badstock. 

BALL, MOUNT (or Wbtera) RUN {W. dutriet;) leases Nos. 799, 802, 816, and 
938; occupier, James Thompson; respective areas of leases, 21, 51, 12, and 12 square 
miles. This run lies at Mount Hall, and near Venus bay, the next post office. 

BALL, MOUNT, NORTH (or Yalabinoa) RUN ; lease No. 555; occi^ers, 
A. SchMnke; area, 32 square miles; rent and assessment, £45 6s. 8d. This run lies to 
the W, of mount Hall, and W. of mount Cooper, the nearest post office being Venus 
bay. 

BALL'S BAT (Flinders district) is a small indentation in the land lying ta die 
N. of point Drummond. The coast is sandy^ and rises gradually to a woody range of 
Mils about 3 miles from the shore. 

BALL'S CREEK (Go. SindTnarsh) is a stream rising in the Bngie ranges <aad 
flowing N. and S. It supplies water to the surrounding agriculture and pastoral 
country. 

BAflSBtrKG {Co, ffindmarlA) is a small village, with a population of about 60 
persons, engaged in agricultural pursuits. It lies about 10 miles W. of the township 
of Milang. 

BAMILTON {Go. Adelaide) is a small suburban village lying on the river 
Torrens, and on the main N.E. road, about 4 miles from Adelaide. Much of the land 
is taken up as market gardens and vineyards, and considerable quantities of hay is 
g^own in the neighbourhood. It lies over formations of limestone and ^olomite. 

BAMILT01| 34'' 10" S. lat., ISS"" 53' E. long. ((7o. Xt^A^,) is a postal township 
in the electoral district <d Burra, of which it is a polling place, and hundred of Waterloo., 
It is situated on the river Light, 60 miles N. of Adelaide, on the main road between' 
Adelaide and Kooringa. The river light rises 26 miles N. of Hamilton, from 
whence it strikes off in a S.E. direction, gradually sweeping round in the form of a 
horseshoe to Eapunda, which is distant from Hamilton 10 miles S. West of Hamilton 
a large range of hills run N. and S., dividing the valley of Light from the Gilbert. E. 
another range runs parallel. From Hamilton down the Light S.E. the country is flat for 
several miles, and is called ** Waterloo plains.*' The district is an agricultural one, 
wheat being largely grown^ There is a large sheep station (F. H. Button's) 5 mUes E. 
of Hamilton, and another smaller (T|ylor*s) Smiles S.W. of Hamilton. Several 
of the farmers in the immediate neighbourhood also keep small flocks of sheep. There 
is an old copper mine (Belvidere) about 6 miles N.W., situated at the N. end (k 
Pete's Hill, the largest and highest in the range referred to above. The mine has 
been closed for some years past^ The nearest places are Marrabel, 6 miles N., on the 
iMu road to Kooringa, and Allandale, 7 miles S., on the main road to Kapunda. The 
commumcation is by means of Rounsevell's mail conveyance, running daily between 
Kapunda and Kooringa, a distance of 50 miles, and that with Adelaide, 60 mUes 
S.W. by mail conveyance to Kapunda (10 miles,) thence by rail to Adelaide, 50 mileSr 
The hotels are the Farmer's home (Mitchell's,) and the Hamilton (Watson's.) N. andE. 
of Hamilton is flat, being the lev^ land on each side of the river Light. S. it is high, 
undulating, and hilly. £. and N. hilly and undulating for 10 or 12 miles, coming to 
the Murray scrub, which is generally flat. The population numbers about 200 persons. 
Hamilton has 2 stores, and large com store, a blacksmith's and wheelwright's shop^ 
saddlers, butchers and bootmakers, carpenters' shops, a public pound, a registratiott 
office, a post office and money order office, and a daify mail to and ttom Adelaide^ 
Kapumpi, Kooringa, Marrabel, and Allandale. There is also a public school-room^ 
Episcopalian church, Bible Christian chapel; and in connection with the sehool-roottv 
a Young Men's Mutual Improvement society^ Hj J. Kelly, Baq,, J.P. is tk% resideirt 
magistrate. 



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Ham — Han] Ths South Australian Gazetteer. 97 

ttAmLTON CREEK {Flinders district) is a^mall creek flowing in good country, 
with mulga scrub and grass, and lying near the head of the Neales river. Stuart, the 
discoverer, describes the country as consisting of floe flats, as fertile as most of the sand- 
stone plains to the S. At the upper end of the stream fine smooth-barked gam trees, 
and splendid hakeas, 20 feet in height, with bark, like cork, are found. 

Also, a creek rising in the N. part of the Flinders range, dnd flowing through 
tc^rably good pastoral country, about 30 miles S.E. of Blanche water, in a N.E. direc- 
tion past mount Hopeless, into the S.E. end of lake Gregory. It is joined near mount 
Hopeless by the Macdonnell creek, and fed by several smaller and unnamed ones daring 
its couj^e. It subsides into waterholes during summer. 

H AMIIiTON, LAKE {Flinders district^) is a postal station situated on, and 
taking its name from the salt lake of that name, and having numerous small salt lakes in 
tiie neighbourhood, the chief of which are the Round lake, 8 miles N. W., and the Three 
lakes, 18 miles N. W. The neighl|purhood is in the electoral district of Flinders, and is 
purely pastoral, both sheep and cattle being depastured. The nearest places are Venus 
bay, 65 miles N.W.; and port Lincoln, 75 miles S.E.; there being communication by 
fortnightly mail cart; and with Adelaide, 293 miles E.,by mail cart to port Lincoln, 
and thence by steamer. The nearest hotel is Syme*s, Venus bay. With the exception 
of a range of hills running along the coast, the country is generally low and flat, and of 
limestone formation, and fresh water can be had by digging a few feet in the sand. The 
population of the lake Hamilton and neighbouring stations numbers about 120 persons. 

KAMIXiTON, LAKE, RUN E. (TT. rfw«nc«;) leases, Nos. 1027, 1094 and 1078; 
occupiers, Wilson and Featherstone; respective 'areas, 74, 12, and 23 square miles. This 
run Ues to the E. of lake Hamilton, and is also known as the Kapindee N. run. 

HABOXiTOK, LAKE, RUN (W. district;) leases. Nos. 134, 608 and 1018; occu- 
pier, Price Maurice; respective areas, 71, 11, and 33 square miles. The head station 
lease. No. 134, has a grazing capacity of 7800 sheep, or lia per square mile, And is 
valued by Goyder at £93 88. per annum, deducting improvements valued at £1283. 
On the entire block are 29,000 sheep and 250 horses. This run lies on the W. coast 
of port Lincoln peninsula, the head-station being at the N.W. corner of lake Hamilton, 
70 miles N.N.W. of port Lincoln township. 

KABULTONy MOUNT {Flinders district,) is a prominent hill lying to the N. of 
Margaret creek, and having some fine fresh water springs near it. One of these springs, 
known as the Blanche cup, is a conical mound of limestone measuring 250 yards round 
the base, and 60 at the top. It rises to a height of 40 feet out of a flat salt pan, the 
cone being covered with a wreath of reeds 8 or 9 feet long. These conceal a circular 
basin of water about 50 feet in diameter, and 10 or 12 feet deep, and from this the 
overflowings of the spring runs out over the face of the rock in strong streams. 

HAMILTON, MOUNT, RUN {N, district;) leases, Nos. 777, 966 and 1105; is a 
cattle and sheep station lying near the mountain whence it takes its name, on the road 
jBrom Nuccaleena to mount Margaret, the nearest post-office, which is 93 miles N.W.; 
Nuccaleena, where is the next hotel, being 207 miles S. The occupiers are Young- 
husband and Ferguson, and the respective areas of the leases 260, 300, and 227 miles. 

HAMBCXUEtSBSZTH {Go Adelaide.) See Edwardstown. 

HAMPDEN {Co. Hindmarsh) is an agricultural settlement in the neighbourhood 
<3i mount Barker. It is inhabited by a few farmers, who are engaged in the culture of 
wheat and other farm produce. 

BAMFTON {Oo. Burro) is the name of a small mining village lying 1| miles 
N.E. of Kooringa, and inhabited by copper miners and a few small farmers. There 
ore about 30 miners' dwellings in the village, a Bible Christian chapel, and an excellent 
stone quarry. 

HANSON (Co. Stanley) is an E. hundred of the county, containing a small 
quantity of purchased land. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral 
purposes. There is a public pound in this hundred. 

HANSONy LAKE {Flinders district,) is a salt lagoon lying in the scrubby sandy 
plains between lakes Torrens and Gardiner. In flood time, it probably forms port 
of lake Hart, which lies near it. • 

HANSON'S (or Heed's) RANGE (Flinders district) is a range of not very lofty 
hills, running from N.W. to S.E. about 40 miles. It was discovered by Stuart in 

H 



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98 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Hap — Har 

March, 1860, and called by him Heed's range. The Neales river flows along the S. 
foot of this range, and the Frew river along its N. foot, the two joining near mount 
Harvey, its S,E. extremity. The highest peak in this range lies to the N.W., and 
it known as mount O'Halloran. Sandstone and limestone, with deep sandy drift. 

HAPPY VALLEY {Co, Adelaide) is an agricultural settlement lying near Dash- 
wodd's gully, a good district road connecting the two places. It lies near the postsd 
Tillage of O'Halloran hill. There is a public pound and a Foresters' court in this 
place. 

BA&DWZCKE BAT (Spencer's gulf) is a deep bight in the W. coast of 
Yorkers peninsula, formed by the trending of that coast in a W. direction. This 
opening was so called by Flinders after the earl of Hardwicke. He found it one of the 
safest and best in the gulf, with abundance of wood and water on the shore. 

HARPY, CAPE (Flinders district,) is the N. head of Harvey's bay, and lies 
between points Bolingbroke on the S. and Burr on tile N. 

HABJBBY ISLAND {Spencer's gulf.) See Sib J. Banks's Group. 

HAHQ'S mount {Co. Adelaide) is a point in a W. spur of the main range, 
lying about 6 miles S.W. of -Bull's creek. 

HA&O'S MOUNT CREEK (Go. Hindmarsh) is a small tributary of Bull's 
creek, falling into it about 6 miles from its source, and near the village of Bull's creek. 
Both these creeks rise and flow in a S.E. direction, through good agricultural country, 
taken up by a population of about 250 persons, most of whom are engaged in 
farming pursuits. 

HABJtZSTT RIVER (Kangaroo island) is a small stream flowing in a S. direc- 
tion into Vivonne bay, on the S. side of the island. 

HARRIS' 8 BLUFF (Flinders district) is an elevation in the mount Separation 
ranges, and lies in worthless, densely scrubbed country, without grass or water. 

HARRIS'S CROSSING, 32° 10' S. lat., 137° 40^ E. Jong. (Flinders district,) is 
the name given to a crossing- place over the depressed stony plain forming the channel 
f^om lake Torrens to the head of Spencer's gulf. 

HARROGATE {Co. Sturt) is a postal township in the hundred of Eanroantoo, 
electoral district of Onkaparinga, and under the control of the Nairne district council 
It is situated on the river Bremer, the Bremer ranges being half-a-mile distant. The 
surrounding district is an agricultural and pastoral one, the former interest being 
chiefly represented by the culture of wheat, and the latter by the grazing of cattle. 
The nearest places are mount Torrens, distant 8 miles; Woodside, 10 miles; and 
Nairne, 12 miles. To these places there is no regular conveyance, the mail being 
carried on horseback thrice a week, and with Adelaide 37 miles W.N.W. by Rounse- 
veil's coaches from Nairne, or via Woodside, 32 miles. There is a post oflSce, a 
public pound, a store, and a Bible Christian chapel in the township, which has a 
population of about 60 persons. The surrounding country is elevated and broken. 

HARRY, LAKE, 29"" 30^ S. lat.. Ids'" 20' E. long., is a sheet of salt water lying 
to the £. of the Frome river. There is another similar lake, called lake Marion, lying 
a few miles to the S.W. 

HARRY SPRINGS {Flinders district) is the name of a spring of fresh water in 
the Gawler range, discovered by Hack in 1867, and lying to the S. of lake Gairdner. 

HARRY WESTON'S FLAT (Flinders district) is a tract of flat pastoral country 
with occasional ranges, lying on the main road from Adelaide to Wentworth (New 
South Wales.) near Overland corner. The stopping place for the coach from Adelaide 
to Wentworth, and known as Mallyon's hotel, is on this flat. 

HART, CAPE (Kangaroo island,) is a bold headland lying on the S.E. coast of 
the island, 4 miles S.W. from cape Willoughby, and 3 miles E. i N. from False cape. 

HART (Co. Stanley) is a central hundred of the county, containing a small 
quantity of purchased land. The remainder of the hundred is taken up for pastoral 
purposesi 

HART, LAKE {FlindSs district.) is a large salt lake lying to the N.E. of lake 
Gairdner, and probably forming part of it in time of flood. It is probable, that in 



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Hak — Hat] The South Amiralian Gazetteer. ^ 99 

times of heavy floods, this and others of the neighhonring lakes are united, forming 
one vast inland sea> whilst in periods of drought they shrink into mere oozy swamps. 
The losses recently sustained hy sheep-farmers who have planted stations there, show 
how dangerous it is to depend upon them in dry seasons. 

HA&ITS ISLAND (Flinders disirict) is a small rocky islet rising ahout 60 feet 
above the level of the sea. It lies about 4j miles W. of Cannan's reef in Nayt's 
archipelago. 

HA&VST) MOUNT, 27° 45' S. lat., 135° 50' E. long. (Flinders district,) is the 
E. extremity of the Hanson range, and is a lofty peak standing near the junction o 
the Frew and Neales rivers. Sandstone and limestone, surrounded by sandy and stony 
plains. 

HAB.VZrT'8 BAY {Flinders district) is a deep indentation in the W. coast of 
Spencer's gulf, lying to the N. of port Lincoln, and opposite the Sir Joseph Banks' 
group of islands. The harbour known as Tumby bay, forms part of this indentation, 
and Tumby island lies in its bight. To the back of this bay lies a tract of pastoral 
countiy, and several mining claims have recently been taken up in the neighbourhood, 
the principal being the Tumby, mount Liverpool, Flinders, and Copperer mines. 

HAWBON' LAKE (Co Grey,) is a large morass or swampy lagoon, lying in a 
gap in the Stone hut range. It is covered with long dense reeds, and at its W. end, 
sea shells abound, whilst at its E. there are fresh water and sea shells intermixe'd. It 
is situated near the coast, to the S.E. of Bobe, and about 6 miles from lake Eliza. 

HAWBON' L AEE, RUN, E. (S.E. district;) leases Nos. 215a and 1072; occupier, 
T. Magarey; area, 41 square miles; grazing capacity, 5110 sheep, or 150 per square 
mile; Goyder's valuation, deducting improvements, £75 per annum. This run lies 215 
miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 20 miles by road, E. by S. of Guichen bay (Robe.) 

HAWBON, LAKE, RUN, W.{S.E. distrtct;)\ea.8e No. 215; occupier, E.Stockdale; 
area 13 square miles; grazing capacity, 330 horses, or 25 per square mile; Goyder's 
Taluation, deducting improvements, £82 4s. per annum. This run lies 7 miles E. of 
Guichen bay (Robe,) the head station being in the hundred of Waterhouse. The E. 
part of this run has lately been transferred to Mr. T. Magarey. 

HAWKEB., MOUNT, 30'' 36' S. lat., 139° 10' E. long. (Flinders district,) is a peak 
of the mount M*Bdnlay spur of the main range, lying about 15 miles N.B. of Angipena, 
and near the N. head of the Big John river. Shale, slates, and calcareous rock. 

HAWKER'S HILL (Co. Eyre) is an elevation lying in the rugged ranges to the 
W. of Truro, and about 2 miles N. W. of that township. 

HAWKER'S SPRING, 28° 30' S. lat., 136° E. long. (Flinders district,) is the 
name of a fresh water spring lying near mount Margaret, in the pastoral country to 
the N. of the Denison range. 

HAWKES CREEK (^Flinders district E.) is a small watercourse leading from 
the Murray river to lake Bonney, near Overland corner. 

BAWKSNE8T (Co, Russdl) is a camping place on the main road from Wel- 
lington to Border town, lying about 15 miles S.E. of the former place, and 3 miles S.E. 
of Perkindoo or Twelve-Mile well. 

BAT (Co. Eyre) is an E. hundred of the county, consisting almost exclusively of 
pastoral land, although a small quantity has been purchased on the banks of the Murray 
river. 

HATFZSLDy MOUNT (Co. Hindmarsh,) is a peak and survey point in the Yan- 
kalilla ranges, lying near the head of the Yankalilla river, and about 4 miles E. of 
Yankalilla township. 

HAT'S RANGE (Co. Hindmarsh) is the name formerly given to that portion of 
the main or Flinders range lying between lake Ale^andrina on the S K., and the waters 
of the gulf of St .Vincent on the W. It is now known as^the Yankalilla and Adelaide 
ranges. Mounts Lofty and Barker are the highest points in this range. 

BATW ASS'S BLUFF (Flinders district N,) is a fine bold massive range of 
phills spurring from the main range in an E. direction, and rising majestically above the 
Aroona station to a height of 600 or 700 feet above the plain. About 100 feet of the 
summit consists ot bare granitic or indurated sandstone of a reddish brown colour; 
below this are steep spurs covered with vegetation, and lower still a thick' forest of 
fine timber, chiefly gum. There are numerous springs of fine water at its base. 



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100 The 8o\Uh Australian Oazetteer. [Ha2 — Hnr 

BAZEXiWOOB YINETARD {Co. Adelaide.) See Bbauhokt. 

BEEirS RANGE {Flinders district) See Hansoh's Bamois. 

BEMMOMS, mount (N. district^ is a peak and trigonometrical station in the 
main range, lying on the S. bank of the Breakfast-time creek, and immediately to the 
N. of Nuccaleena, the mines in that neighbourhood being situated on its S. slopes. 

HENLET BEACH {Co. Adelaide) is the name of a small village lying on the E. 
coast of the gulf of St. Vincent, 1 mile distant W. of Fulham. 

HE&HZT RANGE, 29"" 35' S. lat„ 137° 26' E. long. {FUndert district N.;) so called 
by Babbage from its isolated position* It is about 360 feet above the plain, and lies to 
the S. of lake Eyre. 

HEEOOTT'S SPRINGS, 29° 35' S. lat., 13^° 10' E. bng^ {Flinders district,) is 
the name of a natural spring on a creek known by the same name, and a few miles S. 
of mount Attraction. The creek rises in the B. slope of a hill known as the Dome, and 
flows N.E. into the Frome river, near mount Attraction* Near these springs some 
large fossil bones were discovered by Mr. Burt, which were afterwards pronounced by Pro*- 
f essor Owen to belong to the Diptrodon Australis, a gigantic extinct marsupial animal* 

BXOREB.C0KBE {Co. Adelaide) is an extensive vineyard, th« property and 
residence of the hon. G. M. Waterhouse, and is situated on an elevated position, 
overlooking Hope valley and the reservoir of the waterworks. It is a delightful ride 
from Adelaide, and is a resort for pleasure seekers, as affording a delightful view of 
the city and of a tract of flat land, dotted with patches of cultivation and farm home- 
steads. It lies on the range dividing the head waters of the Torrens and Para rivers, 
and has about 1100 acres of land fenced in, of which 100 acres are laid out as vineyards, 
orchards, and gardens. The varieties of grapes planted are the Verdeilho, Riesling; 
and the Stein, from which the celebrated white Highercombe wine is made, and the 
Shiraz, Carbonet, and Madeira, which yield the red Highercombe. The wine is all 
manufactured and bottled on the premises, the wine-house being immediately adjacent, 
and having 3 casks capable of containing 4000 gallons. There is a flne orchard, growing 
apples, oranges, pears, cherries, apricots, plums, walnuts, chestnuts, Alberts, and 
barcelouas, and an apiary, to which great care is devoted. 



KZOHEECOBKBE {Co, Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Gumeracka. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. 
J. G. CouUs, of Athelston, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this 
district council for 1865 were as follow:— Assessment, £4320 16s.— rate. Is. in the 
pound; rates collected, £211 Os. 6d.; total receipts, £685 9s.; office expenses and 
salaries, £40 6s.; expended on public works, £508 5s. 7d. The population numbers 
642 persons; the area is 14 square miles, or 8960 acres; land under cultivation, 1360 
acres; and numbers of dwelling-houses, 148. ^ 



[■9 MOUNT {Flinders district,) is the S. peak of a low range of hills lying 
along the W. side of Spencer's gulf, in Eyre's peninsula, at a few miles distance from 
the coast, as commonly called the mount Olinthus ^range. Mount Hill attains an 
elevation of 1500 feet above sea level, and is a prominent landmark from the gulf. The 
surrounding country is very scrubby. 

HZXiL RIVER RUN {Co. Stanley;) lease No. 132; occupier, the hon. H. Ayers; 
area, 50 square miles; grazing capability, 15,000 sheep, or 300 per square mile; old 
rental, £133 6s 8d; Gfoyder's valuation, £1400 per annum, excluding improvements, 
valued at £475. The head station lies 3 miles E. of the Clare run, and 20 miles 
N.N.E. of the township of Clare, on the Hill and Broughton riv^s, and the run is-irell 
grassed, except a few patches of spinifex. 

BXM>BSAESB {Co. Adelaide) is a postal township and railway station in the 
electoral district of W. Torrens, hundred of Adelaide, and under the control of the 
Hindraarsh district council It is situated on the river Torrens, in an agricultural 
district, where wheat and hay are gi^own to a considerable extent. It may be considered 
as suburban to Adelaide, lying 2 miles N. W. on the road and railway to port Adelai4e'^ 
The nearest places are Bowden and Brompton, two villages separated from Hindmarrti* 
by the port road, and Carrondown and Croydon lying respectively to the N. and N.W. 
The means of communication with Adelaide are by railway and by carriers' dray 
along the port road, that road being, however, very much out of repair, and almost 

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Hin] The South Australian Gazetteer. 101 

knpassable in wet weather. Hindmarth has a post and money order office, a mechanics' 
institote, a public pound, a volimteer rifle corps, and an Oddfellows' lodge, 4 brickyards 
(Shearing^fi 2, Muggridge's, and Sutton's,) a steam flour mill (Magarey and Go's.,) a 
brewery (Crawford's,) 2 tanneries (Dench's and Pascoe's,) and 2 fellmongering and 
wool- washing establishments (Taylor's and Peacbck's.) The hotels are the Commer- 
cial, Black Lion, Jolly Mill^, and Land of Promise. The surrounding country is flat, 
and the soil strong and clayey, and well-adapted for agriculture and for the manufacture 
of bricks. The population numbers about 3500 persons, including that of the 
■eighbouring Tillages, 

HIHDBMJtSB {Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral districts of 
W. Torrens and port Adelaide. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one 
being Mr. Edward Beck, of the Re^beds, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expen- 
diture of this district council for 1865 were as follow : — Assessment, £17,208 — rate. 
Is. in the pound; rates collected, £869; total district, £2009 48.; office expenses and 
salaries, £209 4s.; expended on public works, £1800. The population numbers 4123 
persons. The area is 16 square miles, or 10,240 acres; land under cultivation, 4549 
acres ; and number of dweUing-houses, 917. 

B2H9BS4JBISB (Co. Qrey) is one of th* central hundreds of the county, and 
contains about a-third of sold land. 

BXHDMAmSB COUNTY Ues on the S. part of the E. coast of the gulf of St 
Vincent, which bounds it on its W. side. It is bounded on the N. by the county 
Adelaide, on the S. by the sea at Backstsdrs passage and Encounter bay, and on the E. 
by the county Sturt and lake Alexandrina. It is divided into the hundreds of Strath- 
albyn, Macclesfield, Kondoparinga, Bremer, Alexandrina, Goolwa, Nkangkita, 
llyponga. Encounter bay, Yankalilla, and Waitpinga. A large tract of the central 
and S. portions of thi^ county are unavailable, except as afibrding scanty pasturage 
for sheep and cattle, from its mountainous and scrubby character, but more tlian YiaU 
of it is purchased land, and of that about a third is under cultivation. The chief 
towns are Rapid bay, Yankalilla, Strathalbyn, mount Barker, Macclesfield, port 
Elliott, Victor harbour, Goolwa, Myponga, and Milang. This county also includes 
the Hindmarsh island in the W. part of lake Alexandrina. The principal streams are 
the Goolwa, or lower part of the Murray, Currency creek, and Finniss river, and 
Bumerous small streams. The W. part of the county in the neighbourhood of Rapid 
bay is rich in minerals, there being several silver lead mines in the neighbourhood. 
The toraveller leaving Willunga by the mail route for the S. mounts at once a mighty 
hill, whence he can look back upon a great space of St. Vincent's gulf, and quickly 
passing fh>m well-timbered fenced land, enters the sandy scrub which forms the great 
banier betweai Adelaide and the S. coast. For some 20 miles the road runf through 
country as yet untried, and only remarkable for the variety and beauty of the delicate 
wild flowers, which in this country seem especially to love such barren spots. The 
view here is cot extensive, owing to the hills, rising here and there to considerable 
height and tenanted only by a few cattle run wild. Nowhere is there any trace c^ 
cultivation, except where the wreck of some wooden farm buildings bear witness to an 
attempt to utilise a small spot around a permanent waterhole. Here, we are told, a 
siarket garden once existed, whence potatoes and other vegetables were sent even to 
Adelaide, while as yet gardens on the hills were few — now nothing will pay its carriage. 
Advancing coastward, a last hill brings the traveller to a commanding suminit, whence 
a view of the great bay of the S. , called Encounter bay, is opened up. There is yet a 
deep descent, and the timber is again large, and fences run on each side of the road. 
The sea beach shows a line of shining sand, with (especially towards the Murray for 
miles) the eternal surf rolling in, line upon line. The Murray and lakes are well- 
defined to the eye in clear weather, and the low stretch of sand which dams in the Coorong 
iades in the distance from the sight. Bold and sharp in outline, Rosetta head, a most 
striking object on any coast, bounds the view on the right ; eastward from this lies 
Granite island, sheltering Victor harbour, while a few rocks at some distance from 
land alone break the surlace of the sea, level hence to the utmost horizon. The coast 
of Encounter bay is specially striking from combining the picturesqueness of an iron- 
bound coast with long sweeps of hard level sand. From the Blufi* to the Murray 
mouth a horseman may travel with ease and comfort, except where the rocks, near 
port Elliott, form three or four small inlets, where the sea breaks with great violence 
even in the very calmest weather. There is also at Middleton, 2 miles E. from 
port Elliott, a small cluster of rocks, near which abundance of fine though 



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102 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Hin 

•mallish shells of great yariety are fonnd ; at times there are most extensive banks 
of beautiful kinds of seaweed, which disappear as suddenlj as they come. The 
Inman and Hindmarsh rivers enter the sea a short distance W. and £. of port 
Victor, respectively; both are bridged now, though, except in winter, thej are easily 
fordable at their mouths. The seaboard of the Encounter bay district consists of a 
more or less undulating plain, increasing in width from Rosetta head, where the hills 
approach the coast, as it goes eastward. Not much of this plain is good land, most of 
it, as the country round Groolwa, being sandy scrub. Water is scarce; at port Elliott 
a 70 feet well touched but salt water, and the township is supplied by pipes carried 
from Waterport, a small patch of black swampy land about half-a-mile from the coast. 
Liman valley runs towards Yankalilla on the W., and in that part of it which may be 
considered to belong geographically to the Encounter bay district, is either black 
undrained alluvial soil, or barren sand. Hindmarsh valley contains some good patches 
of arable and pasture land, but only patches, the rest being very poor. The great fire, 
some years ago, ruined or crippled most of the early settlers. A. few miles up the 
valley the river assumes the form of a rock-strewn stream, flowing between high hills, 
dense with verdure, and, if traced to the limits of this glen, is found to fall in a thin 
tiiread over a shelf or two of perpendicular rock into a natural basin of some size, the 
water in which is in summer as clear A crystal. The gullies of the port Elliott hills 
are farmed with as much success as the exhaustory system allows of, producing average 
crops. At Southcote, 2 miles on the Adelaide road, the residence of B. E. Laurie, Esq., 
S.M., there is a vineyard of 8 acres, and an excellent orchard and orangery. The soil 
being very dry, the wine produced is of superior quality, though less in quantity than 
where the vine roots can touch water. Gums, wattle, and cherry, grow as elsewhere, 
and neat* the sea the sheoak, which once covered the coast plain, wherever the soil was 
not to poor to grow it. A shrub called the Groolwa currant produces a fruit which is 
in season in September, and makes very good jam; as, howQver, the natives always 
root up the 5 cshes to shake off the fruit, it will probably disappear soon. The mesem- 
bryanthemum grows upon the granite rocks immediately over the sea. The hills are 
composed of blueish gneiss and granite, while the plains have a crust of limestone 
embedded in marl, under the thin covering of soil or sand from which it crops out 
perpetually. This crust at port Elliott is some 3 feet thick, under which is the 
common clay. The rocks which overhang the sea are granite. Kangaroos are plentiful 
in the Waitpinga district W. of port Victor, at Currency creek and in the Einniss 
scrub. Opossums are numerous and very destructive. The dasyure (misnamed the 
wild cat) is common. The wild dog has been seen lately near Currency creek. Aquatic 
birds are to be seen in hundreds of thousands upon the lakes near Groolwa ; swans, 
geese, du^s, teal, native companions, cranes, &c. The sacred ibis, a beautiful white 
bird witlnred skin, is occasionally seen. Cockatoos, parrots, &c., are common here as 
elsewhere, and a large flock of magpies has colonised port Elliott as sparrows haunt 
London streets. The shell parrot, so common north of Willunga, has never been seen 
here. The whale once was found in numbers on this coast, but after keeping up a 
thriving fishery for years, deserted its old haunts, and is now rarely caught. A whale 
or two visits Encounter bay each season and tempts a motley crew to give chase, but 
it is not often that a prize is made. Fish in general are very plentiful, and a good many 
crayfish are found near Victor harbour. Fine specimens of the hippocampus are often 
cast up on the Middleton beach. We have seen one a foot long, and very beautifully 
marked. The climate of the S. is much more healthy than that of the Adelaide 
plains, nay, men who have travelled esteem it the most favourable of any in Australia. 
Hot winds are not so frequent as in Adelaide, nor do they last so long, and in. the stiU 
days of summer the sea-breeze seldom fails to blow in the evening. Many people who 
who have been unable to rear children elsewhere, have found their families most healthy 
here, and there is every prospect of this becoming ultimately the chief refuge for the 
delicate or convalescent. At Gk)olwa there is a land-breeze and sea-breeze daily in 
summer, so that a boat can sail to the Murray mouth and back with a fair wind each 
way. The area of this county is 1032 square miles, or 660,480 acres, of which 323,386 
acres are purchased land, 194,172 acres are held by freeholders, 249,897 acres are 
enclosed, and 72,333 acres are under cultivation, leaving 177,564 acres enclosed but 
not cultivated. The live stock numbers 7421 horses, 14,687 homed cattle, 101,889 
sheep, 317 goats, 8066 pigs, and 35. 167 head of po\2ltry. Of the land under cultivation 
49,987 acres are under wheat, 1210 acres under barley, 523 acres under oats, 10,021 
acres under hay, 1 105 acres under green forage, 215 acres under peas, and 367 acres 
under other crops, 7 151 acres are fallow, and 478 acres under potatoes. There are 250 



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Hut — Hol] The South Australian Gazetteer, 103 

acres of orchards, 417 acres of gardens, and 609 acres of vineyards, the latter having 
413,456 fines in bearing, and 263,832 vines not in bearing. The crops for the jear 
ending March 3l8t, 1866, were 540,369 bushels wheat, 16,063 bushels barley, 5990 
bushels oats, 10,012 tons hay, 910 tons potatoes, 60,845 gallons wine, and 1652 cwt. 
grapes. The population numbers 13,980 persons, against 12,502 in 1861, being an 
increase of 1478 persons. The number of dwelling-houses is 2705 against 2542 in that 
year, being an increase of 163 houses. 

HnrBMABBB ISLAND (Co. itindmarsh) is a large flat and swampy island, 
lying in the S.W. corner ot lake Alexandrina, and separated from the main land by 
the Goolwa or lower Murray river. The sea mouth of the Murray lies to the S.E. of 
this island, and is connected with the lake by three passages, known as the Goolwa, 
Holmes's creek, and the Boundary creek. Mundoo island lies to the S.E. of Hindmarsh 
island*, being separated by Holmes's creek. On this island a brittle inflammable sub- 
stance, resembling resin in appearance, was found some time ago by Mr. J. Ranki/^e in 
considerable quantities. It burns slowly, with a clear flame, and gives out a bitumvnous 
smell. This discovery points out that ere long petroleum wells may be worked in 
that part of the colony. 

HZNBlIik&SB RIVER {Co, Hindmarsh) is a stream rising in the hilly country 
to the N. of Encounter bay, and flowing S.E. into the sea at Victor harbour. 

KOSOSOirS HILL (Flinders district) is the name given to a peak in the main 
or Flinders range, lying on the main N. road between Angipena and Yudanamutana, 
and at the head of the Illinawurtina creek. 

HOO BAT {Kangaroo island) is the name given to a postal statioD^ situated on 
the N. coast of the E. peninsula of Kangaroo island. It lies 10 miles to the E. of the 
American river, and is in a pastoral (cattle and sheep) country, 6 miles distant from the 
Cuttlefish silver mines (prospecting,) and 70 miles by sea from Adelaide. The country 
is hilly, and the soil consists of alternating patches of black alluvial, with outcropping 
sandstone rocks, and barren yellow clay, interspersed with dwarf casuarina covered 
swamps. The population is small and scattered. 

KOO BAT {Kangaroo island) is a small boat harbour lying on the N.E. coast of 
the ishind, 6^ miles N.W. of cape Coutts. The coast is bold, and trends W. i S. for 2 
miles to Kangaroo head. 

KOO BAY RIVER RUN (Kangaroo island;) lease No. 805; occupier, R. Tapl^; 
area, 22 square miles; rental, j£ll per annum. The post town is Hog bay. 

BOO BAY RUN (Kangaroo island;) leases, Nosl 542 and 1064; occupier, 
W. Walker; total area, 11 miles; rental, £10 per annum. Next post town, Hog bay. 

KOU>FAST BAY, or bo ad (Co, Adelaide,) is a bight in the E. coast of 
St. Vincent's gulf, lying to the S. of the entrance to port Adelaide, and about 33 miles 
N.N.E. from Cape Jervis. The anchorage is off the town of Glenelg, and about 1^ miles 
from the shore, in 5 or 6 fathoms clay, with the light or flag-ttafl in one, with mount 
Lofty bearing E. by N. S.W. gales cause a very heavy sea in this roadstead, but as 
Ibe holding ground is good, ships may ride in perfect safety, if provided with good 
anchors and cables. Coasters may approach the end of the jetty closely, but oare 
should be taken to avoid a shoal patch or an oyster bank, lying about a mile to the 
8. of the township. There is a green fixed light, 29 feet high, on the end of the jetty, 
at Glenelg, in this bay, which may be seen at a distance of 6 miles. It lies in 34° 5^ 
S. lat., or about 12 miles S. by E. i E. of the port Adelaide lightship. The holding 
ground ii clay of ^eat consistency, and as the water shoals very gradually, a vessel 
must drag her anchor up hill for 2 miles before she can sustain damage. About the 
middle of the bay lies an inlet or boat harbour, on which is built the township of 
Glenelg. 

HOXi&O WELENA {Flinders district) is the postal name of the centre of a large 
pastoral district, lying in the electoral district of Flinders. The post-office is at the 
Mattawarrumgalla station on the Siccus river, about 12 miles from its source. On the 
W. side of the run is a very uneven range of hills, running N.E. and S.W., in which 
zange the Siccus river rises. 6 miles to the £. of the station is the Wildaminga creek, 
a large gum creek, nearly always dry. The district is solely a pastoral one, consisting 
of a few sheep runs ; it has, however, suffered very severely from the late drought, 
which has almost unstocked it. A copper mine was opened in the district some years 



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104 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Hol — H3p 

•go, bat the ore was not found to be of sufficiently good quality to pay for working. 
The nearest townships are Black Jack, 45 miles W. ; Fort Augusta (the nearest port 
and polling-place,) 95 miles S.W. ; and mount Remarkable (Melrose,) the nearest local 
court, 90 miles S.W. bv 8. There are at present no means of communication with 
these places except by horse or dray, the passenger conveyances having been taken off 
tiie road in consequence of the drought, but it is anticipated they will be resumed 
whenever the state of the country will permit/ With Adelaide, 270 miles S., the com- 
munication is from Black Jack, by RounsevelPs mail carts. There is a post office at 
HoUowelena, and also a depAt for supplying the aboriginal inhabitants with the neces- 
faries of life during severe seasons. The surrounding district is, to the W. very rough 
hilly spinifex country, and to the E. saltbush plains (at present dried up) with much 
mafiee scrub. This part of the country has sulSered much from the influence of t^ 
late drought—one of the most severe ever known in the colony — all vegetable matter 
fit for the sustenance of animal life having disappeared. It is, however, hoped that ere 
this the heavy rains which have fallen in almost all other parts of the country will have 
reached this district. The population is small and scattered, that at MattawarrumgaUa 
consisting of 4 white persons and 4 aborigines. 

BOLZiOWELENA RUN (N. district;) leases, Nos. 318, 342, 419, 439, and 
537; occupier, J. Warwick ; total area, 189 square miles ; grazing capability, 12,000 
sheep and 100 head of cattle. This run lies 5 miles N. of the Siccus river, the next 
post-office being at Mattawarrumgalla, better known by the postal name of HoUowelena. 
The shipping port is port Augusta, nlistant 100 miles, the communication being by 
bullock teams. 

BOUttSS' CREEK {Co. Hindmarsh) is the name of a channel of the lower 
Murray, ruilhing between Hindmarsh island to the W. and Mundoo island to the E. 
It is shallow, and much impeded with sand banks and patches of mangrove swamp. 

BOZiROTS'S RUN (IT. diatHct ;) lease. No. 146 ; occupier, B. J. H. Holroyd ; 
area, 14 square miles ; grazing capacity, 1650 sheep, or 118 per square mile ; Goyder's 
valuation, £43 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £85. This run lies 13 
miles W. by N. of port Lincoln, and 415 miles from Adelaide by overland road. 

BOOKING {Flinders district N.) is the name of a small roadside township on 
the Hookina creek, and on the road from Port Augusta to Blinman. It lies 24 milea 
N.W. of the township of Kanyaka, and has 1 hotel — the Hookina inn—and a small 
pastoral population. There Is a public pound at this place. * 

BOOKZMA RUN {N, district) See Slbef's Run. 

BOPE BANK, 32^ 30' S. lat., 139° \(/ E. long. (Flinders district,) is a detached hill 
lying in the pastoral district of Eastern plains . 

BOPE BANK STATION (N.E. district;) lease. No. 946; occupier, W. Cockrum; 
area, 67 square miles; rent, £33 10s. per annum. This station lies to the N. of Nakara 
hill, to the N. of Kooringa. 

BOPE DOWNS {hinders district) is a tract of tolerably good pastoral country 
lying on the N.W. side of Streaky bay. g 

BOPE DOWNS RUN {W. district;) leases, Nos. 1109, 1111, and 1154; occupier, 
H. A. Crawford; total area, 68 square miles. This run occupies 6 stations, and lies B. 
and N.E. of Parla, and from 40 to 50 miles E. of Streaky bay. The grazing capacity 
has not yet been properly tested. 

BOPE LAKE, 28° 34' S. lat., 139° lO' E. long. {Flinders district^) is the name of 
a fine sheet of fresh water about 26 miles in circumference, and haviri§ an aventge width 
of about 3 miles, lying in a sparsely grassed flat, lightly timbered with "box? ^^^ situated 
in the undulating sandy plains about 250 miles N. of Blinman, and between the Barcoo 
river on the E. and lake Eyre on the W. It is fed by Cooper's creek, and has a depth 
of 36 feet at the S.E. and 29 feet at the N.W. end in time of flood, and of about 1 1 feet at 
the S.E. and 6 feet at the N.W. end in time of drought. The water remains fresh for over 
2 years after flood, and then becomes brackish from the quantity of soda contained in 
the bed and surrounding country. It contains an abundance of flsh, 4 kinds of which 
are known to exist in its waters. The native name of lake Hope is Pando-Penunnie, or 
big lake. To the N.W. of the lake and 14 miles distant Ues lake Papperdaar, or Apperdaar, 
and at the mouth of Cooper's creek, where it debouches into lake Hope, is the lake 
Hope station and post office. When the lake was first settled in 1862 the natives wer¥( 

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Hop— Hob] The South Australian Gazetteer. 105 

yery numerous upon its banks, as many as 600 or 700 haying been seen there, but lately 
they have settled about 50 miles W., frequenting the lake, howeyer, for the fish in its 
waters and the roots and seeds on its shores, upon which they subsist. The surrounding 
country consist of sand>hills running nearly N. and S., with polygonum flats of about 
400 yards in width lying between them. These sand-hills extend to the S.W. about 
60 miles as far as lake Torrens, to the N.E. to Ckwper's creek, to the W. 60 miles to 
flowitt's depot, and to the N. for an unknown distance. On some of them are found a 
plant with a beautiful flower resembling the pink oxalis, and called by the natiyes 
*< Parakilya." There are numerous small kangaroo mice, somewhat resembling jerboAs, 
aboimding in the locality. 

KOPE, LAKE, STATION (Flinders di8triet,)iB&<iSLme station and the post office 
for the surrounding district, situated in the electoral district ofFlind^s, and on the 
N.W. end of lake Hope, near the point where Cooper's creek flows into the lake. It 
lies 250 miles N. of Blinman, the mall being carried on horseback to that place. With 
Adelaide the communication is by horse to Blinman, and thence by BounseyelPs mail 
coach. The nearest hotel is the Blinman. The surrounding country consists of rolling 
sand-hills with intermediate grassy and cloyer coyered flats, lightly timbered with box 
and i>olygonum scrub. 

The lake Hope run lease. No. 1050, is occupied by the hon. T. Elder, and has an 
area of 186 square miles, paying a rental of £93 per annum. 

KOPEX.S88, M0UN'4|f29° W S. lat., 139° 45' E. long. (Flindere district,) is a 
solitary hill, lying a few miles lo the S.E. of Blanche water. This hUl is peaked, and 
to it Eyre steered his way in 1840, through 35 miles of arid country. The yiew from 
its summit so sickened him of the surrounding country that he gaye it the ^ame it 
bears^ and retraced his steps to mount Arden, where he had left most of his party. The 
geological formation is slate and metamorphic schist 

KOPE, MOUNT, 34° 10' S. lat, 136° 25' E. long. (Flinders district W^) is the name 
g^yen to a prominent hill on a low range lying to the E. of Hall's bay, and to the N.E. 
of the entrance to Coffin's bay, the peak forming a landmark to the nayigation of both. 
It lies in pastor$J country, at the back of which is the yast waste of scrubby desert 
known as Eyre's peninsula, consisting of sandy and limestone plains, with hardly any 
gr&is, and destitute of permanent water. 

HOPS'S PLAINS {Flinders district) is the name giyen to a yast tract of country 
lying on the N.E. corner of the colony, and consisting of sandy, stony, and occasionally 
grassy and saltbush plains. To the S. of these plains lie seyeral salt lagoons, and the 
country to the W. is known as Sturf s stony desert 

HOPE'S RUN {Oo, Victoria;) lease. No. 58; occupier, J. Hope; area, 95 square 
miles; grazing capability, 19,500 sheep, or 205 per square mile; old rent and assessment, 
j^l97 18s. 4d.; Mr. Goyder's yaluation, £1140, excluding improyements yalued at 
£1760. This run lies 48 miles N. of port Wakefield, the shipping port, and on tUe 
Broughton riyer and Rocky creek, 30 miles N.W. of Clare. It contains liell-grassed 
land, with undulating, scrubby, and spinifex- coyered hills. There are 17 wells on the 
run, and 3 small dams, and good roads to port Wakefield andClare. 

HOPE VALLEY (Co, Adelaide) is a postal yillage in the electoral district and 
hundred of Tatala, and under the control of the district council of Yatala. It is 
situated on the Dry creek branch, about a mile distant from Anstey's hills. The 
district is an agricultural one, the principal articles of produce being wheat, barley, 
and oats. Hope yalley lies 9 miles N. of Adelaide, the next township being Highbury. 
The communication is by horse and dray, or priyate conyeyance. Hope yall^ has a 
post office, and one hotel— the Bremer. The country is hilly, with good agricultural 
flats. The population numbers about 30 persons, mostly engaged in wood-cutting and 
farming. • 

H0PXZN8 ISLE (Co. Flinders.) See Thoknt Passagb. 

HOXJtOCK'S MOUNT (C7o. Stanley) is a peak in the Wakefleld ranges, lying 
about 3 miles 1^. of the township of Penwortham. * 

KOailtOOK'S PASS (Co. Stanley) is an opening in the Horrock's range, on the 
S. road from Stirling and Port Augusta. The formation is of thick-bedded sandstone 
iMid siliceous freestone, with soft aluminous stone underlaying it. An attempt was 
made some time ago to sink for coal at this place, but none of the strata examined by 
Mr. Selwyn, the Victorian geologist, bore the slightest resemblance to carboniferous 
lockfl. 



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106 The 8ovih Au^alian Gazetteer. [Hob — Hum 

B0B,8E8H0E (Co, Adelaide) is a name giren to the township of Noarlunga, 
from the fact of its being situated on a bend of the Onkaparinga river, which bend 
somewhat resembles a horseshoe. See Noablunoa^ 

KO&SESBOIi (Flinders district iV.) is the name formerly applied to the vast 
tract of country lying to the N.E. of lake Torrens. It was so called because that lake 
was at one time supposed to extend in a semicircular form, from the head of Spencer's 
gulf to the S. end of lake Blanche, enclosing an immense sandy desert which receiyed 
that name. 

B0R8ESH0E CREEK {Flinders district) is the name given by Babbage to a 
small tributary of Chambers' creek, having several saltwater holes in its course. 

HO&SBABEj postal name Tothill's Crbek, {Co. Light,) is a postal township in 
the electoral district of the Burra, and hundred of Waterloo. It is situated on Tothill's 
creek, and near the foot of the Tothiirs range of hills. The district is an agricultural 
one, wheat being the principal article of produce. The nearest places are Marrabel, 5 
miles S.W., on the main line of road to Adelaide; Apoinga, 10 miles N.; andSteelton, 
5 miles N.W. The communication with Marrabel an^il Apoinga is by Rounsevell's daily 
mail coach, and with Steelton by horse or dray only. With Adelaide, 68 miles S.W. 
the communication is by BounsevelPs daily mail coach to Eapunda, and thence by 
rail. Horsham has a post office, a school, and a Primitive Methodist chapel; also one 
hotel — the Boyal Oak. Whyte park, the English and jflkstralian patent copper com- 
pany's central station, lies in the neighbourhood, whence coals are conveyed by horse- 
waggons to the Burra mines, and the Burra copper to Eapunda. The surrounding 
country is undulating and lightly grassed and timb.ered, and is well adapted for agri- 
cultural pursuits, which are extensively carried on in the neighbourhood. The district, 
embracing a radius of about 8 miles, is generally known as Tothill's creek. The 
population of Horsham numbers about 80 persons. 

BOUGHTON (Co, Adelaide) is a postal village in the electoral district and hun- 
dred of Gumeracka, and under the control of the Highercombe district council. It is 
an agricultural (wheat growing) district, and lies 4 miles S. of Millbrook, and 2 miles E. 
of Steventon; the communication, as with Adelaide, 18 miles S. W., being by Bounsevell's 
line of daily mail coaches. There is an hotel in the village (the Travellers' Best), a Fores- 
ters' court, and a public pound. There are 2 small vineyards near this village (Reed's and 
Needham's), the vines being very productive. The surrounding country is mountainous, 
and freestone abounds. The population numbers about 200 persons. The geological 
formation is of siliceous and metamorphic rock, granite and greenstone dykes inter- 
secting micaceous, euritic, and gneissose rocks, with hard white and brown quartzose 
rocks, the whole having an E. dip of from 50° to 60°. 

Pli BUCT'S CREEK (Co, Hindmarsh) is a small stream flowing past the township of 
Sandergrove. 

BUGB CREEK {Flinders district) is a small N. tributary of the Neales river, 
flowing from the N.W. through a sandy plain with sand-hills. It was discovered by 
Stuart in 1859. 

^BUBEBUO SCRUB (Co. Adelaide) is the name given to a tract of land bearin? 
strong indications of copper and other minerals, and lying 2 miles N.W. of the town- 
ship of Kersbrook. 

BUHKOCK hill, 33° 2' S. lat., 137° 25' E. long. (Flinders district,) is the 
name given to a rugged peak standing on the W. side of Spencer's gulf, near point 
Lowly. It is situated in pastoral country, and forms a landmark both for vessels in 
the gulf and for the surrounding country. 

BUBEM0CK8 RUN (Co. Stanley;) lease, J^io, 124; occupier, J. Ellis; area 251 
square miles; grazing capacity, 51,500 sheep; old rental and assessment, j£491 lOs.; 
Gfoyder's valuation, j£4055j)er annum, deducting improvements valued at £4843. This 
run consists of salt lakes and lagoons, dense scrub, with mallee, pine and bushes, 
grassy plains and saltbush, well grassed spurs' and hills, with oaks and wattle 
on the Broughton river. It lies about 28 miles N. of port Wakefield, and 90 miles N: 
of Adelaide. The stations lying round this run, and worked with it, are the Barunga, 
Bunnabunga and Wokurna, comprising leases Nos. 396, 421, 467, and 492; the 
respective areas being 37^, 56, 12, and 23} square miles. 

BUMPB&ET'S SPRINGS {Co, QawUr) is the name of a post office in the 



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Hun — ^Inv] The South Australian Gazetteer. 107 

hnndred of Alma, established for the conTenience of the surrounding agricultural 
population. It lies 68 roiles N. of Adelaide. 

BUNTSa, MOUNT, 27° 25' S. lat., 136° 45' E. long. {Flinders district N.,) is a 
flat-topped hill lying in a sandy pialn, with low ranges of sand-hills on the N. side of 
the Frew river, and to the W. of lake Eyre. It was seen and named by Stuart, during 
his exploration in March, 1860, from his camp on Neales river. 

KUaO> MOUNT, {Flinders district.) See Uro Mount. 

HU&TXiXi YALE (Co, Hindmarsh) is the name given to an alluvial flat running 
down to a tea-tree scrub swamp, and lying near the township of Beynella. Much of 
this flat is taken up for cultivation purposes. 

-_ HUT HOTEL (Go. Burra) is a roadside hotel on the main road flrom Eooringa to 
;Kapunda, and lying 2 miles from Stony gap. 

BUT RIVER {Oo. Stanley) is a fine stream rising near Seven-hill, and flowing 
about 20 miles in a ge^ral N. direction past the township of Clare, and through good 
pastoral country into tne Broughton river, on its S. side. 

BYNAII RUN {S.E. district;) lease, No. 166; occupier, Mr. A. Smith; area, 
63 square miles; grazing capaciiy, 16,000 sheep, or 235 per square mile; Goyder's 
valuation, £872 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £1890. This run lies 
220 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 85 miles E.N.E. of Robe (Guichen bay,) where the 
wool is shipped. On this run, and on the purchased land round the head station, are 
20,000 sheep, 170 head of cattle, and 30 horses. 

IIiX.JLPIirXPA STATION (A^. (fi^ertW) is a portion of the MifccheliU run, held 
unier a separate lease by J. Williams. See Mitchelili Run. 

ILLUSION PLAINS {Flinders district) is the name given to a large tract of 
flat country lying on the Frome river, and to the S. E. of lake Eyre. It was explored 
by Parry id 1858, and was found to consist of poor country, with larg^ patches of 
pebbles imbedded in sand, but at times these were replaced by clay plains, rent and 
flssured if dry, and boggy if retaining moisture. 

Ilf OLEWOOD ((79. Adelaide) is a small village on the Para river, lying 3| 
miles from Steventon. It has a scattered agricultural population, and 1 hotel— the 
Inglewood . 

HTKfiRUCflklT {Go. Oawler) is a N.W. hundred of the county, containing a 
small quantity of purchased land on its N. side, the S. bank of the Wakefield river. 
The area of this hundred, including those of the hundreds of Balaklava and Dalkey, 
is 204,800 acres, the cultivated land being 1423 acres. The population numbers 253 
persons. 

INMAN RIVER {Go. Hindmarsh) is a stream rising in the Yankalilla range, and 
flowing in an E. direction through Inman valley, into the sea at Encounter bay, to the 
S. W. of Victor harbour. 

INBIKAlN V alley {Co, Hindmarsh) is the name given to a tract of good 
agricultural land lying to the N. of Victor harbour, near Bald hill, and inhabited by a 
number of small farmers^ chiefly engaged in the cultivation of wheat. The Inman 
river flows through the valley. 

INMAN V^LEY (Go, Hindmarsh) is a postal village in the electoral district 
and hundred of Encounter bay, and under the control of the Encounter bay and 
Yankalilla district councils. The upper part of Inman valley is situated on the Nixon 
river, and the lower on the Inman river. The district is an agricultural one, wheat 
and oats, chiefly the former, being cultivated. The nearest places are Encounter bay, 
12 miles E.; Yankalilla, 8 miles W.; and Myponga, 10 miles N.; there being no public 
means of conveyance to those places. With Adelaide, 5# miles N.N.W., the communi- 
cation is from Yankalilla by Rounsevell's coach, and the* nearest hotel is at Yankalilla. 
Inman valley has a post office, a Congregational chapel, and a common school. The 
resident magistrate is F. A. Lindsay, Esq., J. P. The surrounding country is elevated, 
and nearly surrounded by a chain of high hills. The population numbers about 
360 persons? For a description of the neighbouring country, see Hindm^Ilsh County. 

XNTE&B&ACHIE (Oo. Adelaide) is a small village lying on the S.W. of the 
pleasant suburb of Woodside. It has a Scotch kirk and a manse, the residence of the 
pastor, the Rev. J. M^jPean. The population is scattered, and is chiefly engaged in 
agricultural and gardening pursuits. There is a public pound in the village. 



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108 The South Australian Ohx^teer, [Iny — J4.C 

HfVBSTZGATOB, GROUP {Flinders district) is the name givea to a group of 
islands lying off the S.E. head of Anxious bay, on the W. part of the coast. It was so 
called by Flinders, from the Investigator having anchored to the N. of it in 180j2. It 
comprises Flinders island. Topgallant isles (3,) Ward islands (2,) Pearson islands (6,) 
and Waldegrave islands (2.) 

ZmrSSTZG ATOa strait {minders district;) formed by Kangaroo island with 
the southern part of Yorkers peninsula, is upwards of 17 leagues in length, and averages 
about 23 miles in breadth, with the exception of Althorpe isles, and a shoal flat that 
extends 4 or 5 miles off a very low point to the westward of Troubridge hill. This strait 
is free from dangers, and of an ample depth of water. "From 45 fathoms in the middle 
of the western entrance, the depth diminishes quickly to 25, then more slowly to 20 ; 
after which it is irregular between 12 and 20 fathoms, as far as the mouth of the gull 
ot St. Vincent. Of the two sides, that of Kangaroo island is^uuch the deepest, but 
th^e is no danger in any part to prevent a ship passing through the straits with perfect 
oonfldence. The bottom is mostly broken shells, mixed with sai^^ gravel, or coral, and 
appears to hold well." Since Capt. Flinders wrote thus, the safe navigation of the 
straits has been much facilitated, by the establishment of lights on cape Borda and on 
Troubridge shoals. Between cape Borda on the N . W. .extreme of Kangaroo island, and 
point Marsden on the N.E., the land presents no remarkable features, and the chart 
will afford a much better knowledge of it than any written description. There appears 
to be from 15 to 19 fathoma water within a moderate distance from the shore, A reef 
extends about a mile to the northward of cape D'Fstaing, the neighbourhood of whidti 
should be avoided, as the soundings near it give no warning. Near capes Cassini and 
Button, the chart also shows rocks extending but a short distance from the shore. With 
these exceptions, the north side of Kangaroo island* appears to be free from danger. 
This strait is so called after the ship in which Flinders performed his voyage of dis- 
covery on the S. coast, 

ZB.ISHTOWlf {Co, Adelaide) is a small residential village, suburban to North 
Adelaide, and lying on the E. slope of the hill on which that township is built. It 
consists chiefly of the dwellings of labouring men and their families. The Torrens 
river flows to the S. of the village, and is crossed to the S.E. by the Company's bridge, 
near a flour mill (Stevens's) known as the Company's mill. 

ZaOll PEAK RUN iN,E. district;) leases Nos. 673 and 676; occupiers, J. T. and 
R. Browne ; areas, 60 square miles and 98 square miles respectively ; total rent, 
£79 per annum. This run lies round a hill called by the same name in the E. plains, 
the next post town being Kooringa, to the S.W. 

ISLAND LAKE (Flinders district) is a large salt lake, lying to the E. oi lake 
Gairdner, and probably connected with that lake in flood time. Mr. Babbage com- 
puted the area of this sheet of water at 480 square miles, and it is probable that in 
times of heavy floods this and others of the neighbouring lakes are united, forming one 
vast inland sea, whilst in periods of drought they shrink into mere oozy swamps. 
The losses recently sustained by sheep-farmers who have planted stations there show 
bow dangerous it is to depend upon them in dry seasons. The N. part of this lake is 
called Red lake, and the S. part lake McFarlane. 

ISOLATED HILL (Flinders district) is a remarkably solitarj^h ill, lying 12 miles 
S.E. of Blanchewater, and 20 miles S. of mount Hopeless. This hill is described bv 
Babbage as being 750 feet high, and being in the midst of well-grassed plains, with 
numeroui^ springs of good water, and a creek flowing past its foot to the E. 

IT ALU-IT ALLI RUN (Flinders district;) lease. No* 59; occupier, H. J. Rich- 
man; area, 37 square miles ;||grazing capacity, 4450 sheep, or 120 per square mile; 
Goyder's valuation, £77 8s. per annum, deducting improvements valued at £1278. 
This run lies'5 miles N.E. of mount Brown, 195 miles N. of Adelaide, and 25 miles 
E.N.E. of Port Augusta. This run also includes lease, No. 850, which has an area of 
14 square miles, and pays a rent and assessment of £25 13s. 4d. per annum. 

ITSLOWIB CREEK (N. district) is a small oreek, flowing in flie pastoral 
country, about 40 miles from Yudanamutana. 

JACOB, MOUNT {Flinders range,) is a peak in an E. spur of the N.E. end of the 
main range lying about 20 miles S.E. of Yudanamutana. Thdp^elcome copper mine 
lies on the N. W. slope of the hill. 



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Jaok-^Jul] Ths South AmtraUan GhtetUeer, 109 

JACOVB CR££K (Co», Light wad Adelaide) is a stream rising in the main or 
Adelaide range, near and to the N. of mount Crawford, and flowing in a N.W. direction 
1 mile distant firom Rowland's flat. This creek forms th^ N.£. bonndarj of the county 
of Adelaide* 

JACOB'S PLAINS (Co. Stanley) is the name given to a tract of fine agricalttufal 
tUCidnlating land, lying about 3 miles to the W. of Seven-hill, and watered by the tribu- 
taries of the Hutt river. The whole of the district is thickly settled upon by a class of 
industrious &rmers who grow Urge quantities of wheat in the fertile alluvial soil ot 
tiiese plains. 

JAFFA CAPE (Co. JZoitf)— (Cape Bbrnouilli of the last edition of the Admiralty 
eoaat-sheet^^—in lat. 36° bV S., and long. 139° 42' E., is a piece of saniy land, but risiug 
from the beach to a moderate elevation, and well wooded. W. 4 miles from the cape 
lies a small islet, on which a beacon has been erected. This islet is 300 yards in circum- 
ference and is visible 3 miles ofi*. There are several other rocky patches in the 
neighbourhood. From the cape northwards the land trends to the E.N.E., forming a 
shallow bay with good anchorage, called Lacepede bay. 

JAOOSO MOUNT {Co. Hindmarsh) is a high peak and survey point in the 
rugged country in the E. part of the hundred of Myponga, and about § miles N. W. of 
Cunency creek township. 

JAKfi, liOXi'^T,(W.di8t/rkt.) See Ulibbib Run. . 

JSFFCOTT, MOUNT (Co. ffindmarsh,) is a lofty peak and W. spur of the N. 
part of the Yankalilla range, and lyuig about 14 miles S.E. of the S. part of the Aldinga 
bay, whence it forms a prominent landmark. 

J£M CROW'S FLAT {Co. Cardwell) is a camping place on the main road from 
Wellington to Border town, lying 48 miles S.E. of the former place. There are some 
springs at this spot, known as the Reedy, or Forty-eight mile wells. 

JS&VIS CAPE, 35° 40' S. lat.. 138° 10' E. long, (Co. Ilirhdmarsh,) is a high bold 
projection of the main land, forming the E. point of entrance to the gulf of St. Vincent. 
The high land which forms this cape is much intersected by^gullies, and projects 
occasionally in bold cliffy extremes; the northernmost of which, marked on the chart 
N.W. of High bluff, is 7 miles N.N.E. from the western extremity of the cape, and 
round its N. side forms a bight open to the westward. The S. W., or most projecting 
extremity of this prominent headlan4, does not present so steep a face to the sea as in 
other parts of it, but slopes gradually from the hills, about 2 miles inland. A ledge oi 
rocks runs off the northern part of cape Jervis, about 12 cables' length. Inside the rocks 
will be found a convenient little boat harbour. The soundings off the reef increase 
very rapidly from 4 to Jl 1 fathoms. This cape is separated from Kangaroo island by 
Backstairs passage. There is a resident magistrate in the neighbourhood, F. Raasfordj 
Esq., J.P. 

JOANNA {Co. Robe) is a hundred in the E. part of the county, containing but 
little purchased land. The country is pastoral, and is watered by the Musquito creek. 

JOBN CREEK (Flinders district) is a small creek flowing in the pastoral country 
40 miles S.E. of Yudanatnutana. * 

JOXN> MOUNT, 30° 58' S. lat., 139° 10' E. long. {Flinders district,) is the E. peak 
of an E. spur of the main range, lying on the S. bank of the Rose creek. 

JOBNSON'S COAST (or Georgm Lakb^ RUN (S.E. district;) lease, No. 214; 
occupier, A. Johnson ; area, 17 square miles ; grazing capacity, 2000 sheep ; Goyder*8 
valuation, £64 8s. per annum, deducting improvements valued at £28. This run lies 
240 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 25 miles S.E. of Guichen bay. 

JULIA. CREEK (^Co. Light) is a N. tributary of the Light river, flowing thtough 
the agricultural country in the hundred of the same name in a S. direction. The 
country to the E. is covered with dense scrub, which extends to the Murray river. 

JITXiIA CREEK {Co Light) is a hundred lying in the N.E. part of the county, 
and watered by the creek of the same name. It consists principally of purchased land, 
much of which is taken up for agricultural purposes. The area of this hundred is 
64,000 acres, the number of acres under cultivation being 400, and the population, num- 
bering 80 persons, mostly agriculturists. * 



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110 ITie South Australian Gazetteer, [Kat> 



, (Co. Daly) is a postal township in the electoral district of Port Adelaide 

and hundred of Wallaroo, and is situated in the N. part of Yorke's peninsula about 6 
miles inland, on a course nearly £. from Wallaroo springs, as laid down in the charts 
from Hack's surveys, and nearly 100 miles from Adelaide, lying N. from the city. 
Between this place and Adelaide there has been established a line of daily communication, 
the mail conveyance also taking a limited number of passengers each trip. Other means of 
communication and passenger and goods transit have been established by means of weekly 
steamers and numerous coasting vessels. The nearest township is port Wallaroo, 6 
miles distant, to which place a tramway has been constructed, and is generally used for 
passenger and goods traffic. The other township is the Mounta, situated 10 miles S. W. 
from Kadina, to which place from Kadina passenger carts run at irregular intervals. 
There has also bdbn a tramway laid down and lately opened for passenger and goods 
traffic, but principally for the transport of ore from the Moonta mines to the port of 
shipment. There being no rivers, creeks, springs, or any permanent really fresh water 
in this portion of the district, it was never considered even suitable for the profitable 
depasturage of sheep in former years, and agriculture was never thought of. In 
fjMJt, the country was never fit for anything until one of the oldest resident settlers, 
Captain Hughes, discovered that udder the valueless surface there were chances of 
great wealth in store for himself and others. He found traces of existing copper-bearing 
lodes on the beSch near his station, and for years tried to follow those traces back into 
the country, but unsuccessfully, until at length in the year 1860 a shepherd, who was 
a remarkably intelligent man, discovered copper ore thrown to the surface by the 
wombats in their burrowing under the limestone crust covering the country just under 
the subsoil. Upon this discovery rested the future weal of the peninsula, and it having 
fallen into energetic hands, operations were commenced forthwith, and the result has 
proved, so far, highly satisfactory, inasmuch as now there are in the district some of the 
largest and best paying mines in the world. The first discovery is named the Wallaroo 
mines, comprising several sections of 80 acres each, on which are sunk several pumping 
shafts, and innumerable whim, whip, and minor shafts, from all of which immense 
quantities of ore are continually being obtained. There is one 60-inch cylinder pumping 
engine, supplied with steam by three large Cornish tubular boilers. Th^re are also 
2 powerful double-Ating horizontal high pressure engines employed in winding, 
crushing, and pumping operations. In addition, there are other large engines arriving, 
and to be erected as the work of developing the mine progresses. It will be understood 
that all this work is carried on on one immense lode running E. and W. through the 
country, and in following its course E. will be found the Matta mine, on a low flat. 
This is only second to the former, in consequence of the hitherto confined nature of 
the works, which, however, has been improved of late under a public companj , who 
have erected a large engine 60-inch cylinder. There has been a large adit or drain 
constructed some 3 miles in length, for the better conduct of water away from the 
mines. The next principal mine may be called the New Cornwall, which has 2 
steam engines, one 80-inch cylinder and the other of 35-horse power high pressure, 
besides a quantity of other machinery. In Kadina there is a local and police court 
house, a post, money order and telegraph office, and several churches and chapels of 
various sects and denominations. The hotels are — the Kadina, White Lion, Wombat, 
Miners* Arms and Exchange. Theonlj^nveyance booking office is that of Bounsevell's 
lineof daily coaches to Adelaide, at th^Exchange hotel. The inhabitants have often- 
times attempted to form themselves into either a district council or corporate body, but 
have failed hitherto, as the greater portion of the mining community seem opposed to 
such a course. The surrounding country is for the most part slightly undulating, the 
nearest hills or ranges of any consequence being the Hummocks, some 30 miles distant, 
bearing nearly E. The land is exceedingly barren and sterile, the surface being covered 
with limestone in most parts, and the geological formation of the limestone crust is 
passed in sinking. The shelf or rock is met with at from 6 feet to 6 fathoms, generally 
composed of micaceous sandstone, with, in places, dykes of porphyry tic rock, fossiliferous 
sandstone, and in some few places granite appears in small quantities. In some of the 
fossiliferous stone many curious and complete fossils of ammonites and other shell fish 
have been obtained. In other parts of the country hornblende, wavelite, manganese, 
and other minerals have been found, and^ in short, the general surface indications would 
lead to the impression that the country is far richer in its mineral resources than most 
other parts of the province, and that in the course of a few years the area of ground 
between the three points — Kadina, Moonta, and Green's plains, will be proved to contain 
a complete network of highly mineralised lodes or veins. The population of Kadina 



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yAT> — Kan] , The SoiUh Australian Gazetteer, 111 

and the surrounding mines maj be computed at about 4000 persons. It may be con 
sidered generally a pretty healthy spot, the only drawback being the total want ot anything 
like natural fresh water, the lack being partly remedied by distilling the copp^er water from 
the mines, and by collecting rain water in tanks, reservoirs, aod every available utensil. 
Kadina has branches of the South Australian and National banks, and the South 
Australian insurance company. There are two Oddfellows' lodges and a Foresters' 
court; also an aboriginal depot in the township. 

KABZNA (Co, Daly) is a central hundred of the county forming part of the 
Moonta and Wallaroo copper mining district, and consisting principally of pastoral 
country. There are a few small blocks of purchased land near the £. side of the 
hundred. 

SADLZ BIERI, (Kallhi View, or Massacre Lake,) 27° 15' S. lat., 140° 4' E. 
long. {Flinders district j) is the name of a sheet of water lying immediately to the N. of 
a luxuriantly grassed flat dh the Wondwarara creek, and tl^ N. part of the N. arm of 
the Barcoo river. It was called Massacre lake by M^Kinlay, from his finding traces of 
white men (most probably Gray,) and his supposition that the whole of the Burke and 
Wills exploration party had been killed and eaten there by the blacks. There is a 
large dry salt lagoon to the W., and some salt lakes to the N. The country consists 
of sandy and stony plains. 



EtSTUKL (Co. Light) is the name of a mountain situated about 3 miles 
S.E. of Tanunda. It was so called by M. Menge, an eminent German geologist, after 
a mountain in the Black Forest of Germany. 

KALABB&O HUN {S,E. district;) lease, No. 205 ; occupiers, D. and M. M*Kin- 
nou; area, 31 square miles; grazing capacity, 4500 sheep, or 150 per square mile; 
Goyder's valuation, £124 4s. per annum, deducting improvements valued at £504. 
This run is watered from the Dismal swamp, and lies 35 miles N.N.E. of Macdonnell 
bay, 263 miles S.S.E of Adelaide, and 70 miles from Portland (Victoria) where the 
wool is shipped. 

KAJ^NGADOO HUN {S.E, district;) lease, No. 184; occupier, J. N. M'Leod; 
area. 18 square miles; grazing capacity, 2300 sheep, or 121 per square mile; Goyder's 
valuation, £118 12s. per annum, deducting improvements valued at £32. This run 
lies 255 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, 75 miles from Guichen bay, and 38 miles N. of 
Macdonnell bay, 

KA&ANOABOO (Co. Grey) is a small agricultural and pastoral village lying 
about 5 miles N.W. of the township of Tarpeena. There is a large quantity of fine 
land, available for agricultural purposes, in the neighbourhood. The population, a 
scattered one, numbers about 100 persons. 

KAUBZ VIEW [Flinders district.) See Eadli Bisri. 

XANAPPA MINE (Co.Stwrt) is a copper mine lying 37 miles E.N.E. of 
Adelaide. A late report from the captain stated that everything was progressing 
well, and that he expected shortly to come to the main lode in the 20-fath()m level. 
Another, dated September 4, was similar in purport. Since this another branch of 
the lode in the 20-fathom level had been cut, and the sample of it seemed to be of a 
very good character. 

KANOA&ZLLA (or Eybe's) FLAT (Co. Adelaide) is a township 27 miles 
from Adelaide, situated on the S.E. branch of the S. road from Adelaide to the Goolwa, 
in the hundred of Eondoparinga, and under the control of the district councils of 
Eondoparinga and Clarendon, the boundary line of the two passing through the middle 
of the township. Dashwood's gully creek also passes through the township, and mount 
Panorama lies about 1^ mile. The district is an agricultural one. and there are 
numerous vineyards in the neighbourhood producing fine crops of grapes. The nearest 
places are Clarendon, 3^ miles distant; Meadows, 7 miles; Morphett vale, 9 miles; and* 
Nbarlnnga, 11 miles. There are no regular conveyances to those places, but with 
Adelaide, 27 miles N.N.W., the communication is by public conveyance, leaving on 
Tuesdays, at 10.30 a.m., or by Gobers conveyance from the Meadows. There is one 
hotel— the Eangarilla; also a booking office, a post office, and the usual stores and 
shops. The country is elevated, quartz supposed to contain gold abounding in the 
district. The population is small and scattered. 



Dfgitized by CjOOQIC 



113 The South Australian (Gazetteer, [Kan 

KANOAROO CREEK (Co. Adelaide) is a small S. tributary of the Torrens 
rirer, rising in the main range near Stringy bark hill, and flowing through rugged 
oountry for about 6 miles in a N.W. direction, into the main stream. 

KANGAROO FLAT RUN, DESERT {S,E, district;) lease, No. 692 ; occupier, 
P. McDonald ; area, 12 square miles ; grazing capacity, 1000 sheep, or 83 per squate 
mile ; Goyder's valuation, £34 per annum. This run has no surface water, a&d the 
wells have fallen in. There is no stock upon it at present. It lies 105 miles S.E. of 
Adelaide. This run also comprises leases, Nos, 876 and 883, which hare respectiye 
areas of 21 and 14 miles. 

KAMGA&OO HEAD (Kangaroo island) is a bold rocky headland, forming theE. 
horn of Eastern cove. It lies on the N.E2. end of the island, 2 miles W. 4 S. of Hog bay, 
and on the S. side of Backstairs passage, 

XANGA&OO ISI4ND is a large island extending from 35^^35' to 36° 5' S. lat., 
and from 136° 35' to 138° 10' E. long., and measuring 75 miles from E. to W., and 30 
miles from N. to S. This island lies to the S. of the gulf of St. Vincent and Investi- 
gator strait, the latter separating it from Torke's peninsula. Between the N.E. end of 
the island and cape Jervis, the Eu head of the gulf of St. Vincent, is a narrow passage 
known as the Backstairs, and used by vessels making Adelaide from the E. Flinders, 
the discoverer, landed upon this island on the 22nd May, 1802, finding the beach grassy, 
and the country further inland covered with thick scrub, he gave it the name it bears 
in consequence of finding large numbers of kangaroos upon it, 31 of which were shot by 
his crew the first day. These animals were found to be large and fat, and differing 
only from those of new South Wales by the fact of their being darker in colour. It is 
in form something like the shape of a Malay creese, the E. end, which is nearly detached 
from the main body, forming the handle, and the remainder the blade. Its E. point is 
known as cape Willoughby, and a lighthouse known as the Sturt light, and showing a 
revolving white light every 1 ^ minutes, is erected there upon the edge of the cliffs, llie 
W. extremity is cape Borda, which has also a lighthouse called the Flinders light, 
showing a revolving white and red light every half-minute. This island is for the most 
part covered with dense scrub, and a&>rds pasture only for a few sheep and cattle. The 
Land is of tolerable elevation and well-wooded, presenting on its N. side a steep cliffy 
shore, with sandy beaches, and ranges of sand-hills, with white perpendicular stripes. 
The harbour of Nepean bay, in the N.E. part, is scarcely to be surpassed, and will 
accommodate hundreds of vessels. The entrance is protected by a sandspit or shoal, 
which leaving a deep passage to the S. forms a complete breakwater. The spit is dry 
at low water, and can always be avoided by the soundings, which are very regular. Ships 
of 700 tons burthen can anchor within half-a-mile of the landing place. It lies in lat. 
35° 33' S., and long. 137° 41' E. Kingscote, the principal post office, is situated on the 
slope of some hills, looking down a steep precipice into the sea. On the beach stands a 
storehouse and a few huts built of bushes. The soil of this island, in the vicinity of 
Kingscote, is composed of sand left by the retiring sea, mixed with a small portion of 
vegetable mould. The want of rain upon so dry a soil, renders it impossible to produce 
vegetables, except during the rainy season. About 200 or 300 yards from the sea, good 
soil is found, where young potatoes, plants, and peas will thrive, but no sooner is the 
rain over than the earth is heated to that degree that every vegetable perishes. Nine 
miles in the interior there are belts of iron and limestone running through the island, in 
the interstices of which good soil is frequently found. The animals found in this island 
are kangaroos, wallabies, bandicoots, opossums, and iguanas. Snakes, from the circum- 
stance of the island being one matted bush, are most abundant, and are seen winding 
along in all directions. Tarantulas, scorpions, and -mosquitoes are also very numerous. 
There is an abundance of eagles, pelicans, cormorants, crows, magpies, robin redbreasts, 
swallows, and small birds remarkable for the brilliancy and variety of their plumage. 
A bituminous substance, resembling tar in appearance, is found largely scattered upon 
, some parts of the beach of this island, and points to the discovery ere long of petroleum 
spdngs. In this island there are 2375 acres of purchased land, 1189 acres enclosed, 
and 676 acres under cultivation. The live stock numbers 98 horses, 294 horned cattle, 
9329 sheep, 211 goats, 206 pigs, and 761 head of poultry. Of the land under cultivation 
398 acres are under wheat, 176 acres under barley, 55 acres under hay, 39 acres fallow, 
3 acres under potatoes, 2 acres of garden, 2 acres of orchard, and 1 acre of vineyard^ 
the latter having 610 vines in bearing, and 6 160 vines not in bearing. The crops for the 
year ending March 31, 1866, were 5701 bushels wheat, 3475 bushels barley, 77 tons hay, 

• 

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Kan] The SoiUh Australian Gazetteer. 113 

6 tons potatoes, and 1 cwt. grapes. The population numbers 227 persons, and the 
number of dwellings is 43. * 

KAMHANTOO iCo. Sturt) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Onkaparinga, and under the control of the Nairne district council, and is pleasantly 
situated on an alluvial flat on the main line of road from Adelaide to Swan i>ort on 
the river Murr^i^. The river Bremer runs 1 mile to the E. of the township, and takes 
its ri^ in the tieighbourhood of mount Beaver, 14 miles N.E. of the township. The 
neighbourhood is partly mining, pastoral, and agricultural, the farmers for the most 
part combining wheat growing with the rearing and breeding of sheep. There are also 
2 copper mines situate 1 mile S. of the township— E. Eanmantoo mine and'W. 
Eanmantoo mine, both in full work, and employing a number of men. Grold in quartz 
has recently been discovered on the eastern slopes of the Bremer ranges, 10 miles E. 
of Eanmantoo, and a company been formed to test its productiveness. Staughton and 
Paringa villages, situate 3 miles 8. from Kanmantoo, derive their existence from 
the mines. Callington, 4 miles S.E., contains the largest copper mine in the district, 
worked by an English proprietary — the Worthing mining company. There is a daily 
mail and coach between Eanmantoo and Callington, and a daily mail and coach between 
Adelaide and Eanmantoo, along a good macadamised road, distance 34 miles. . 
Eanmantoo contains a school of 50 scholars, a post office, public pound, a branch of 
the South Australian insurance company, a Foresters' court, and 2 general stores. The 
hotels are the Eanmantoo and the Miners' arms; and 3 places of worship — the Primitive 
Methodist, Wesleyan and Roman Catholic churches. The surrounding country is 
undulating, lightly timbered, and well adapted for pastoral pursuits. The population 
numbers 150 persons. There is a very fine vineyard of 25 acres, near Eanmantoo 
(Mr. C. B. Young's) which promises to produce wine of a very superior class. 

The Eanmantoo mine lies to the E. of the township, and was worked until lately 
by a company formed in November, 1861, with a capital of £12,000, in £5 shares. It 
is, however, now in the hands of a company called the New Eanmantoo company, who 
have had it a few months, and who are prosecuting the w^dcs with vigour. Austin, 
'who visited the mine in 1863, speaks in the following terms of this mine : — ** Since the 
commencement of this company (the former company) 1920 tons of ore have been 
raised, and smelted at the company's smelting works, in the neighbourhood of Scott's 
creek. These works consist of a calcining, a reverberatory, and a refining furnace, and 
other necessary buildings. The principal lodes are the Eangaroo, Emily's, and the 
Boundary lode. The 2 former run N. and S., and the latter is a counter lode. The 
first is a large lode yielding yellow ore of a moderate percentage. Emily's lode has 
produced large quantities of yellow ore, which, at the 10-fathom level, gave place to 
red oxide and native copper ; 1 large block sent to Adelaide for exhibition weighed 1 1 
cwt. 2 levels have been driven on the lode, at 16 and 26 fathoms respectively, showing 
a considerable quantity of ore to have been left in the mine. The copper produced at 
the smelting works £rom the ore now being raised amounts to about 12 tons per month, 
and the rate of cartage to Adelaide is 20s. per ton. A large amount of work has been 
done at this mine since its first commencement. The South Australian company raised 
about 4000 tons of ore, and opened a large extent of ground. Mr. W. B. Dawes, who 
subsequently rented the mine, raised above 1900 tons. Some of the old stopes and 
drives in the mines testify, on examination, to the immense deposits of ore which for- 
merly existed there. This mine is paying the proprietors. 64 hands are at present 
employed on it, and 16 at the smelting works." In the hands of the new Eanmantoo 
company the mine appears to be in an exceedingly flourishing condition, and since 
Austin's visit many improvements have been made, and a very large quantity of ore 
has been raised. The Eanmantoo W. mine is situated on the side of a hill, about 100 
feet above the valley. It lies to the W. of tl^e olU Eanmantoo workings, and to the 
N. of the Paringa mine (an important mine now closed, but from which 900 tons of 
copper ore were raised, and which, probably, may be again worked to advantage at 
some future time.) The principal shaft of the Eanmantoo W. mine is down 34 fathoms, 
the lode at the bottom being about 7 feet wide of good sulphuret ore, and a payable lode. 
Several levels are driven on the course of the lode at various depths, viz., 11, 22, and 
28 fathom levels, the lode in the end of the two latter being payable. There are 
several other workings, which are much the same as the deep shaft, the country round 
the lodes being hard mica schist, with every probability of killas country a little 
deeper; this has been proved by a shaft sunk to the depth of 40 feet in the Paringa 
mine. There is little doubt that when the workings are taken deeper, and whea 

Digitized by iioOgle 



114 The South AustraUan OazeUeer. [Kan— Kap 

maohinerj ii i^aced on the ground, bv which the extraction of the ore can be expedited, 
this mine will become one of the belt in the colonj. At present, on the small scale 
cm which it is carried on, it pajs all working expenses, and leaves a considerable profit 
to the good. The number of hands at work in this mine is about 40* The mine i» 
leased from the South Australian company. * 

XANKAIITOO (Co. Sturt) is a hundred lying in the W. part of the county, and 
mostly taken up as purchased land. Agriculture is carried on to sodl^ extent,, and 
oopper is obtained from the Eanmantoo and W. Eanmantoo mines, both of which lie in 
the hundred. The £. portion of the hundred extends into the Murray belt of mallee 
scrub. 

BUN {N. district.) See Willipa Run. 

(Flindem district N,) is a postal mining town^ip in the ^eetoral 
district oi Flinders, and situated on the W. of the Eanyaka credc, and on a numb^ of 
prominent waterholes, the principal of which, about 4 miles from the township, is the 
wcdl* known Rocky waterhole. (See Eantaka Cbebk.) The Willochra creek pclsses the 
W. side of the Eanyaka run. The district is a pastoral and mining one, the former 
interest being represent^ by sheep runs, and the latter by the celebrated Eanyaka 
copper mine, wMch lies about 3]^ miles S. W. of the township. The nearest places to 
Kuiyaka are Willochra, about 18 miles distant, S.; Hookina, 24 miles N.W., and 
Edowie, 50 mUesN.W. With these places the communication is by horse and private 
vehicle only, private mails being carried on horseback. With Adelaide 260 miles 
S. the communication is by Rounsevell's weekly mail coach to Eapunda, and 
thence by rail, or by Rounsevell's weekly mail coadi to Port Augusta, and thence by 
steamer. Eanyaka is prettily situated, and has a post and money order of&ce, and 1 
hotel — the Great Northern. It has several good stone buildings, one of which is a fine 
woolshed. The resident magistrate is J. R. Phillips, Esq., J. P. The surrounding 
country is elevated and mountainous, the hills, especially on the E. side of the gully, 
being bold and lofty, and having clumps of good timber. The grass, except in times 
of drought, is plentifuL The formation of the country is of pipeclay, decomposed slate, 
and soft sandstone, with oclRMional outcropping beds of limestone. The population is 
smaU. The Eanyaka copper mine lies 194 miles N. \ W. of Adelaide, about a mile 
from the station, and in a country consisting of pipeclay, decomposed slate, and sofi; 
sandstone. There is a well-defined lode, which improves as it goes down, and is from 
2 ft. to 30 in. in width. A good deal of gypsum is found at the sides of the lode. The 
country is nearly white, and the ore of a dark blue and grey colour. 

XAHTAKA CREEE (Flinders district) is a creek rising in Wonaka hill, and 
flowing through a fine pastoral sheep country in a general W. direction past the B. 
side of the Eanyaka township (where it fiows nearly N. and S.) into the S. end of lake 
Torrens. It is joined at its lower end by the Willochra creek, and has, near Eanyaka, 
a number of pools of water, with springs which supply the neighbourhood the entire 
year. One of these is known as the Rocky waterhole, and takes its name from a large 
mass of rock directly overhanging the spring. This rock measures about 22 feet in 
lieight from the plain, but where the water has been washed away it is fully 10 feet higher. 
The waterhole it overhangs so nearly corresponds in dimensions to the rock that many 
persons £ancy it has been thrown out of the bed of the creek by some extraordinary 
convulsion of nature. It is composed of hard granite rock. The natives in the neigh- ' 
bourhood attach a superstitious importance to the rock, as they manifest an anxiety 
when at the point of death to be brought and laid down to die under its shadow. This 
waterhole lies on the road from Eanyaka to port Augusta, about 4 mUes from the 
former place, and is well known and much used by teamsters. The course of the 
creek consists of pipeclay, decomposed slate, soft sandstone and limestone. 

KANYAHA RUN {N. district;) lease No. 118 ; occupier, J. R. PhilUps; area, 
50 square miles ; old rental and assessment, £72 18s. 4d.; Goyder's valuation, £25 per 
annum, deducting improvements valued at £7175 per annum. The estimated grazing 
capacity of this run is 5000 sheep, or 100 per square mile. The run is watered by the 
Eanyaka and Wirrianda creeks, and by a fresh water lagoon on the N. W. end. The 
head station 3 miles distant from the Eanyaka post office, 60 miles N.E. of port 
Augusta, and 250 miles N. of Adelaide. The manager is Mr. T. Bowman. This run 
also includes leases Nos. 117, 252, 276, 280, 436, 74a, 313a, and 516a, having a total 
area of 360 square miles, and grazing 35,000 sheep, 100 horses, and 100 cattle. 

RUN {W. IHstrict;) lease, No. 100. This run is part of the Coppie 

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Eap] TheJSouth Australian Gazetteer. 115 

ran— which see. It has an area of 34 square miles, and a grazing capacity of 3500 
sheep, hdng yaloed bj Qoyder at £128 12s. per annum, deducting improvements 
Talued at £82. 

KAXnrXA BUN {W. district;) leases, Nos. 851 and 1034 ; occupier, S. Groode ; 
afeas of leases, 46 and 29 square miles respectively ; total rent, £37 per annum. This 
ran lies on Uie coast to the.E. of point Drummond, the next post office being at laka 
Qamilton. 

KAPPAWANTA BUN (W, district;) leases, Nos. 569, 803, 861, 862, 1031, and 
and 1032; occupiers. Parr and Luxmoore; areas of leases, 37, 9, 18, 8, 19, and 12 miles 
respectively. This run lies near lake Newland, to the S. of Wedge hill, the next post 
office being Parkin (Venus bay.) • 

XAPPnfBSfi BUN, N. (W. district.) See Hamilton Lake Bun, E. 

XAPUiniA, 34**20'S.hit.,l38°60'E.long. (Co.Zi^A<,)i8a postal mining township 
and municipality, and the terminus of the N.line of railway fromtAdelaide, in the elector^ 
district of Light and hundred of Eapunda district council. It is situated on the main N. 
road, and is the terminus of the N. railway, and the starting place of the G^^at Northern, 
Clare, Burra, and Eastern plains lines of coaches. The nearest places are Allandale 3 
ij^es N., Hamilton 10 miles N. on the road to Eooringa, the communication being by 
Roch, and that with Adelaide, 47 miles S.W., by raiL Kapunda has a post and money 
order office, a telegraph station, fine roomy railway station with goods sheds and other 
accommodation, a court house, police office, branches of the English, Scottish, and 
Australian Chartered, National, Adelaide, and Savings banks, and of the Adelaide, and 
South Australian insurance companies. There are 2 volunteer rifle corps (the Kapunda 
and the Kapunda mine,) a Freemason's lodge (Lodge of Light, No. 410, 1. C.,) 2 Odd- 
fellows' lodges (M.U.O.F., and A.I.O.F.,) a Druid's lodge, and a Forester's court 
There is a newspaper published in the township. The hotels are the N. Kapunda 
rCrase's.) Sir John Franklin, and several others. The resident magistrates are : — 
G. Tallis, D. Shannon, G. Boberts, M. H. S. Blood, W. Oldham, J. S. Browne, W. Lewis, 
H. Kelly, and J. White, Esqs. 

The receipts and expenditure in this nranicipality for 1865 were as follow : — 
Assessment— £14,760— rate Is. in the pound; rates collected, £206 38., being the total 
amount collected; office expenses and salaries, £137 16s. 6d.; expended on public works, 
£138 158. 6d. The population numbers 2540 persons, being an increase of 642 since 
1861, and there are 513 dwelling-houses, being an increase of 38 since that year. The 
area of the mimicipality is 574 acres. The affairs of the corporation are managed by a 
mayor and 8 council)#rs, there being 4 wards, known as the E., W., N., and S. wards, 
each of which is represented by 2 councillors. Within the municipality there are 81 
shc^s kept by tradesmen of various branches of business. 

The Kapunda copper mines, N. and S., lie 50 miles N.N.E. of Adelaide 
and 24 miles ftom Gawler. " It is the oldest copper mine in the colony, having beei: 
discovered in 1843, by Mr. F. S. Button and Mr. C. S. Bagot (now of London,) the 
youngest son of Capt. Charles Harvey Bagot, then a sheep-farmer and also a member of 
the Legislative Council. The mine workings are on hilly ground of moderate elevation, 
and which was originally lightly timbered with peppermint gum, but the settlement of 
the adjoining township, the working of the mine, and above all the carrying on of 
flmelting operations, have denuded the country of almost every stick of timber for 
miles round ; abundance, however, remains for the requirements of the mine for some 
years to come, and within a moderate distance for cartage. The first ore was raised at 
the Kapunda mine on the 8th January, 1844, and on the 23rd of the same month 5 
dray loads were despatched to Adelaide. The ore was good, the mine promised well, 
and search soon began to be made for copper ore in other directions, and it was not 
long before further discoveries were announced. With reference to the statistics of tiie 
Kapunda mine, a concise and valuable little work by Mr. Frederick Sinnett, called 
• An account of the colony of South Australia, prepared for distribution at the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862,' says:— 'On 4th March, 1845, the first horse- whim 
commenced work drawing water, and kept the mine dry to the 15-fathom level for some 
time; but as the works were extended it was soon found that it would be indispensable 
to procure engine-power, and during 1847 a 30-inch cylinder double action engine, with 
a supply of pumps, was obtained from England^ and erected on the mine, commencing 
work on 1st July, 1848. Shortly afterwards machinery was added for crushing ore, and 
for drawing or hauling; and this engine, with a brief interruption, caused by tht 



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110 The South Amtralian Ocmtteer. [Kap 

I '. 

In^eakiDg of the main shaft in June, 1850, has heen at work ever since. As the extent 
of wor^g increased so did the water, and in 1850 a larger engine was purchased and 
erected— commencing work in January, 1851. Both engines were employed in pumping 
for some years, but latterly all the water has been brought to one shaft, now sunk a 
depth of 60 fathoms, to which level the mine is kept in fork by the last-mentioned 
engine, which is of 36-inch cylinder, single direct action. The other engine is used in 
hauling and crushing. In December, 1849, the first smelting furnace commenced 
work, and was shortly followed by a second; and for some time a large portion of the ores 
were reduced to regulus before shipment. The great attractions presented by the 
goldfields of Victoria during the year 1852 induced most of the men to leave. The 
smelting works ceased altogether on 17th March, and were not resumed till March, 
1855. Nearly all the miners also left, aad it was with considerable difficulty the engine 
was kept going, and the mine kept dry — ^at one time there were but 4 miners. During 
1854, however, and especially in the early part of 1855, large numbers returned or 
came to work, and since then there has not been any material interruption. The 
ores comprise almost every variety, as yellow ore, or pyrite, blue and green carbonates, 
, muriates, grey and black sulphurets, oxides, bell-metal, and peacock ores, and native 
copper, or malleable. The percentage also varies much, from 66 downwards. The 
engines on the mine are as follows : — 1 30-inch cylinder, 6-feet stroke, double action 
condensing, now used only for hauling and crushing ores. 1 36 -inch cylinder, 8-feet 
stroke, single action, direct expansive and condensing, used only for pumping ; those^ 
at present attached being a 12-inch plunger column, and drawing lift at the bottom; 
between 5 and 6 strokes per minute keep the mine in fork. Each of these engines 
has 2 large tubular boilers of about 30 feet by 6 feet, all of which were built on the 
mine, as well as another spare boiler. A 10-horse power portable high pressure engine 
is employed in turning, boring, chaff-cutting, &c. &c. There is also on the works, but 
not yet erected, 1 50-inch cylinder condensing engine and a tubular boiler, in plates. 
One set of stamps and a plunger jigging-machlne, for ore dressing, to be erected 
immediately ; 1 water wheel, and perpendicular and circular saws. The buildings 
now erected are— the 2 engine-houses and boiler-houses above named, with crusher 
and lathe-house attached, and draining case. A large and very substantial erection of 
stone, with slate roofing, just completed — and comprising engine-house, boiler-house, 
crusher, and mine stores. This is intended for the reception of the present drawing 
engine, as the ground around it is sinking. There is 1 metal foundry or cupola, 1 
brass foundry, smiths' shops, and iron store, carpenter's shop and timber yard, and saw 
pits, weighbridge and office, and a counting-house, with manager's residence attached, 
a commodious and handsome building. There are also residences for the accountant, 
clerk, agents, and engineer— and about 30 other cottages occupied J^y the workmen and 
miners ; also houses for the pitmen, timbermen, sumphmen, and a range of barracks, 
or changing rooms, for the miners ; also a magazine for powder, store for candles, 
stores for mine materials, stables, &c. At the smelting works there are 6 
ore-reducing furnaces, 1 copper roaster, 1 refinery, copper store and ore shed, all 
substantially roofed; also superintendent's residence and office, smith's forge; brick- 
kiln, and brick shed for fire bricks which are made on the mine, of very superior 
quali y, from clay and sand obtained in the immediate neighbourhood. Besides the 
driw jng done by the engine, there are 8 horse whims, 2 double whipseys, and several 
single whipseys; and on the ore-floors are 12 jigging sieves, picking tables, &c. &c.'" 
The above description, by Mr. Austin, fairly shows the state of the mine, allowing for its 
advancement since 1864. The geological formation is a soft alumnious rock of a 
variety of colours, from pure white passing into pink and red, grey and blue. It hardens 
by exposure, and forms a convenient and beautiful building stone. The general dip is 
W. 10°, S. 20°. The mineral veins run in parallel lines N. by E. and S. by W., and 
have a W. underlay from 25° to 80°. To the N.E. they terminate abruptly in a soft 
blue pyritous slate, which runs N.E. and S.W., dipping to the N.W. from 25* to 70°. 
On^ the S. strike the veins are intersected by a series of nearly E. and W. &ult8, 
which throw them to the E. in steps. 

KAPUNBA (Co. Liaht) is a central hundred of the county lying on the N. of the 
Light river, which waters it, and consisting principally of purchased land, mostly used 
for agricultural purposes. The township of Kapunda, the N. terminus of the railway 
line from Adelaide, lies in this hundred. In this hundred is a steam flour mill, working 
3 pairs of stones by a 20-horse power steam engine. This hundred, exclusive of the 
corporation of Kapunda, has an area of 51,840 acres; of which 20,070 acres are under 
eultivation. The population of this portion numbers 2190 persons. 



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Kar — Ken] The SotUh Australian Gazetteer. 117 

JtilllKAIITTiTiA MINE (Co. Daly) is a copper mine lying 85 miles N.W. of Ade- 
laide, and forming one of the Torke's peninsula mines. It lies near the Telta, and to the S. 
of the Moonta and Eadina mines. Captain Warren, under date Karkarilla Mine, October 
13tfa, 1866, reports as follows: — *'The lode in the 80-soath has been cut through to 
the hanging wall, and we find it to be 11 feet in width, producing ore throughout of a 
superior quality. The men hare commenced to stope the back, and the lode continues 
quite as productive. The 80-end north is about the same as when last reported. The 
stopes in the back of the 70-south are yielding 2 tons ore per fathom, with indications 
of an improvement. The lode in the 70-end north is looking considerably better, being 
worth in the present end fully 5 tons ore per fathom. The stopes in the back St 
this level ane yielding 4 tons ore per fathom. The tributers are making fair wages 
at their respective tributes. The number of hands now employed on the mine is 58." 
The Karkarilla mine is steadily improving. The shaft is now down to the 80-fathom 
level, the lode being about 3 feet wide. All the workings are turning out as much 
ore as ever, some of the pieces weighing over 1 cwt. 

KAKKULTO MINE (Co. Burra) is a copper mine, lying 74 miles N.W. of 
Adelaide, 5 miles N. of Apoinga township, and immediately to the S. of the great 
Burra mines. It lies in good mineral country in hilly ground of moderate elevation, 
on which both the South Australian mining company and the Royal mining company 
have large blocks of purchased land, and both companies went to work on their 
property, but very little copper was obtained. In speaking of this mine, Austin says: — 
" The ironstone and gossan did not, as was hoped, give place to copper ; still a little 
copper ore was occasionally met with, and the proprietors felt encouraged to proceed, 
especially as the iron ore could be sold as a flux to the smelting works, at a price which 
helped to pay the expense of raising. The Royal mining company, however, soon 
alMuadoned the workings, and eventually sold the property at a loss. The Burra 
company are still continuing operations, and a few tons of copper ore have been 
dressed up, to yield an average of from 16 to 20 per cent, of copper. It is still the 
opinion of some practical men that the Earkulto mine will ultimately prove rich in 
copper, though, as the depth at present reached is upwards of 40 fathoms, it will 
probably be necessary to sink considerably deeper before the desired result can be 
attained. The South Australian mining association, who cannot be accused of a 
wasteful expenditure in the development of thpi property, seem to have had great 
confidence in the Earkulto, for they have laid out upwards of £30,000 in opening the 
mine." This mine lies 3 miles from Stony gap, and is at present worked by a Melbourne 
company, who are sanguine as to results, and although the lode is not cut as yet, 
copper of rich percentage has been found. 

KARLGUBJIA RUN {S.B. district;) occupiers, J. W. and J. H. Boothby; 
area, 32 square miles; grazing capacity, 200 head of cattle. This run, which forms 
part of Tintinarr^ lies 36 miles distant from Magrath's flat, the next post office. 

8LATZNGA LAEE (Co. Hindmarsh and Ruzsdl. ) See Lake Alexandbina. 

KEMBIZSS' HILL {Co. Hindmarsh) is a small hill and survey point in the 
coast range, lying about 5 miles from the coast E. of Normanville. 

KENSINGTON AND NORWOOD MUNICIPALITY (Co. Adelaide) is a 
suburban municipality lying in the hundred of Adelaide, and on the E. side of the city of 
Adelaide. It includes the townships of Eensington and Norwood, and has an area of 
883 acres. It has a mayor and a corporation of 8 councillors, and is divided into 4 
wards for municipal purposes, as follows: — W. Norwood ward, 249 acres; E. Norwood 
ward, 247 acres; Eensington ward, 254 acres; and Eent ward, 133 acres. The receipts 
and expenditure for the year 1865 in this municipality were as follow: — Amount of 
assessment, i;'20, 446— rate, Is. in the pound; amount of rates collected, £1014 58,; 
total receipts from all sources, jC2206 18s. 4d.; office expenses and salaries, £500 13s. 
lid.; expended on public works, £1516 17s. 3d. The population of this municipality 
numbers 4309 persons, being an increase of 923 since 1861; and the number of 
dwelling-houses is 919, being an increase of 94 since that year. Within this munici- 
pality are 2 brick yards, 2 soap and candle works, 1 coach builder's works, 1 jam 
manufactory, 1 sodawater, &c. manufactory, 2 breweries, 2 distilleries, and 12 wine 
presses. There are also 90 shops, comprising those of tradesmen of all kinds. 

KSNSZNGTON {Co, Adelaide) is a village, suburban to the city of Adelaide, and 
lying adjacent to Norwood, on the E. side of the city— the two places forming the 
municipality of Eensington and Norwood. There are numerous residences of gentlemen 



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118 The Sov^h Australian Gazetteer. [Ken— Ket 

havinff business in Adelaide, 2 hotels, and several stores, also a pnblie pound. The 
resident magistrates are A. Watts, T. Taylor, C. Tenn, L. Glyde, G. E. Hamilton, and 
J. W. Nicholls, Esqs. Kensington lies at the foot of the Adelaide range of hills, and 
on its S.W. side is the Adelaide racecourse. See Kensington and Norwood. 

XSMTOir CREEK ((7o. Adelaide) is a small drainage creek, flowing at a short 
distance to the N. of the township of Gumeracka. It runs through the Tillage of 
Kenton yalley. 

KENTON VALLEY (Go, Adelaide) is a small agricultural village, lying on 
the Kenton creek, about half-a-mile N. of the township of Gumeracka. There is an 
inn in the village, known as the Kenton. The resident mugistrate is W. Lillecrapp, 
Esq., J.P. • 

KENT {Co. Adelaide) is a small suburban township, lying adjacent to Norwood, 
and forming part of the municipality of Kensington and Norwood. See Norwood. 

KENT TOWN (Oo. Hindmarsh) is a small township adjoining the postal town 
of Langhorne, or Langhorne's creek, on the Bremer river. It is taken up by agricultural 
settlers engaged in the cultivation of wheat. The soil is sandy and overlies a limestone 
formation. 

KEB43 AXNTy CAPE (^Kangaroo island) is the most W. point of Vivonnebay on 
the S. side of the island. « 

KERSBKOOK ((7o. Adelaide) a postal township in the electoral district of 
Gumeracka, situated on the Chain of Ponds creek, and 1 J miles W. of the Barossa range 
of woody and rugged hills. The district is an agricultural one, wheat being the chief 
article oi produce. The nearest places to Kersbrook are Maidstone, J-mile N. by E. 
PMllipstown, 8j miles S. by W., N. Gumeracka, 4 miles N.E., and S. Gumeracka, 5 
miles S.E. The communication is by private conveyance, except to Gumeracka, with 
which place, as with Adelaide, 23 miles S.W., it is by Bounsevell's daily line of mail 
coaches. Kersbrook has a post office, and a branch of the South Australian insurance 
company. The' nearest hotel is at Maidstone, and the population numbers about 200 
persons. About 2 miles distant, N.W. of the township, is a place known as the 
Humbug scrub, where indications of copper and other minerals have been found from 
time to time. 

KETCBOWLA RUN (N.E. district) is a run on the E. plains, occupied by 
Hilary Boucant, Esq.; the area is 266 square miles, and the grazing capability 7980 
sheep, or 30 to the square mile — if no sheep are on the run, about 1596 head of cattle, 
or 6 to the square mile. This run lies about 40 miles N.N.E. of Kooringa, there being 
a new government road from that place to the boundary of the colony passing within 2 
miles of the head station, laid out with mile posts, &;c., all the way, and a government 
well is about being sunk in the neighbourhood. The station is supplied with water 
from w«lls from 150 to 250 feet deep, worked by whims; the water is, however, so deop 
and of such uncertain quantity and quality, being frequently salt, thftt little dependence 
is to be placed upon it. This run comprises leases, Nos. 764, 415, 505, 416, 306, 567, 
and 879. 

KETCBOWLA RUN W. {N.E, district;) leases, Nos. 398, 454, 553, and 348; 
occupiers, Dare and Munday; areas of leases, 11, 10, 10, and 17 miles respectively. 
This run lies to the W. of the Ketchowla run. 

KETEN'S (^Co, Eyre) is a solitary peak lying on the boundary line between the 
hundreds of N. and S. Rhine. 

KETENTON {Co, Byre) is a postal township in the electoral district of Flin- 
ders E. The main road is under the supervision of the (Central road board. It is 
situated on the Evandale creek, a tributary of the N. Rhine river, that river flowing I 
mile distant. Craii's creek (salt) is 2^ miles distant, and mount Misery and mount Cork, 
both extinct volcanic mounds, lie respectively J mile W., and 1 mile S.E. The district 
IB an agricultural and pastoral one, every kind of farm produce being grown, and there 
being numerous vineyards and orchards, and sheep grazing being carried on to a large 
extent. The N. Rhine copper mines lie 5 miles S.E., on the main road to the Murray; 
the Wheal William copper mine, 10 miles S.E., the Wheal Alfred copper mine, on the Pine 
hut creek, 10 miles E. ; and several silver lead mines being situated in the locality. The 
nearest places are Angaston, 8 miles W., the nearest telegraph station; and Eden valley, 
5 miles S. With these places the communication is by horse or private conveyance, 
and with Adelaide, 59 miles, by RounsevelPs mail coach from Angaston to FreeHng, 



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KHi — Km] The South AmtraUan Gazetteer, 1J9 

-a&d thence by rail. E^neton has a post office, a store, a blacksmith's shop, a Lutheran 
i(St Peter's) and an English church, a common and a German school, and the usual 
tradesmen's shops. The nearest hotel is at Eden yalley. The surrounding country is 
eleyated and hilly, the formation being yolcanic, and the soil admirably adapted to the 
culture of the grape. The population— a German and English one— is small and 
scattered; the entire N. Rhine district being well populated with an industrious body of 
German and English yignerons and farmers. 

BLILBBIDE RUN {S.E, district;) lease, No. 182 ; occupier, A.3Watson ; area, 
€8 square miles. This run lies to the S. of Penola. 

KZXiZJkNOO^LA {Oo. Robe) is an E. hundred of the county, containing aboub. 
a third of purchased land and much scrub and swamp. 

^J^IEUmLAJXOOImA, run E. {Go. Role;) lease, No. 172 ; occupier, H. Seymour; 
area, 22 square miles, grazing capability, 3000 sheep, or 186 p^r square mile. This 
station lies on Bool lagoon, about 60 miles E. by N. of Robe, and 240 miles S.E. of 
Adelaide. Narracoorte is the next post town. Old rent and assessment, ^58 2i. 6d.; 
Goyder's valuation, £11 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £1605. The 
low rental is caused by extensive improvements on the run. See also Eillanoola W. 
and Mount Benson Runs. A portion of the nm has been lately sold to Messrs. 
D. Smith and Co. 

SZXiLAirOOIiA RUN W. ((7o. Roh^;) lease, No.»l71; occupier, H. Seymour; 
area, 40 square miles ; grazing capability, 4000 sheep, or 100 per square mile ; old 
rent and assessment, £94 10s.; Goyder's valuation, £188 12s. per annum, deducting 
improvements valued at £57. This run lies 240 miles S.E. of Adelaide, and 60 miles 
N. by E. of Robe. The nearest post town is Narracoorte. The run consists of grassed 
ridges and rises on the margin of Bool lagoon and other swamps, with oak, black wood, 
gum, and honeysuckle, and forest flats, with rushes, herbs, black grass, and 
dwarf tea-tree. This run is worked with mount Benson and E^lanoola E. station. 
37,000 sheep, 300 head of cattle, and 80 horses were on these three stations, and on 
SOOO acres of purchased J^nd in the hundreds of Eillanoola and Waterhouse, when the 
last valuation was taken. Eillanoola is under water a portion of the year, and the 
sheep have then to be removed to mount Benson. This run also includes lease, No. 
484; area,* 25 square miles. 

KZLLAVOOL^ RUN S. {S.E, district;) leases, Nos. 174, 175, 915, 981 and 
1007 ; occupier, D. Macarthur; areas of leases, 17, 4, 13, 7, and 4 square miles. This 
run lies to the S.W. gf Eillanoola, on the Musqulto plains. 

KINGSGOTE {Kangaroo island) is a small postal settlement in Eingscote 
harbour, on the W. side of Nepean bay. It is an aboriginal station, and the post office 
for the district. See Eangaboo Island. 

&XNGSC6tE HARBOUR (Kangaroo island) is a fine bay lying in the N. W. 
part of Nepean bay, in the N.E. part of the island. It is formed by the shelter 
afforded by a shoal stretching in a south easterly direction, from point Marsden, is one 
of the best anchorages in the colony. The shoai is composed of sand, and dries at low 
water to a considerable extent. The township of Eingscote lies on a hill at the head of 
the bay. Excellent vegetables may be procured there, and wood and water may be got 
off without much difficulty. The well is situated on a small plateau at the foot of the 
hill. It is high-water at full and change at three hours, the rise and fall being about 5 
feet, but much depends on the direction of the prevailing winds and the state of the 
weather. Eingscote point, the end of some low bushes, is in lat. 35° 38' 40" S., long. 
137° 44' 10" E., mag. var. 5° E. N. by W. 4^ miles from Eingscote point lies point 
Marsden, a bold headland of moderate elevation, having excellent anchorage, with its 
extremity bearing from N. W. to W., in from 7 to 4 fathoms, on a clean sandy bottom. 

JLZKGSCOTE RUN {Kangaroo island;) leases, Nos. 16 and 561; occupier, 
M. Calnan; total area, 22 square miles. Lease No. 561 is known as the Cygnet run, 
l%e post dSftce is at Eingscote. 

KZMGSTOlf {Go. Macdonnell) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Victoria, hundred of Lacepede or Caroline, and under the control of the mount 
Gambler central road board. It is situated on the S.E. bank of the Maria creek, and is 
a SBiall but rising seaport township. It lies on a small seaport known as port Caroline, 
•imd on the main line of road from Adelaide to Penola, distant from the former plaoe 



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130 The South Atistralian Gazetteer. [Kin — Kib 

195 miles, and from the latter 120 miles, in the county of MacdonnelL Kin^* 
ston is situated on the main line of mail yroad from Adelaide to Fenola. A belt df 
sand-ridges runs from Kingston along the sea beach from Maria creek to the mouth of 
the Murray river, with good grassy flats interspersed, width from 1 to 3 miles; outside 
of which is a large swamp, which runs parallel with the sand-ridges. About 60 miles 
N.W. this swamp becomes the Coorong, at the Salt creek, to which creek, from the 
Murray, small crafts come up with rations, &c., for the settlers. Wheat, oats, barleyf 
potatoes and onions are grown along the beach side of the swamp; but the country is 
chiefly occupied for pastoral purposes, principally sheep. There are no mines of any 
description^ although lately there haye been some specimens of coal found, and indica- 
tions of petroleum. A company has been formed, and are boring for the above minerals. 
The nearest places are Robe, 3 miles S.B., and Narracoorte, 65 miles E., on the main 
road to mount Gambler. With these places there is communication by mail vehicles, 
which run twice per week; and with Adelaide, 195 miles N.W., by sea; and overland by 
mail. The cutter Swallow and the schooner Kangaroo trade regularly to Adelaide. 
The hotels in Kingston are the Kingston arms and the Ship inn. The surrounding? 
couiftry is generally very flat, excepting slight ranges or rises of a few feet only in 
elevation. Large patches of fine country lie to the E. and N.E. A large portion oi 
the district is tMnly covered with water at certain times of the year: the Government 
have made a commencement of its removal, by which millions of acres of agricultural and 
pastoral land will be recovered. The population of Kings ton numbers about 240 persons ; 
Narracoorte, a central and rising township, is nearly E., and is elevated above Kingston 
200 feet; population of Narracoorte probably 400. The population of Robe town 
is about 400; Robe town has been established about 15 years. This port (Caroline) 
is situated about in the centre of the S.E. district of South Australia, within 63 miles 
from the western end of the colony of Victoria, and is the nearest port to a large and 
fertile bush country in Victoria and in South Australia. The geological formation ia 
generally limestone rock with deep post-pliocene deposit, filled with shells and soft black 
or whitish clay, forming inland into limestone crusted morasses. The resident magistrate 
is J. Cook, Esq., J.P. 

ILZNGSTOW {Co» Burra) is a hundred in the NiW. point of the county, 
containing a large block of purchased land, probably a third of its area, the remainder 
being taken up for pastoral purposes. « 

KINGSTON MINE {Co, Surra.) See Koosinoa. • 

KINGSTON, MOUNT (27° 58' S. lat., 135° 50' E. long. (Flinders district,) is 
a solitary hill lying on the S. bank of the Neales river. It springs from a low range 
of sand-hills lying to the N.W. of mount Younghusband. Sancfstone and limestone. 

KINGSTON STATION {S.E. district;) lease. No. 989; occupier, P. Roberts; 
area, 14 square miles; rental £7 per annum. This run lies to the N.E. of Tilley's 
swamp, the next post town being Kingston. 

KIKADmiTE CREEK {Flinders district) is a small watercourse lying to the 
S. of lake Buchanan. Sandy and grassy plains. 

KIKBT ISLAND {Spencer's gulf.) See Sib J. Banks's Group. 

KntBTBOUTE (or Kyhobolite) BUN (S.E. district;) lease, No. 163; 
occupier, J. Affleck; area, 64 square miles; grazing capability, 11,500 sheep, or 177 
per square mile; Goyder's valuation, £354 12s. per annum, deducting improvements 
valued at £2677. This run lies 210 miles S.S.E. from Adelaide, and 80 miles E.N.E. 
of Guicben bay, where the wool is shipped. 

KUtByS HILL (Co. Hindmarsh) is a survey point and slight elevation, lying 
in the hundred of Goolwa, and about 4 miles N. of port Elliott. 

KIBKALA RUN {Port Lincoln district;) lease. No. 675; occupier, H. A. Craw- 
ford; area, 82 square miles. This run lies on the E. side of Streaky bay, 7 miles from 
the Flinders post office; and also includes Filtiniby, lease No. 1129, and Ferlubiey 
lease No. 1090, their areas being respectively 27 and 14 square miles. In these leases, 
there are 12 stations. 

KntTON POINT (Co. Flinders) is a projecting point on the N. side of port 
Lincoln near Boston Bay. 

KOHW AN MINE [N. district) is a copper mine lying 202 miles N. of Adelaide 
and 72 miles N.E. of Fort Augusta on the Arkaba run; 3 shafts have been sunk, the 



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Klb — Koo] The South Avstralian Gazetteer, 121 

deepest of which is 21 fothoms. The countrj consists of soft light killas and pipeclay, 
and seyeral tons of good ore have been raised, but the mine has not been lately worked. 

KLXnOZZG (Ob. Adelaide) is a small agricultural hamlet lying near the postal 
Tillage of Campbelltown, and inhabited by a few farmers and gardeners. 

KNOTT'S HILL (^Co. Adelaide) is a point in the coast range, lying about 2 miles 
distant E. of Wickham's hill. 

KOWBOPARZHGA {Cos. Adelaide and Hindmarsh) is a district council in the 
electoral district of mount Barker. It is under the control of a chairman, the present 
one being Mr. Thos. Jones, of Springgroye meadows, and 4 councillors. The receipts 
and expenditure of this district council for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, £58 10 10s.— 
rate 6d. in the pound; rates collected, £103 17s. 4d.; total receipts, £511 88. 2jd; office 
expenses and salaries, £127 8s. lOd.; expended on public works, £288 5s. 8|d. The 
population numbers 1196 persons, the area is 78 square miles, or 49,920 acres; land 
under cultivation, 4036 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 236. 

KONBOPABIHGA {Co. Hindmarsh) is a central hundred of the county, having 
about half its area of purchased land, and the remainder scrubby and mountainous 
pastoral country. 

KOWETTA RUN N. (S,E. District J lease No. 356; occupiers, Palmer, Murphy 
and Henty; area, 55 square miles; grazing capability, 7500 sheep or 136 per square 
mile. Goyder's valuation £254 per annum deducting improvements. This run forms 
part of the Gillap run, and lies 220 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 24 miles E. by S. of 
Guichen bay, where the wool is shipped. 

KOWGOKOWG (Co. Chrey) is a S. hundred of the county, containing about a 
third of sold land, and lying on the S.W. coast. For population, &c., see Benasa 
Hnin>sED. 

KOWGOKONG {Co. Sturt) See Swanpobt. 

KONKABSWA BUN (TT. district;) leases. No. 1102, 1114, and 1152, having 
respective areas of 18, 65, and 65 square miles. Occupiers, Dalwood, Goode, and 
Goode. This run lies at Streaky bay; the post-town being at Flinders, on that bay. 

KOONBOOLEA {Flinders district.) See Fonaba. 

KOO&AKZXiBE (Flinders district.) SeePoNABA. 

KaO&nrGAy 33'' 40' S. lat., 138° 45' E. long. (Co. Furra,) is a postal township 
in the electoral district of the Burra, and hundred of Kooringa. It is situated on the 
Burra creek, al)out 50 miles N. of Kapunda, and is in daily communication with 
Adelaide by mail to Eapunda, and thence per rail to Adelaide. Kooringa is situated 
on very irregular ground broken up in many places by fissures and watercourses; the 
situation and peculiarities of the creek divide the township, which is scattered over a 
considerable area; there is no corporation or district council, although efforts are being 
made to obtain the former. Kooringa has its institute, post office ,and inoney order 
office, and telegraph station. It is surrounded by a chain of undulating hills, in many 
parts of which and in several localities copper ore is found, together with promisirig 
specimens of silver lead ore. Irrespective of the Burra Burra mine, there are other 
recent mineral discoveries now in active working, and considered very promising. 
There are no rivers near Kooringa; there are the Burra, Baldioa, and Gum creeks, but 
in summer waterholes alone can be relied on. Gum creek is about 7 miles on the 
Clare road S.W. from Kooringa, Baldina about same distance among the hills and in 
N.E. direction from Kooringa, and the Burra creek divides the township. The great 
Burra copper mines lie to the N. of the township on the Burra creek. (See Bdbba.) 
Kooringa has no mills, but there is a brewery and a candle manufactory in the town- 
ship. It is principally a mining ahd pastoral district, with a few sections under wheat * 
cultivation, but those are scattered and at distances varying from 4 to 7 miles from the 
township. The pastoral lands are principally devoted to sheep-farming. Besides the 
Burra Burra mine, there are several other mines in course of working, and as follows; 
The All Nations mine. Flinders mine. Scrubbers' Camp mine, Kingston mine and 
Karkulto mine. The two former are worked by a Melbourne company, who are san- 
guine as to results. The lode is not expected to be cut yet, although copper of rich 
per centage has been found. The Scrubbers' Camp mine is looking very promising; 
is situated about 28 mile N. of Koringa; there are several fine branches of promising 
cm, ^incipally blue carbonates, 3 average stones trying 20 per cent. It is expected a 



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122 The South AmtraUan Gazetteer. [Koo — KuL 



L lode will be struck. The Ejoaston mine is situated about 7 miles N.E. of this 
place, is thought promising; seme stones of ore, oxide of copper, tried 84 per cent.» 
while specimens of silver lead have been found on same property. The Karkulto is 
the property of and worked by the South Australian mining association; is 15 miles S« 
of Eooringa on Adelaide road; its produce being principally iron ore, used in smelting of 
^e copper ore. The neiarest places are Redruth, 1 mile N.W. ; Copperhouse, 2 milefl 
W.; Hampton, 1} mile N. by E.; Sod Hut, 8 miles S. on the Adelaide road. There are 
no townships of any note nearer than Mintaor and Clare, situated 21 and 25 miles 
S. W. and W. With these places there is communication by coach (Bounsevell's,) and 
with Adelaide communication per mail to Eapunda, and thence by rail; the distance 
from Kooringa to Adelaide being about 99 miles. Kooringa has no benevolent asylum, 
but a benevolent association has been in course of active operation for the relief of the 
poor. There is a hospital belonging to the South Australian mining association, and built 
expressly for the accommodation and benefit of the miners employed on the Burra mine, 
but accessible to the poorer classes on obtaining permission from the mine authorities. 
The hotels in Eoormga are, the Burra, Miners' Arms, and the Fig and Whistle. In the 
township there is a local court, post and money order office, telegraph station, branches 
of the National bank and of the Adelaide and South Australian insurance companies, 
a public pound, a Masonic lodge (E. C. No. 585,) an Oddfellows* lodge (M.U.O.F.,) 
and a Foresters' court. The resident magistrates are T. S. Porter, T. H. Mayne, and 
]£, M'Dermott, Esqs. Kanges of hills meet the eye in all directions around Kooringa, 
with occasional flats; the main road in many directions undulating and hilly, particularly 
between the Burra and Sod Hut, S., while as far as mount Bryan, in N. direction a 
distance of 15 or 20 miles, the road is remarkably level and good, and situated on aflat 
between two ranges. The population of Eooringa, Kedruth, Aberdeen and Hampton 
is about 3100 odd, and the number of houses about 460 but 120 of which are unin- 
habited. The want of a corporation here is much felt, and would remedy many existing 
. evils. The approaches to the cemetery here are extremely bad and even (fitngerous; 
in crossing the creeks and watercourses the remains of the dead have more than once 
nearly been precipitated to the ground, the road being m^alled only as far as the post office. 
It would be a considerable comfort and advantage to continue the metal road as figir as 
Bedruth, the present road between Eooringa and Kedruth being extremely bad. The 
geological formation of the district consists of blue, grey and brown arenaceous slate 
and sandstone, dipping E. and W. from 20° to vertical. 

KOOBINGA {Go, Burra) is a hundred lying in the W. part of the county, aud 
on the E. slopes of the main range of hills. It consists almost wholly of purchased 
land, of which 2 blocks of 20,000 acres each belong respectively to the South Australian 
mining association and the Princess Royal mining company. This hundred is 
celebrated for its world-renowned Burra Burra copper mines, which are situated on 
the land belonging to the former company. The townships of Eooringa, Redruth, 
Littlehampton, and Copperhouse are in this hundred. The area of this hundred, 
exclusive of towns, is 57,600 acres, of which 427 acres are under cultivation. The 
population of that portion numbers 437 persons, chiefly miners and agriculturists. 

* KOOBXUNGA RUN {Co, Stanley;) lease. No. 58; occupier, J. Hope ; area, 95 
square miles; rental and assessment, £197 18s. 4d. This run lies on the Broughton 
and Rocky rivers, to the N.N.E. of port Wakefield. 

KKOWGART RUN {S.E, district ;)lease. No. 181 ; occupier, E. Cameron ; area, 
36 square miles, including land in the hundreds of Grey, MonbuUa, and Penola. Hie 
actual area is 12| square miles; grazing capacity, 1600 sheep, or 133 per square mile. 
This run is watered from swamps, and lies 250 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, 75 miles E. 
by S. of Guichen Bay, and 45 miles N. of Macdonnell bay. 

KUZTPO {Go, Adelaide) is a hundred in the S.E. of the county, containing 
-about half its area of purchased land, much of which is cultivated. The remainder is 
hilly and rugged, and is used for the depasturage of a few sheep and cattle by the neigh- 
bouring farmers. 

KUKAWA HUN {W, district,) See Venus Bat Ruk. 

KUbPAKA {Go. Daly) is an E. hundred of the coimty, consisting principally of 
pastoral land, rich in mineral wealth, and forming part of the Moonta and Wallaro6 
mining district. There are some small blocks of purchased land lying in the W. part 
of the hundred. 



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&JR— Iun] The South Australian Gazetteer. 123 



k MINE (Co, Daly) is one of the Wallaroo mines, lying to the N. of the 
Dturyea mine, and containing some good branches of fine yellow sulphuret ore. 

KTBGBOLXn: RUN i8,R district) See Eisbtbolitb. 

IbACSPBDS BAY (Co. Macdonndl) lies to the N. of Guichen bay on the S.E. 
coast, and forms the 8. part of the extensive bight to the S. of Encounter bay and the 
Murray mouth. It offers excellent anchorage, as no heavy seas can enter. Fresh 
water may be had in any quantity by digging in the sand-banks near the beach. At 
the head of this bay and on port Caroline, an inner harbour is situated, the township 
of Kingston. Its heads are known as Capes BemouiUi and Morard de Galles. See 
also Casounb Fobt. There is an aboriginal station on this bay. 

lACEFBDI! ((7o. Macdonnell} is a hundred in the S.W. of the county, and lying 
on the coast of Lacepede bay. The township of Kingston is in this hundred, the only- 
sold land being a long narrow tract running N. and S., at the back of the township, and 
bordering the Maria swamp. 

ULCyS GROUP {Flinders district W.) is the name given to 2 rocky islands, and 
a detached reef, of which the larger island lies W. by S. 5 miles from Evans island. 
This island is circular, and about half-a-mile in diameter, and is of considerable elevation. 

lUMOdH HILL (Co. Burro) is a peak and survey point in the main range, 
lying about 4 miles S.E. of the township of Apoinga. 

XJLKE EYRE, {Flinders district N.) In his despatch to Adelaide, of September 
last, Major Warburton, who has been exploring the N.E. part of the colony, in'speaking 
of lake Eyre, ssys that the Barcoo river flows into it upon the E. side, and that its 
banks are boggy, interspered with deep ravines, and covered with \angled masses of 
polygonum, forests of gigantic marshmallows and heavy timber. He also reports that 
the natives are rank cannibals, frequently eating one another. See also Etbb L^e. 

XJiKE HOPE, {Flinders district.) See Hope Lake. 

!■ AKE SUND AY STATION ( Yorhe's peninsula;) lease. No. 7 1 , is the head station 
of Messrs. Rogers, Lander, and Stephen, and has an area of 47 square miles; grazing 
capabiJity, 7500 sheep, or 160 per square mile; Goyder*s valuati^, iJ397 lOs., deducting 
improvements valued at £812 10s. The nearest post towns are port Adelaide, 70 miles 
by sea, E.N.E. across St. Vincent's gulf; or by land, Moonta, 90 miles N., and 
Wallaroo, 100 miles N. by W. This run also includes lease. No. 21, Oyster bay station. 

XiALSE RUN {S.E. district;) lease, No. 185 ; occupier, J. Ellis ; area, 5 square 
miles; grazing capability, 780 sheep, or 195 per square miles ; G^yder's valuation, £42 
per annum, deducting improvements. On this run, and on a purchased section 
and land in the hundred of Gambler, are 900 sheep, 25 head of cattle, and a few horses. 
This run lies 270 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 33 miles by road, N.N.E. of port 
Macdonnell, where the wool is shipped. 

LAMGBORNX: (or Langhobnb's) CREEK, 35'' 18' S. lat., 139"" 6' E. long. 
{Co, Hir^marah^) is a postal township in the electoral district of mount Barker, hundred 
of Bremer, and under the control of the Bremer district council. It is situated on the 
creek of the same name, and on the madn road from Adelaide to Wellington, 5 or 6 
miles N. of the N. shore of lake Alexandrina. The district is an agricultural one, 
wheat being extensively grown in the neighbourhood. Langhorne has 2 stores, a posf^ 
office, telegraph station, wheelwrights*, blacksmiths', and other shops, and a public 
pound. The resident magistrate is J. D. Cave, Esq., J. P.; and 1 hotel — the Lang- 
home's bridge (M*Callum's.) The nearest places are Milang, about 10 miles S.W.; 
Strathalbyn, 9 miles W.; Wellington, 20 miles E-; mount Barker, 20 miles N.; there 
being no direct mail communication except with Strathalbyn and Wellington, with 
which places, as with Adelaide, 45 miles N.W., there is communication by mail coach 
four times a week. . There are also 4 carriers' waggons plying to Adelaide and 
Wellington weekly. The surrounding country is flat; the soil consists of light sandy 
land, abounding in limestone, and admirably adapted for the g^'owth of wheat. The 
population numbers about 100 persons. The townships of Langhorne, Kent town, 
and Bremerton are generally known as Langhorne, or Langhorne's creek. The number 
of inhabitants actually in the township is small; but the district around is thickly 
populated. 

LAWGTOir ISLAND {8pencer*8 gulf,) See Sir J. Banks's Group. 

LANNSS, (DoMBBT of the Admiralty charts,} CAPE {Co, Robe,) is the S. head 

i 

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124 The Smith Australian Gazetteer. [Lea — Lei 

of Guichen bay, and has a reef of rocks runniog out N.N.W. \\ miles. This cape may 
be known by an obelisk on its extremity, 40 feet high, painted red and white in 
horizontal stripes, and visible 12 miles in clea§ weather. The coast to the S. is 
composed of sandy hillocks, lightly timbered, and breakers extend off the coast for 
folly 2 miles. In a small inlet at the S. side of this cape, the rocks are seen in bold 
section, the cliffs being nearly 100 feet high. The little bay is very deep, so that the 
water washes the cUffs nearly all round. In some places the action of the surf has 
undermined them and caused them to fall, and the spray has eaten into its soft friable 
texture, giving parts a wild and jagged outline. 

IiSACKLT (Co, Adelaide) is a small agricultural village, lying 1^ miles E. of 
Fulham, to the W. of Adelaide, and in the district known as the Reedbeds. Hay is 
largely grown in the neighbourhood. 

LEAKEy LAKE {Co, Orey,) is a beautiful sheet of water lying 8 miles W. of 
Tarpeena, 4 miles N.E. of mount Burr, and near lake Edward. It contains no fish at 
present, but it is most probable that if they were placed in it they would thrive. 

LEASZNGHAM {Co. Stanley) is a small postal township in the electoral district 
of Stanley, and hundred of Upper Wakefield. There are no rivers, mountains, or 
lakes near Leasingham, and but 1 creek, running only in winter, cp,lled Watervale 
creek, running S. It is in an agricultural district, wheat being largely grown. The 
nearest places are Watervale, l^ miles N.; Auburn, 4 miles S.; and Mintaro, 6 miles E.; 
the communication being by Eounsevell's daily mail coach. With Adelaide, 824 miles 
S., the communication is by Rounsevell's daily mail coach to Eapunda, and thence by 
rail. Leasinghaift has a day and Sabbath school, and a Wesleyan Methodist chapeL 
There is 1 hotel — the Leasingham ; also a public pound. The surrounding country is 
elevated, and the population numbers about 130 persons. 

LEE'S HILL, 29° 68' S. lat., 137° 2' E. long. (Flinders di8trict,)ia a low detached 
hill, lying on sandy scrubby country to the N. of the N. end of lake Torrens, and 
near the head of Chambers' creek. 

LEFETKE'S liENmSULA (Co. Adelaide) is the name given to the sandy 
tract lying between the Port Adelaide creek or entrance, and the waters of the gulf of 
St. Vincent. It is a place of residence for a number of gentlemen having business in 
Port Adelaide, and has a post office for the convenience of the inhabitants. It is con- 
nected with Port Adelaide by a bridge, and contains the small townships of Milunga 
and Weymouth, at the latter of which places is a jetty, running out into the gulf of 
St. Vincent, whence the mail and shipping reporters' boats put off to meet incoming 
vessels; and there are also the semaphore and flagstaff, where such vessels are signalled 
to Adelaide. Lefevre's peninsula consists of sandy drift over a limestone crust, and 
along the shore runs a ridge of low sand-hills or dunes, formed by the wash of the 
gulf and by E. winds. The following is the official notice of the tidal signals, shown 
from the semaphore at Lefevre's peninsula, for the outer bar:— Black ball on south 
yard-arm, 12; north, 13; south yard-arm and mast-head, 14; north, 15 fedl water: 2 
balls on south yard-arm, 16; north, 17 feet water: black ball on south yard-arm and 
quarter, 18; north, 19 feet water; black ball on each yard-arm, 20 feet water: 2 black 
balls on south quarter, 21; north, 22 feet water: I black ball on north and south 
» quarter, 23 feet water. High water. —A square red flag, under the outer ball, exhibited 
at either yard-arm. When, as in the case of the 20-feet signal, balls are exhibited at 
both yard-arms, the red flag (high water signal) will be hoisted at the mast-head. Low 
water. — A square blue flag, under the outer ball at either yard-arm. The above signal 
will be kept flying from the time the tidal wave appears stationary, until the signal 
next after high or low water has been made. Red balls are shown at the mast-head fop 
ships in sight. 

LEZGHHAKDT CREEK {Flinders district) is a small creek lying to the N.W. oi 
Strzelecki creek, on Sturt's track of 1845. 

LEZGH'S CREEK (Flinders district iV.) is a small watercourse flowing through 
sandy country, about 43 miles N.W. of Nuccaleena. There is a sheep station on this 
creek, but it is at present unstocked. 

LEIGH'S CREEK RUN {N. district;) lease, No. 1100; occupiers. Smith and 
Russell; area, 81 square miles. This run, at present unstocked from the late drought, 
lies to the S.B. of Termination hill; the next post office being at Nuccaleena. 



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Lew— Lig] The South Australian Gazetteer. 125 



ISLET {Co. Flinders.) See Thorny Passage. 

UEWZSTOlf ((7o. Gawler) is a postal township in the electoral district of Stanley, 
hnndred of Port Gawler, and under the control of the district council of port Gawler. 
It is situated 2 miles N. of the Gawler river, in an agricultural district, producing 
excellent crops of wheat in moist seasons ; the town of Gawler being 9 miles B., 
and Two-wells 4 miles W. With these places there is communication by mail car twice 
a week, and with Adelaide, 34 miles S., by railway from Gawler. Lewiston has a post 
office, a Bible Christian chapel, and a public school. The nearest hotel is at Two- wells. 
The surrounding countr^is flat, and consists of sandy loam and limestone plains, having 
belts of mallee scrub andn>^^<^^68 of pine. Very much of the land is fenced and occu- 
pied by an industrious class of nftn, who began farming about 10 years ago with their 
savings at the Victorian gold-fields. The population of the school and neighbourhood 
numbers about 100 persons. 

£zOBTy COUNTY, is a central county of the settled districts in the electoral 
districts of Light and Barossa, and is bounded on the N. by the counties Stanley and 
Burra, on the S. by the counties Adelaide and Sturt, from which it is separated by the 
S. Para river, on the E. by the county Eyre, from which it is separated by the main 
range, and on the W. by the county Gawler. It is divided into the hundreds of Saddle- 
worth, Gilbert, Waterloo, Julia creek, Kapunda, Light, Bel videre, Nurriootpa, Moorooroo, 
and Barossa. This county consists almost exclusively of agricultural land, and is popu- 
lated by a Urge body of farmers who cultivate all kinds of farm produce. It is watered 
by the Upper Light, Gilbert, and N. Para rivers, and their tributaries, and the N. 
tributaries of the S. Para river. The chief towns are Kapunda, Saddleworth, Rivertoij, 
Hamilton, Freeling, Greenock, Angaston, Tanunda, and Moorooroo. The area of this 
county is 848 square miles, or 542,720 acres, the purchased land being 501,557 acres; 
the land held by freeholders, 309,459 acres; land enclosed, 392,802 acres; land under 
cultivation, 209,110 acres; and land enclosed, but not under cultivation, 183,692 acres. 
The live stock numbers 11,716 horses, 14,421 homed cattle, 79,436 pheep, 516 goats, 
10,155 pigs, and 71,714 head of poultry. Of the land under cultivation 141,036 acres 9 
are under wheat, 2785 acres under barley, 180 acres under oats, 23,974 acres under hay, 
1190 acres under green forage, 26 acres under peas, and 593 acres under other crops, 
37,748 acres are fallow, and 99 acres under potatoes. There are 296 acres of orchard, 
446 acres of garden, and 737 acres of vineyard. On the latter are 681,683 vines in 
bearing, and 240,989 vines not in bearing. The crops for the year ending 31st March, 
1866, were 1,072,454 bushels wheat, 41,124 bushels barley, 2637 bushels oats, 17,981 
tons hay, 69 tons potatoes, 101,914 gallons wine, and 1510 cwt. grapes. The population 
numbers 19,643 persons, being an increase of 4663 since 1861. The number of dwelling- 
houses is 3682, against 3036 in that year. Light electoral district comprises the whole 
of the county of Light, with the exception of the hundreds of Moorooroo, Saddleworth, 
and Waterloo. It contains the municipality of Kapunda, part of the district council of 
Stockport, and the hundreds of Bel videre, Gilbert (part of,) Light (part of,) Kapunda, 
Julia creek, and Nuriootpa, and has a population of 12,742 persons, and an area of 
565 square miles, or 362,174 acres, of which 144,071 acres are under cultivation. The 
voting places for this district are at N. Kapunda, Greenock, and Riverton. Light is 
represented in the Legislative Assembly by P. B. Coglin and J, Rounsevell, Esqs. The 
number of registered electors in this district for 1865 was, for the Legislative Council, 
1189, and for the Legislative Assembly, 1932. 

&IOHT((7<o. Light) is a W. hundred of the county, consisting for the most part of 
purchased agricultural land, on which is grown large quantities of wheat and other 
produce, the land being taken up by an industrious body of farmers. 

1 LIGHT RIVER {Cos. Light and Gawler) is-a fine stream rising 26 miles N. of the 
township of Hamilton, where it strikes oflf in a S.E. direction, gradually sweeping 
round in the form of a horseshoe to Kapunda, and watering good agricultural country 
in the hundreds of Mudla Wirra, Grace, and Port Gawler, and empties itself into the 
gulf of St. Vincent in the form of a large swamp. It receives the waters of the 
Gilbert river and numerous small creeks, and flows ab3ut 5 months in the year, the 
water becoming bad when the river stops running. 

UGHT'S LOOK-OUT (Co. Eyre) is a peak in a low range lying in the N.W. 
part of the hundred of Button, and about half-a-mile N. of mount Rufus. 

LZGHTSBZP {Co. Adelaide) is a floating light, lying off the outer bar at the 



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136 The South Austra lian Gazetteer. fLiG — Lnr 

. s _^_^^____ 

entrance of Port Adelaide, in the golf of St Vincent. Tliere are 2 fixed lights on a 
mast on this yessel, yisible 1 1 miles. 

UOUAWSA ISLAND {Co, Flinders) is a rocky island on a coral bottom, Ijing 
3 miles S.lrom the sloping point of cape Wills. Its sunmiit is at the N.E.end, 
whence it slopes away to tbe S.W. about H miles, and in that direction is surrounded 
by many rocks and breakers. This island is low and barren, and was first seen by 
flinders, February 17, 1802. 

ULT MOUNT (Co, Adelaide) is a small peak of the main range. Near this hill 
if a mine of cobalt, which lies 10 miles £. by N. of Adelaide. * 

K UflSESTONS RANGE {Flinders district) is a range of .limestone hills, crossed 
by Stuart, on his first exploration journey, and extending N. and S. firom about 29° 40^ 
to 29** 35' S. lat., and in 135° 20' E. long. To the N. of the range, and lying between 
it and Stuart's range, is a large open plain, apparently of good country, with plenty of 
grass and saltbush. There are a few mnlga creeks to the N.E. To the S. of mount 
Paisley, the most easterly point, are stony plains, with sand-hills, and at interralff 
patches of grass and saltbush. 

UMDBSTONS WELLS (Co. Cardwell) is the name of a camping-place on the 
main road from Wellington to Border town. There is a native well at this place, which 
lies 56 miles S.E. of WelUngton. 

UNOOUf RANGE {Co, Flinders) is a hundred lying in the E. Me of the 
coomty, on the bay of the same name, and in a pastoral district, of which a tolera^y 
large block is purchased land. This block lies round and near the township of p(»t 
Lincoln, which is situated on the shore of the bay. 

XJNGOLir PORT, 34'' 48' 25" S. lat., 135° 44' 51" E. long. {Co. Flinders,) is a 
postal seaport town in the electoral district of Flinders, and hundred of Lincoln. It is 
^ituated on the S.W. part of the coast of port Lincoln, and in the S.E. part of Eyre'a 
^or port Lincoln peninsula, 15 miles S. of the river Todel, 25 miles E. of lakeWangary, 
15 miles S. of mount Gawler,30 miles S. of mount Liverpool, and 30 miles E. of the 
Marble ranges. The district is a pastoral one, sheep and cattle, principally the former, 
being gt&z^ The principal care of the squatters is the production of wool, there 
being no market for the increase of the flocks. A small quantity of land in the 
neighbourhood is taken up for agricultural purposes, and produces some of the finest 
samples of wheat in the colony. There are several mines in the neighbourhood, the 
principal ones being the mount Liverpool and port Lincoln copper mines, 30 miles N., 
and the Muminnie copper and bismuth mines 130 miles N., and bismuth, tin, lead 
and gold are said to have been found in various other parts of the district, but only in 
small quantities. Iron ore of excellent quality is found in great abundance to the W. 
and N.W. The nearest towns are Parkin, 150 miles N.W., a new settlement at Yenm 
bay; Flinders, at Streaky bay, 200 miles N.W.; Wallaroo, 100 miles B.N.E.; and 
port Augusta, 150 miles N.E. The communication with the two first-named places is* 
by mail cart, which carries letters and occasional passengers to the various post offices 
in the W. district (the post offices being Wangary, Warrow, lake Hamilton, Bramfleid, 
Talia, and tbe townships named^ With the two latter towns the communication is by 
steamer and coasting vessels. With Adelaide, 210 miles E., the communication is by 
steamer. The township of port Lincoln is situated on a gentle rise on the S.W. side ot 
Boston bay, an arm of port Lincoln. It has a court oi petty sessions, a book club, an 
Oddfellows' hall (M.U.,) branches of the South Australia and Adelaide insurance 
companies, a post and money order office, an aboriginal station, a life-boat and rocket 
apparatus, a police office and gaol, and 3 hotels— the Pier, Port? Lincoln, and Northern; 
there is also another hotel lying about' 5 or 6 miles distant on the W. road, known as 
the Sportsman's arms, and a favourite resort for shooting parties. Port Lincoln was 
surveyed in 1836, and «ras then selected and marked out as the capital of South 
Australia, but Colonel Light, after seeing the place, abandoned it in favour of the site 
of Adelaide for a metropolis. The surrounding country is undulating to the N., and 
near the coast there are patches of good well-grassed land, admirably suited for 
agricultural purposes, and having rich soil lying over a granite formation. To the W. 
and N.W. the country is sandy, with limestone ridges, and covered with scrub, and is 
only fit for pastoral purposes. The population of port Lincoln numbers about 100 
persons. The resident magistrates i^e H. J. Smith, W. R« Mortlock, J. C. Marchant, 
B. Holroyd, O. A. Hammond, and F. W. Frampton, Esqs. The country to the W. if 

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Lin — LipJ ITie SatUh Australian Gazetteer. 127 

dMiselj 8cniU)ed, wHh patches ot low, grassy, lightly timhered ridges of limestone, the 
limestone being a recent shelly deposit, and generally containing springs and lagoons 
of fresh water. 

LZNCOXJf, PORT, (jOo.Flinders) is a fine large indentation in the land, lying on 
the S. W. coast of Spencer's golf, and having an entrance 5^ miles wide between cape 
Donnington, 34** 44' S. lat., 135° 57' 30" E. long., and Boston point 34° 40' S. lat., 135° 
S^ 30" E. long. It affords shelter from all winds. Fort Lincoln consists of 3 bays or 
branches— port Lincoln proper, Spalding cove, and Boston bay, and has a large island 
just within its entrance known as Boston island, and forming the entrance into 2 chan- 
nels. There are also some small islands called the Bicker islands, lying between 
Boston island and cape Donnitigton. Its name was given to it by Flinders, the dis- 
coTerer, who called it after his native county, and who spent his time, from the latter 
end of February until the 6th March, in surveying and naming the various places in 
and near it He describes the land in the neighbourhood as exceedingly rich, and the 
BOKiery beautiful, an opinion shared by Mr. Feron and Freycinet in "Bandings Expedi- 
tion." They describe it as having "shores of gently rising slopes covered with 
umlMrageous forests," and as bearing certain indications of rivulets and copious springs, 
comparing it in appearance and capacity with port Jackson in New South Wales. 
Notwithstanding this, however, and although, in the words of Eyre, "port Lincoln 
possesses a beautiful, secure, and spacious harbour, with a convenient and pretty site 
for a town, and immediately contiguous to which there exists some extent of fine and 
fertile soil, with several good grassy patches of country beyond," yet from its compara- 
tive isolation, and from the limited nature of its own resources, it is not likely, as yet, 
at all events to become nM>re than a settlement available for sheep and cattle grazing, 
and certainly never such a large or important harbour as both Flinders, and the French 
explorers thought probable. Near the entrance to this port is a small hill, upon whose 
summit stands a white obelisk, erected by Sir John Fitmklin, in memory of Captain 
Flinders, tinder whom Sir John served in the Terra Australis voyages of discovery. 
It is much weather-worn, and is about to be encased in colonial marble in order to 
preserve it. The following inscription is engraved upon it: — *♦ This place, from which 
the gulf and its shores were first surveyed, on the 26th Feb., 1802, by Matthew Flinders, 
R.N., commander of H.M.S. Investigator, and the discoverer of the country now 
called South Australia, was, on 12th January, 1841, with the sanction of Lieut-CoL 
Crawler, K;H., the governor of the country, set apart for, and in the first year of the 
government of Gapt. G. Grey, adorned with this monument to the perpetual memory 
of the illustrious navigator, by John Franklin, Captbin R.N., Lieutenant-Goveriior of 
Van Diemen's Land." 

LZNCOLW f FORT Fastoral district. See Western Fastobal District. 

LZNIMKAT GREEK {Flinders district) is a fine gum creek, with well-grassed 
banks, flowing from the N.W. into the Stevenson river, through good country. 

LUIVSAT GREEK [Flinders district) is the name of a stream flowing at a dis- 
tance of 4 miles from Wallianippie, into Smoky bay. It is not navigable. 

Also a stream in the N. part of the colony, (m Stuart's route to the N. territoiy. 
It is surrounded by stunted scrub and saltbush. 

XiZNBSAT HOUSE VINEYARD {Co. Light,) See Angaston. < 

&ZiniSAT FOINT {Flinders district W,)i8 a small low promontory in Blanche- 
port bay, lying to the W. of the entrance to Acraman creek. 

blMWOOB (Co. Light) is a postal township in the electoral district of Light and 
hundred of Light. It is situated on the S. bank of the Light river, and on the main' 
road to Riverton, Glare, and Fenwortham, and is distant from Adelaide 48 miles nearly 
due N. The river Light runs at Linwood the greater part of the year, but by the 
latter end of summer becomes very brackish. The district is an agricultural one, the 
principal product being wheat The nearest places are Kapunda, 9 miles E. by N. ; 
Stockport, 3 miles N.W. With Kapunda there is ^ regular communication, and with 
Stockport the mail car runs thrice a-week. With Adelaide, 48 miles S., the communis 
cation is by mail car to Freeling, and thence by rail. Linwood has a post office and 1 
hotel— the Light Bridge. The surrounding country is undulating, anct consists of hard 
blue slaty rock, underiying limestone, with patches of rich alluvial soil. The popu- 
liition numbers 35 persons. 

UF80N LAKE {Flinders district) is a salt Uigoon l^ing in the S. part of the 
Hope plains, and touched by Sturt in Ms return journey in 1845. 

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128 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Lip — Lob 

UPSOirS COVE {Flinders disti'ict) is a small indentation in the land lying to 
the N. of Harvey 8 bay, in Spencer's gulf. 

UPSON'S ISLAND {Go, Hindmarsh) Is a small island lying in port Elliott. 

LlPSOirS REACH (Co. Adelaide) is a part of the channel of Fort Adelaide 
— ^which see. 

UPSOirS BEEF (Kangaroo island) is a dangerous reef of rocks lying opposite 
Hanson's bay, off the S.W. coast of the island. 

blTTIaSHAflSPTOlf {Co, Hindmarsh) is a postal township in the electoral 
district of mount Barker, hundred of Macclesfield, and under the control of the district 
council of mount Barker. It is situated on the head of the mount Barker creek, in an 
agricultural district famed for the growth of wheat. The uearest place is mount Barker 
township, 1 mile S.W. The communication with this place, as with Adelaide, 21 miles 
W. is by Rounsevell's daily mail coach, and by carriers' dray once a week. There is 
a post office, a brewery, and 1 hotel — the great Eastern, in the township. The resident 
magistrate is B. Gray, Esq., J.F. The surrounding country is mountainous, and the 
formation chiefly of micaceous slate. The population numbers about 240 persons in and 
about the town. 

UTTLE ISLET ( Co. Flinders,) See Thorny Passage. 

UTTLS LAGOON (Go. Burra) is a small waterhole lying about 2 miles S,B. 
of the township of Black springs. 

ZXTS&POOL, MOUNT {Go, Flinders^) is the name of a lofty peak in the range 
of the same name, lying about 6 miles W. of Tumby bay, and 50 miles north of port 
Lincoln. It is volcanic. There is a copper mine, not at present working, lying at the 
foot of the hill, and about 5 miles W. of Tumby bay. It was originally purchased and 
worked by a company, but has since been sold to James Anderson, Esq. This mine is 
also known as the Port Lincoln mine. 

LIVERPOOL RANGE {Go, Flinders) is the name given to a range of broken low- 
hills lying on the W. side of the S. part of Spencer's gulf, and to the N.W. of port 
Lincoln. The country on the E. side is tolerably good for pastoral purposes, whilst 
that on the W. is barren or densely scrubbed, with scarcely any water. The highest 
point of this range lies to the S.W. of Tumby bay, and is known as mount LiverpooL 

Z.ZYEBPOOL, MOUNT, RUN N. {W, district;) leases,.Nos. 759 and 916; occu- 
pier, J. McCallum ; areas of leases respectively, 13 and 30 square miles. This run lies 
to the W. of lipson's cove, on the W. side of Spencer's gulf. The next post town is 
port Lincoln, to the S. 

LOBSTBAL (Go, Adelaide^ is a postal township in the electoral district and 
hundred of Onkaparinga, and under the control ot the district council of Woodside, the 
main E. road, however, which passes through it, being under the supervision of the 
central road board. It is situated on the Western Branch creek, the Onkaparinga river 
flowing 2 miles to the E. The district is an agricultural one. and Vheat, rye, oats, 
barley, potatoes, and other products are extensively cultivated. The cultivation of the 

•vine also attracts considerable attention. There is a steam flour mill (Lange Bros.) 
in the centre of the township in full work, and another one to the N. not working, 
a brewery (Eleinschmidt's) to the S., a tannery to the N., and a distillery (Eummick's.) 
There is a post and money order office, a telegraph station, 3 Lutheran churches, 
a lodge of the M. U. order of Oddfellows, and 2 hotels — the Rising Sun (Waldt's) and the 
Alma CBoram's.) There is a silver mine situated in the township, but not at present 
worked. It has a large lode running N. and S., composed of iron gossan, quartz and 
mundic. There is a mine of cobalt and silver existing in the same lode; but being 
principally ore of cobalt. This mine is beautifully situated, and the lode embedded in 
soft clay-slate promises to yield a quantity of rich ore. It lies within half-a-mile of the 
township. The nearest places to Lobethal are Charleston, 2^ miles S.E.; Woodside, 
4^ miles S. ; and mount Torrens, 5 dalles N.E. With these places, as with Adelaide, 
27i miles W., the communication is by Rounseveirs daily mail car, part of this route 
is along a district road, but if the main E.' road were opened to Lobethal, the distance 
would be reduce<f to 20 miles between Lobethal and Adelaide. The small villages of 
Neudorf and Schonthal lie within half-a-mile of the township. The surrounding 
country is elevated and undmlating, the soil is good, and the formation chiefly clay- 
slate, distinctly stratified, and aboundmg with detached fragments of quartz upon the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Loo— Lov] The South AmtraUan QageUeer. 1^ 

mxSAce. Lobethal haa about 360 inhabUanta, mostly Germaq, and 90 dvelUngt 
gabstantdally built on the 2 sections forming the towntbip. 

&a€KZAY'8 (Oo. Adelaide) it the estate and residence of Mr. C. B. Fisher, a 
name identified with the sporting history of the country. It lies 4 miles from Adelaids^ 
on the road to the Reedbeds, and the welUbred racing stock depasturing on the 
extensive paddocks, and the large range of substantial and roomy stabling, where 
repose some of the best blood of (he Knowsley and other &mous studs, recall memories 
el old English sporting horses. 

LOOK, MOUNT (Co, Frome^) is a W. spur of the main range running in the 
direction of the N. part of the E. coast of Spencer's gulf. Sheoak rises, with maliee 
scrub and spinifex grass, and good open grassy plains to the £. The country to the E. 
is watered by the Manannarie and Boniah creeks. 

bOFTT, MOUNT (Co, Adelaide, ) is a small hamlet, lying on the mount Barker 
roady 10 miles E. of Adelaide, and at the junction of the road leading to the summit of 
mount Lofty. It lies 4 miles from Bridgewater, and has a mechanics' institute, a day 
school, and a small population of gardeners and agriculturists. The resident magistrate 
is A. Hardy, Esq., J.P. 

IiOrrr, mount fCo, Adelaide) is the highest peak of that part of the main 
or Adelaide ranges, known as the mount Lofty ranges. It is a survey station, and 
attains an elevation of 2400 feet above the level of the sea. It lies about 12 miles 
distant from Adelaide in an E.S.E. direction, there bdng a good carriage road (leaving 
the main road near Crafers) to the very summit, where a roofed shed, with a table and 
seats, has been erected for the convenience of pic-nic and pleasure parties, and whence 
a most magnificent view over the fertile Adelaide flat and the intervening ranges, and 
far out into the gulf of St. Vincent, may be had on a clear day. A cairn of stones 
supporting a flagstaff has also been erected, and the table and seats in the arbour are 
literally covered with the names of persons who have visited the place, and have 
recorded their visits by carving their names. The drive is one of the prettiest m the 
colonies, the road being good, although steep in one or two places, and the views from 
the angles and windings of the route charming. The geological structure of the hilla 
in this neighbourhood is chiefly of thick beds of hard and soft coarse-grained micaceous 
sandstone, dipping S. 25°, E. SO''; also of metamorphic rock, continually changing in 
its gullies to slates, porphyries^ schists, and black limestone, and these again are covered 
wi£ tertiary limestone. Near mount Lofty, Mr. A. Hardy has a vineyard, planted at 
an elevation of 2200 feet above the level of the sea, on the mountain side, and presenting 
the appearance of a white patch from the Adelaide plains and the gulf of St. Vincent 
below. The soil is a mixture of disintegrated rock, black sand, and stone reduced by 
the action of fire. The principal varieties of grape are the Red Madeira, Carbonet, 
Shiraz, and Riesling. 

bOirCF HILL {Co. Eyre) is a peak in a low range of hills, lying in the W. part 
of the county. 

LOMGr MARSH (Go. Hindmartih) is a tract of swampy country, lying on the W. 
bank of the estuary of the Finniss river, in the hundred of Nkangkita, and about 4 
miles to the E. of Currency creek. 

LOVKB'S ISLE (.Flinders district W.) is a small rocky island, lying E.S.E. \ E. 
5 miles from the Purdie islands, and forming one of Nuyt's archipelago. 

XU^UHIF S REEF (Flinders district W.) is the name given to a dangerous reef of 
rocks in Nuyt's archipelago, lyiag 5^ miles S. 76° W. from point Peter. It only 
shows in bad weather, when the sea breaks heavily upon it. 

LOVTH QCq. Flinders) is a hundred, lying on the E. side of the county, and on 
the shore of Louth bay. It contains 2 blocks of purchased land, which occupy about 
a third of its ai;ea. 

]iOirT9 BAY (Oo, Flinders is an indentation 5 miles deep and 10 miles wide, 
formed by Boston point on the S.W. and Bolingbroke point on the N.E. It has 2 low 
islands in its S.W. part, the largest of which is about a mile in length, and about the 
same distance from the bottom of the bay, which has never been thoroughly explored. 
The land to th§ N. of this bay is low and sandy, with a range of moderately high but 
barren land, 5 or 6 miles behind it. 

L0TE9AT BAY (Co. RusseUX) is an i^et of the S.part of lake Alextmdrina, into 

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M^ Tfie Stmth AmtraHan &azeUeer. [Low — Lur 

' ' 

a peninsula Ijing between that hike and lalres Albert and Coorong. Its S'. side is swampy^ 
and its N. side coasted by granite rocks. At the head of the bay lies some tolerabV 
good agiicnltoral landv although, the peninsula is gen^nUy scarubby, eoY^red witb sandy 
4rift, and unfit Im cuUifiiiion. 

AOWAIi VALB STATION (iVfew S,R district;) occupier*, S. and C. Heriot-^ 
area, 40 square mfljes; grazing capacity, 5000 i^eep; rent and assessment, £35. liiia 
station (lease. No. 9d) is situatedintheTattiaracountry,12miles from Border town, which 
is the next post town, and 160 miles S.£. of Adelaide. The country is she<MBk and 
maot, surroniSded by mallee sciub, and ia supplied with watev by sinking to. a d^th of 
inm 70 to 85. feel^ titore being however s«r&GO water in good seasons. 

&OWB& MITGflAM {Co, Adelaide.) See Mitoham. 

XiOWiat MURBAT RIVER {Co, Hindfmrah) See Goolwa. Rinift^ 

'MfmhX POINT, 32° 55' S. Iat.»l37° 4jy E.. long, (^PUnders dvttrict,) iaa ^omlnent. 
hM^lftnd siAuaited ij^ the N. pact of t^bie W. coa«i( o| Spencer's guU*. It has a large tract. 
oC pastoral back couojigr. 

LOWXiT, POmt, RUN (TT. distnct;) leases, Nos. §97, 896, 899, 908, and 1087; 
occupieri A- D. Ta83i^; areas of leases, 49, 5$, 41,. 92^ and 28 square miles^ This run 
liea neax poiot X40wJy, the next post offices being port lincoln to the S., and port August»^ 
to th^ N.E. 

I^V&WW ISLANDS (Spencer's gulf.) See Stu J. Banks^b Gboup. 

XiXAJfjBf MOUNT (A*, district,) is & peak and trigonometrical station in themaia 
range, lying on the N. bank of the river Munday, and to the N. W. of Fortress hill. The 
Hount Ly ndhurst, mine lies a few miles S. of this hill. 

UmpavmAT, MiOUNT,^30° 20' S. lat., 138° S5? E. long. (Flindere distriatNi,} 
ia a peak and trigonometrical station in the main range, lying on the S. bank of tha 
Miunday river, and to the W. of Fortress hiU. There is a copper mine lying- about 10* 
milfis distant from mount Lyndhurst, and known as the Mount Lyndhurst mine. It 
lies on low hilly gt6and on the edge of the Western plain, and hjks a lode traceable on 
the sur&ce lor about 130 yards^ and from 2 to 3 feet wide, which has been opened ia 
several places ajid found to contain green carbonates and grey ore; and from a shait 
sunk 4 fathoms* gvey and red oxides, and native copper have been raised, The geolo*^ 
gical formation of tiie ground is of day-slate, micaceous schist, limestone, and qnartz.^ 
This mine is not wprked at pnesent. 

^TlTBOCHy or Ltndocb Yallet {Co, Ligkt^) is a postal townsh^) in the electoral 
district and hundred of Barossa. It lies on the road from Gawler to Tanunda, and in 
the agricultural district known as the Gawler plains. Lyndoch is situated on the side 
of a small sandy hill, and has a post and money order office, a volunteer rifle corps, a 
public pound, and 1 hotel The nearest places are Gawler to the W., and Tanunda to 
the E., the communication being by car. With Adelaide, 35 miles S., the communication 
is ^m Gawler by rail. The population is small. Near this place, and at a distance 
of 6 miles from mount Crawford, is a copper mine, in the neighbourhood of which gold 
has been found in quartz, and a company has lately been established for working^ it; 
Gold, was found in the copper at this place years ago, when Captain Rod<U was directing 
the workings for an English company^ but was never properly tested. A company has 
lately been formed for the working of a claim, believed to be rich in gold and copper, in the. 
immediate neighbourhoodofthetownshipof Lyndoch valley; and in July, 1866, a meeting^ 
of persons holding deposit receipts in that company was held at the Exchange hotel, 
Adelaide. Mr. J. T. Bagot presided, and expressed his belief thatthe property was a valu^ 
able one, and rich, not only in gold, but also in copper. The captain ^ould be able to 
produce ^ecimens of gold which it appeai:ed were to be found all over the mine, andshowed 
without doubt that it was bona fide a good one; and the question for them to consider, 
was how to work it to the most advantage. Of course they would form the company 
under the Limited Liability Act, and their business would be to consider the articles or 
association, and aj^point directors and officers, so that they might proceed as soon as 
possible in a business-like manner. M)r. Whitington read a report from Captalti 
Terrell, stating that gold and auriferous quartz had been fbund on the surface, and alsoi 
on the walls of the mine visible to the naked eye, in such quantities -as led him to 
believe that there would be a permanent payable mine, and offering suggestions as to 
the prjocuf ing of an engine and the: neceratfy machiiieij for workinc^ it. He stated 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



y 



Mag]' the SoutU Australian Guzetieer. 1S4 

that there were thousands of tons of quartz ready for stbping, all moi^ or Itos impreg- 
nated with gold and copper. Mr. Whitington read a letter from Mh James James^ 
giving the result of his assay as follbw's:— ** to the toil of ore— Ctoldi 21' or. S dWts. 
Id grains; silver^ 1 oz. 12 d^tcT. 16 gi^dii; coppet, l^ pef c6nt/.'^ Mir. Ai. Thomas gairr 
the result of his assay as follows:—" No. 1 sample is 15 per cent, (tff copper) without 
any dressing, and the amount of gold per ton of quartz is I' os. 2 dwts: 20 grains^ otf 
6 028. 13 d«ns. 12 grains to the ton of fine'copperl" la No; 2 sample t^e gold was 3* 
on. 11 dwts. 20 grs. of gold to tlie ton of oi^. 

MJMi/UtTH'UM'S SCRUB BXTS iS.£.distri€t;)lesk8eH,'^od: ir4andl75; occupier/ 
Bl MiskCarthnr; area^ 21 squand miles; grazing capacity, 2120 sheep; Goyder's valuations 
£¥01 per annum, deducting improvements. Thi9 run lies al>out 222 miles hy road S.E, 
hf 9. of Adellilde, and* 56 mil^ E. of Ghiichen hay. On this and other rund held hy thut 
same lessee are 13,000 sheep, 84 head of cattle and 24 horses. * 

MDAi'GAW CREEK (Oo. (Sfawler) is a small creek flowing through agricultural' 
GOtmt^ry 3 milea S.W. of Riverton. The resident magistrate is R. Ml Cole, £»q., JIP. 

M'CAIXXM MOTTNT. 30^ 35^ S. lat., 139** 15' B. long. {Plinden dMfirkt,\ is a 
p€M& in an E. spur of the maih of Flinders range, iying about 25^^ miles S. of the town* 
ihi|^ of Yudanamutana. Shales, slates and calcareous rocks. 

MJLCCZiEiBFZStlO, 35° 10" S. lat., 138^ 55" % long; (Co. mndmi^ih,)U ti postal 
township in the electoral district of mount Barke^ hundred of Macclesfield, and und^r 
the control of the Macclesfield district council, ic is situiat^d on the main road firom? 
Adelaide ma Strathalbyn to Wellington, and lies in an agricultiiral district. The nearecff 
places are Echunga, 6 miles N. W., and Strathalbyn, 8* miles S.E. The communication, 
a» with Adelaide, 27 miles N.W., being by Rbunsevell's lind of daily mail coaches; 
Macclesfield has a post and money order office, a telegraph station^ a public pound, and^ 
a branch of the Adelaide assurance and guarantee company. The principal hotel is tlie 
Bavenport arms, and there are several others in the township. The surrounding" 
district is undnlating,.and much of it taken up in agrlcaltuml farms; To the N. W., or* 
ia the neighbourhood of Echunga there is an auriferouiS district— the holes sunk for 
gicdd-worldngs in i^ich are through quartz sand, with thin layers of quarts gravel, muctt 
water-worUj. resting on a very flat bottom of soft slate, with sandstone bands. The sdl> 
i»a deep sand^. and the whole deposit is analagous to the old pliocene tertiary gold drifttf 
which form the White hills of Bendigo and Forest creek. In the Melbourne ExhibMoti- 
ol 1^66, Mr. J. Edlett exhibited some fine specimens of polished and rough marble front 
this neighbourhood. 

MACCLESFIBLB (Oo.Bincfmarsh) is a district council in the electoral district' 
cf mount Barker. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. 
T&omas Graham of Blackwood, and 4 councillors. ThO receipts and expenditure in 
tMs district council for 1863 were as follow: — Assessment; j£5998 5s.— rate Is. in tha 
pound^; rates collected, £280 9s. 3d.; total receipts, J65d6 38; 5d; office expenditure and 
salaries, £264 18s. 2d.; expended on public work^, £294 14s. 8d. The populatitm 
numbera 1053 persons; the area is 40. square miles, or 25,600 acres; land under culti- 
vation, 3017 acres; and numbei* of dwelling-houses, 222. 

BKACCUBSFIELB {Co. ffindmarsh) is a hundred^ lying in the N. pAttot l(he 
county, and consisting of nearly all purchased land, most of which is under culti- 
vation, laroe crops of fine wheat being grown, on the N. part especially. The township 
Of mount Backer lies in the N., and that of Macclesfield near the centre of the hundred. 

BEcCaNTZLKE'S MINE (N. distrwt) lies 6 miles ^. of Eanyaka, and compristii 
sections 1424 and 1455, amongst low bald' hills. There is a lode on both sections, 
running about 300 yards N. and S., and 18 inches thick; but the ore, which is mixed 
'^ith gossan and folspar, is not continuous. 9^ tons of ore; a sample of which yielded 
271 per cent, of copper, have been raised fi*om a sifaafir sunk 3^ fiithoms and a drive of 
5 ramoms. The mine has' not been lately worked. 

KeBiAmMnrS' RUN (Co, Stanleys) lease. No. 139; occupier, G. 0. HaWkei^; 
Area, 19 square miles; grazing capability, 3500 sheep, or 185 per square mile; old 
itBOtai; £84 QSi lOdv ; Gtoyder's valuation, £285 per annum, excluding improvements 
valued at £300. This run lies 13 miles N. W. of Clare, 30 miles KN.E. of port Wak^ 
Md^.and 90' mile» from Adelaide. It ia tolerably well grassed, and supplied^ with 
water f roQp a horse-gear well. This run forms part of Anama and Bungar^e^ thoUgli 
held under a different lease. 

DigitizeftyLjOOgle 



182 * Ths South Australian Gazetteer, [Mac 

nA990JSP^fJ^ LAKE (Flinders district) is a small sheet of salt water lying 6 
distant from T^umby bay. • 

KACOOVlfSLL BAY, or Fort, is 38° 3' S. lat, 140'' 38' m long. (Co. Grey,) 
is a postal township in the electoral district of Victoria and hundred of MacdonnelL 
It Ues on the S.E. coast, and is an important harbour, as being the place of shipment for 
the wool of a large section of the S.E. district. The nearesj; places are Penola, Tarpeena, 
and Gambler town, which lie respectively 58, 36, and 18 miles to the N.N.E., the com* 
mimication being by mail coach. With Adelaide, 344 miles, there is communication 
l^Y mail coach, and by occasional steamer. Port Macdonnell has a local ' coart, an 
Moriginai station, a public pound, a branch of the Australian insurance comp9>ny, a 
Foresters' court, and a rocket and life-boat station. The resident m^-^strt^tes are 
A. F. Barrett and E. French, Esq[s. There are the usual hotels and stores in the town- 
■hip. The susrounding country is flat and sandy, with high drift sand dunes to th^ E. 
along the coast. 

KACPONNSL^ COUNTY is a county lying in the S.E. part of the colony, and 
teunded on the N. by the pastoral country and scrub known as the Tattiara country 
and the county Card well; on the S. by the coiinty of Robe; on the W. by the sea at 
Lacepede bay, and on the B. by the colony of Victoria. Only a small portion of this 
county is suryeyed for sale, namely, the hundred of Lacepede, which lies in the S.W. 
Qomer at Lacepede bay, and contains the township of Kin^^ston. The hundred of 
PufBeld Ues to the N. of this. The remainder of the county consists of large swamps, 
and tracts of pastoral country. There is a singular basin of limestone in the N.E. part 
known as Swede's flat. It is a flat plain, like a dried up lake, perfectly level andnat, 
14 miles long by 2 broad^ and encircled by hills. The soil is sandy, and composed of 
ooralline rock. The main stream of the county is the Moorambra creek to the E., and 
the Reedy creek to the W. There are several swampy lakes, the principal of which are 
Pipeclay and Cadni lakes, both to the E. This county is comprehended in the electoral 
lUatrict of Victoria. This county has an area of 1994 square miles, or 1,224,160 acres; 
ihere being 6494 acres of purchased land, 4921 acres of land hel^ by freeholders, 460,165 
acres of land enclosed, and 783 acres under cultivation. The live stock numbers 1332 
horses, 3021 horned cattle, 198,283 sheep, 56 goats, 47 pigs, and 982 head of poultry. 
Of the land under cultivation, 44 acres are under wheat, 4 acres under barley, 4 acres 
imder oats, 263 acres under hay, 1 acre under lucerne, and 6 acres under other crops; 
400 acres are fallow, and 44 acres are orchard, 16 acres garden, and 1 acre vine3rard, tttfe 
Utter having 652 vines in bearing, and 38 vines not in hearing. The crops for the year 
•nding March 3 1st, 1866, were— 464 hushels wheat, 20 bushels barley, 20 bushels oats, 
S43 tons hay, 56 gallons wine, and 4 cwt. grapes. The population numbers 618 persons, 
being a decrease of 34 since 1861, and the number of dwellings 177. 

BiACSOirXf SXA (Co. Grey) is a S. hundred of the county lying on the S. coast, 
and being nearly all sold land. Cape Northumberland and the township of Macdonnell 
are in the S. part of this hundred. In this hundred is a steam flour mill, working 2 
pairs of stones by a steam engine of 12-horse power. For population, &c., see Benara 

HUNDBED. 

BtACSONNELL'S CREEK (Flinders district N.) rising in the N. of the Flinders 
range, and is a creek flowing through good pastoral country, about 14 miles S. of 
Blanchewater, into the Hamilton creek, near mount Hopeless. 

MACSONNSX-iL LAKE AND FOWLER'S BAY RUN ( W. district;) occupiers. 
Smith a^d Swan; leases Nos. 852, 855, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1074, 1075, 1065, 1076, 1044, 
1023, 1022, 788, 790, and 791; areas of leases respectively, 51, 15, 12, 11, 13, 16, 20, 
13, 22, 44, 21, 16, 46, 28, and 30 miles respectively. This run lies on Fowlers' bay. 

KACDONVSU^ LIGHT, 38° 3'S. lat., 140° 38' E. long., (Co. Gfrey,) is the name 
of a lighthouse erected on cape Northumberland. The tower, which is 28 feet high, 
itands on a rocky headland 103 feet above high watermark. The light, which is catop- 
tric and revolving, consists of 3 faces, and exhibits alternately every minute a white, 
red, and green light, on an arc visible from seaward from N. 74° E. to N. 66° W. round 
by S. (by compass.) The white light may be seen from the deck of a moderately sized 
vessel for a distance of 18 miles. The red light will not be seen under the most 
favourable circumstances at a greater distance than 15 miles. The green light will not 
generally be distinguished at a greater distance than 8 miles. During hot weather and 
the prevalence of N.E. winds, when there is much refraction, the white light may be 
frequently observed at a greater distance. 



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Ma«] The South Australian Gazetteer. 188 

KAOSOmfSLA BIYEB {Flinders district) is a fine stream, found by Ooyderim 
1857, flowing past the f6ot of Weathered hill, in a N. direction, in lake Blanche, thea 
BBpposed to be part of lake Torrens, in 29° 13' S. lat. The lower part of this river it 
also known as Freeling water. ^ ^ 

iiACl>OimSX.L PEAK, 29'' 35' S. lat., 134° 30' E. long. (Plinders district,) ii 
the S. point of a S. spur of Stuart's range, l3ring in a densely scrubbed .country, witk 
oocasionad op6n patches of red soil with good grass and splendid saltbush. 

BgAorAWXAlOB HILL {Co, HindmarsK) is an eleyation in the pastoral countiy 
to the N.W. of Gk>olwa township, and about 4 miles distant from that place. 

BK^XAZtmnit SFBINGS (Flinders district) is the name of a cluster of fresh 
water springs lying on the N. bank of the Neales river, and. about 20 miles above iti 
junction with the "Frew river. There is some good country available for pastoral pur- 
pcdes lying to the S. and W. of these springs. 

♦ la'FA&LAHfi -LAKE (^Flinders district.) See Island "Lake. 

M^r/MtfiAlfg MOUNT {Flinders district) is a lofty peak of the main range 
lyln^f a few miles S. of Angipena, anA near Blinman. 

iiK'GftAT^S FLAT {Co. Cardwell) is a post ofiSce in the pastoral oountiy 
known as M'Grath> flat, on the main road from Wellington to port Macdonnell, lying 
49 miles S. of the former place, and 114 miles S.E. of Adelaide; the communication 
being by Bounsevell's mail coaches, twice a-week. There is an aboriginal station a* 
this place. 

McHABO'S CBEEE (Co. Adelaide) is the name of a small creek falling inte 
Bull's creek, 6 miles from its head. It is also the name of a small village situated oa 
the creek, and containing a population of 50 persons in 10 families, engaged in farming 
pxtrsmts. The nearest post town is Bull's creek. 

KACZifTTBJB, MOUNT, (Co. Grey) is a well timbered and grassed hill, lying 

3 miles N.E. of mount Burr, and near the township of Tarpeena. The surrounding 
district is a pastoral one. 

atACZNTTRE, MOUNT, BUN (fi.E, district;) lease. No. 183. See MoLOir« 
Bun. See also Gl£ncx)B. 

MelLZNLAT, LAKE, {Flinders district,) 2^ 25' S. lat. 139'' 30' E long., is the 
name of a large lake lying in a grassy plain. It is called after the explorer McEinlay, 
-who discovert it. The Tooraringana creek flows to the S. of this lake. 

McKHTLAT, mount (Flinders district,) 30° 85' S. lat., 139° 10' E. long., is a 
lofty peak and point of survey, lying on an E. spur of the tnain range, about 15 miles 
K.E. of Angipena, and near the source of the N. head of Big John creek. Shalest 
slates, and calcareous rock. Near this hill is one of the copper mines of the Grea, 
Northern mining company, not lately worked however. It lies 295 miles N. ^ W. of 
Adelaide. 

KcLABJisirS YALE, or Bellevue (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal village in the 
electoral district of Noarlunga, hundred of Willunga, and under the control partly of 
the district council of Willunga and partly of that of Noarlunga. It is situated about 

4 miles from the sea-beach, on the main road between Noarlunga and Willunga, and 
near a high range of hills. The district is an agricultural one, chiefly wheat, a few 
sheep and cattle being also depastured on the hills. McLaren's vale has a post office, 
a steam flour mill, and a tannery. There is 1 hotel— the Devonshire. The nearest 
places are Noarlunga and Aldinga, each 5 miles distant; the communication, as with 
Adelaide, 25 miles N., being by Bounseveirs daily mail coach; and for goods, by the 
drays continually passing along the road. The surrounding country is elevated. The 
resident magistrate is T. Calton, Esq. Sinking for copper is going on at present, and 
small quantities of gold have been found in some of the creeks in the neighbourhood. 
The population numbers about 300 persons in and round the township. 

. ikc^Alisn CBEEK {Minders district N.) is a small creek, lying to the N.W. of 
Strzelecki creek, on Sturt's track of 1845. 

BiACLSAT POINT, 35° 35' S. lat., 139° 15' R long. {Co. FusseU,) is a small postal 

Village in the electoral district of Victoria and hundred of Baker, situated on a pemnsula 

' formed by lakes Alezandrina, Albert and Coorong. This peninsula contains about lOt 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



]l$4 5^ ,8ou^ 4wtralian Gazetteer. [M'v — MaIi 

■gnare mile^. A river or opening, 6 tpUes long, leacls along the N. side of the penlmiiiUi 

m>m lake Alexandrina into lake Albert, which latter lies to the S^S., the former lake 

oeiog on the ;W. and N.W. The Ck>oroag lies to the S. and S.W. of the peniii8illa,.«[|d 

about 10 miles distantS. from Point Macleaj, which is situated on a remi»kable looking 

■andy diff frojecting out into lake Alexandrina on its S.E. side. On the W. aide.oC 

the peninsula, and to the S. of the poipt, is. a deep indentation of the lake, skiiown as 

LoTedi^ bay. The district is chiefly pastoral, both cattle and she^ being d^astur^ 

although there is much land suited for agriculture, some patches of which lire taken up 

for the cultiTation of wheat. The nearest places are Milang, 15 miles N.W., Goolwa, 

25 miles W., and Meningie 30 miles S.E., all across the lake, and Wellington -80 miles 

K.£. on the river Murray. The communication with these places is by water oiily,«id 

with Adelaide 100 miles N.W. by boat to Milang or Wellington, and thence by &unse- 

▼ell's coaches thrice a-week. Point Macleay has a post office, and a mission staticm fpr 

tbe aborigines, where some hundreds of them areled, clothed, instructed, employed, and 

eared for. This institution is established under the Aborigiues' friends association of 

Adelaide. The surrounding country is partly flat, with numerous salt lagoons, but 

consists chiefly of rolling hills with much outcropping limestone. The soil is a red* 

aandy loam. The rocks are generally of magnesian limestone, and large boulders of 

granite crop up in and abdut lake Albert, some of^hem in the middle of the lake. The 

peninsula on which point Macleay is situated is celebrated for its salubrity, the hot 

winds which prevail in the neighbourhood in summer having to pass over 20 miles of 

water before reaching it. It is also celebrated for the excellent Ashing to be had upon 

itf shores, and the shooting in its scrubs. The Murray cod, called by the natives poride, 

is very abundant, and is caught in large quantities. The population (white) numbera 

42 persons, there being 9 dwelling-houses. 

M'VXTTZS'S HILL {Co. Adelaide) is a detached peak of the main range of 
mountains lying in the hundred of Talunga, about 5 miles N.E. of mount Torrens. 

M'vri'VlS'S (or Gilbert's) RUN {Co, JBurra;) lease, No. 53; occflpjier, 
J. Gilbert; area, 4 square miles; grazing capacity, 1000 sheep, or 250 per square mUe; 
Goyder's valuation, £82 per anuum, deducting improvements. This run Hes at the 
N. end of the Bluff range, 30 miles N. by W. of Kooringa, and 132 miles N. of Adelaide. 
It is worked from t^e head station S.E. of mount Bryant. 

IKAGILL {Co. Adelaide) is a small postal suburb of Adelaide, 4yittg 4f miles 
distant, and a favourite place of residence for gentlemen having business in the <^ty. 
Hie communication is by cars ^nd 'busses, whidi run throughout the day. Magill is 
embosomed in orchards, vineyards and gardens, which surround it on jeveij side. It has 
1 hotel, an Oddfellow's lodge (A.I.O.F.,) and a public pound. The resident magistrates 
we W. Scott and L. B. Murray, Esqs. 

MAOmnCEirT MOUNT (Cos. Adelaide and Hindmarsh) is a lofly peak in the 
main range, lying about 8 miles E.N.E. of Willuuga, and forming one of tbe boundary 
points between the counties Adelaide and Hindmarsh. 

MAGRATSTS FLAT (Co. CardweU.) See M'Gbath's Flat. 

IVAOMTOIIS! is an agricultjoral township, lying a quarter of a m|le distant 
^.N.E. of Kersbrook, and 10 miles S.W. of Williamstowp. It has a daily mail, and 
one hotel — the Wheatsheaf, also a public pound. The population numbers about 300 
persons, scattered over the neighbourhood, and chiefly engaged in the cultivation of 
wheat. 

XMiATJL LAKE STATION {W. district) is a portion of the Warrow T^^, 
— which see. 

MALCOLli (Co. RmseU) is a ceiftral hundred of tbe county, lying on the lower 
p»rt of the Murray river, on the N.E. shore of lake Alexandrina, aiid on the N. shore 
of lake Albert. About a third of this hundred is purchased land, and the remainder 
taken up for pastoral purposes. The village of point Malcolm lies in tte S.W. part of 
tto hundred. 

MALCOLM POINT (Co. JRusseU) is a poipt lying on the 8.S. side of lake 



jia, and forming the N. head of the channel leading firom that lake into 
lake Albert. The land in the neighbourhood is tolerably food, and snfted to agricultural 



Alexandrina, 

lake Albert, xuts uiuu lu toe ueignoouraootr is \An^T^viy guuu, imu su^veu lo agricultural 

purposes. There is a small village on this point, having a few inhabitants, mostly farmers, 

m^JJOOaww station (W-f^^Utrlctj) Im^ 8^5 and 957, is part of th^ 
Ortimi^rpn,ivbichifij^ 



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Ma]>-Mak] The S^uth AustraUan Gazetteer. 1^6 

MAliKlO GAP (Flinders district N.) is a passage through the ranges near 
Blinman, and leading to the Peruana station. It consists of a rough road along the 
))ed of the If alkio creek, and is bordered bjr flat-laced rocky liilla, which at a distance 
Tesemble a chimney stack. 



bA (Ob. ChMer) is a postal station (the head station of Henry Lowe, Esq. ) 
in the electoral district of Stanley and hundred of Grace. It is situated on the Grace 
plains, about S miles N. of the rirer light, upon a rast extent ot very lerel country, in 
which there are no hills of any size nearer than tiie Barossa range, about 24 miles 
distant. The rirer light runs from N.E. to S. W. through the district. The neigh- 
boarhood of Mallala is a rapidly increasing agricultural one, wheat beidg the chief 
urticle of produce, and the Goyemnient haTing sold large areas of land there of late, 
-tiie population has doubled within the last 12 months. The surrounding government 
lfuic[s, portions of the hundreds of Grace aild Dublin, are principally used as sheep 
pasture. The nearest places to Mallala are Redbanks, 4 miles, and Two- wells 12 miles 
distant, there being no means of conveyance, and the mail being carried on horsebaok 
twice a week. With Adelaide, 37 miles S. the communication is by coach from 
Two-irells to Salisbury, and thence by rail. Mallala has a post office tor the convenience 
of the surrounding district, a day and night school, at which about 50 children attend 
tegularly, and a Primitive Methodist chapel (also the school^room.) The nearest hoteb 
«re at Bedbanks and Two*wells. The surrounding country is veiy flat and rather 
lowly situated, consisting principally of level, open, grassy plains, with belts of dense 
UMdlee scrub and patches of pine, the fbrmer being nsed as firewood, and the latter fot 
building purposes. The soil is admirably adapted for i^iculture, and consists of li^t 
tandy loam, with occasional outcropping beds of good umestone available fbr building 
ffttrposes. One of the most important subjects occupying the minds of the wheat 
growers and others, at present, is that the inhabitants of the district of port Gawlef , 
which lies adjacent to the W., intend trying to open a port of shipment on theif 
coast, the most likely place being about 16 iniles firom Mallala. This would consequently 
be a great benefit to tiie neighbourhood, as the distance is^oonsiderably less than that 
4o the nearest railway statk>n. The population of MalUla head station is generally 
about 20 persons, and that of the district within a radius of about 4 miles, (excluding 
the township of Bedbanks) about 250 persons. 

KALLEE SCRUB {Murray district,) This portion of the S.E. district of South 
Australia, about 9000 square miles in extent, is one uninterrupted waving prairie of 
Mueahf^tus dumosa, (by the natives termed mallee) something like a bushy willow in 
iippearance. It commences about 100 miles from the southern extremity of the coasts 
and goes on, as f&rta we know, without any interruption of a different description of 
country, right on to the N. and N. W. boundary formed by the River Murray to this district. 
One road passes across it for about 100 miles from the Tattiara country to Wellington 
fefiy, or the crossing-place of the Murray. There is also a small patch of grassy 
<x>untry on some porphyry ranges, about 26 miles within its edge, but beyond this it 
is considered impenetrable. Occasionally, however, an adventurous settler has taken 
a few days' supply of water and provisions and has gone 50 or 60 miles beyond the 
nearest settlement, but such journeys have only confirmed the idea that the scrub ii 
totally unfit for any purpose. There are only few places, however, where it can be 
even explored. The trees grow close together like reeds, and certainly not thicker^ 
without a branch until about 14 feet from the ground, ana so dense are they that 10 
and 12 stems may be counted springing from 1 root, and occupy little more than a 
jquare foot of ground. Where a road has been out through it, it i^pears bA though 
there were a high wall on each side; indeed, the efiTeCt is not unlike that produced l^ a 
load through a trench. 

SKALOHSrS MINE (N. district) lies 8 miles ttom Watt's Sugar \o&t A lode 
containing stains of copper lies on the surface, and the claim is considered a promising 
one, but uttle work has been done upon it, and operations are now suspended. ^ *■ 



CREEK {N, district) is a small creek flowing in ,the pastOTAl 
Mtt&try, about 85 milee distant from Yudanamutana. 

XANANNABIfi CREEK (Co. Frome) is a watercourse flowing in the pastoral 
^country to the £« of the mount Lock ranges, and watoriUg the run of the iame name. 

rAMXAmiE BUN lOo. Fr<me/) lease, No. 61$ ooei^ier^ W. L Man^aAt^ 



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186 The South Australian Oazetteer, [Man — Mar 



a, 98 square miles; grazing capability, 20,000 sfaeep, or 205 per square tnile; old 
rent and assessment, £253 Ss 4d; Mr. Gojder's valuation, £1078, excluding improyements 
yalued at £2625. This run is on the plain to the E. of the mount Lock range, and 
takes in the Manandarie and Boniah creeks. It is 104 miles N. of Adelaide, 38 mile» 
N.E. of port Peri, and 50 miles S.E. of Port Augusta. It consists of well grassed land, 
undulating and plain, with sheoak studding the rises, and open mallee scrub, wltk 
grass and spinifex. It has 5 wells and troughs, and a good road to Eooringa, 50 miles 
N.N.W. This run also includes leases, Nos. 371 and 262, which hare respe^ye areas 
of 24 and 4 miles. 

BfAHAVNA&Ifi RUN, No. 2 {Oo.Frome;) lease, No. 64; occupiers, HUes and 
Chewings; area, 62 square miles ; rent, £31 per annum. 

BiAHGAl^OW AND POODNOW (or Fbankun Habboub) RUN {PoH Lincoln 
dittrict;) leases, Nos. 463,465, 477, 556, and 1124; occupier, P. Leyi; respectiye areas 
of leases, 64, 26, 42, 32, and 12 square miles. This run Ues on Franklin harbour, to the 
N. ofportlincoln. 

BfAHNVK ((7o. Sturt) is a township lately laid out in the hundred of Finniss, 50 
miles E. from Adelaide, is situated on the W. bank of the Murray, and at present 
contains but few dwelling-houses. It has a large warehouse for storing produce and 
general goods for shipment per Murray steamers; I hotel, and other buildings are in 
course ol erection. It is the spot where the first Murray steamer (the Mary Ann) was 
built for Mr. W. R. Randall, the earliest nayigator of the Murray. The steamers 
Oeminif the ill-fated Bunyin, and the Pearl, were also built here, as well as the barges 
Morning Star, Kulnine, and Menindie. Two suireys have been made for lines of railway 
from Adelaide vta Gawler town, and terminating here, and via mount Barker, termi- 
nating 7 miles fUrther down the river. There is a good main line of road from Adelaide, 
macadamised two-thirds of the distance, passing through Gumeraoka, Blumberg, and 
Tungkillo. Mail twice a week on horseback. 

MAllirWA&aUUllA RUN {N, cHttrict;) lease, No. 1049; occufner, the Hem. 
T. Elder; area, 56 square miles. This run lies to the N.W. of Blanchewater, and on 
S^. side of lake Blanche. 

MA&BLS RANGES {Flinders distritit W,) is a range of limestone hills, lying 
80 miles N. of port Lincoln, and near the W. coast of Spencer's gulf. 

BMJtOHJIIVT'S HILL, 32'' 15^ S. lat, 138'' 50' E. long. (FHndera dis^ict,) n a 
peak of the Ragless range, lying in the N. part of that range. A small stream, Imown 
as Rowe's creek, flows round Ub E. base. 

MA&GABJBT CREEK {Flinders district) is a fine creek, flowing through the 
pastoral country to the S. W. of lake Eyre into that lake. 

M A&O ARET MOUNT {Flinders diskict N. W.) is a postal station in the electoral 
district of Flinders, to tibe S.W. of lake Eyre. It is situated on the Dayenport creek^ 
at a place called the Mussel waterhole, and lies about 20 miles a little N. of £. ol 
mount Margaret, and 40 miles W. of lake Eyre. The district is essentially a pastoral 
one, stocked with cattle and horses, and watered by springs, which raise up knoUs 
or smail eleyations in the otherwise flat or undulating country — ^the water being 
found in small basins at the top. The nearest township is Nuccaleena, about 300 
miles S., the nearest hotel being there. The c(»nmunication is by horse or dray 
only, along a bush track, which passes the following stations, viz., the Strangwa^rs 
springs (riieep,) 60 miles; mount Hamilton (cattle and sheep,) 33 miles; Chambers^Si 
creek (cattle,) 18 miles; Finniss springs (cattle,) 27 miles; Calanna (sheep,) 37 miles ^ 
Leigh's creek (unstocked) 80 miles; and thence to Nuccaleena^ 43 miles. With Adelaide 
the communication is from Nuccaleena by Rounseyell's mail coach, which runs weekly 
when the state of the weather and the country will permit, the distance being 
»bout 700 mUes between mount Margaret and Adelaide; and horse mail going once 
a fortnight. The surrounding country is undulating and lightly grassed, with salt- 
bush* and stunted timber in the creeks and watercourses. The soil k poor and 
sandy, containing a large quantity of salt and soda. On the nM>unt Macgaret station 
there are 7 men. 

MARGASET MOUNT, 28** 25' S. lat., 137° 55' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a 
lofty peak of the Denison range, spurring from that range in a N. direction, and forming 
the source of seyeral fine fresh water cheeks. At its N. foot are seyeralflwsh water 
springs. This peak attains an altitude of 1400 feet aboye the leyel of the sea. There 



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Mab] 



The South Australian Oazetteer. l37 



is lome good unditlating sftltbush country in the neighbourhood. ]^ear this mountain 
sereral new species of lizards, and 3 specimens ot a large green cidndela, belonging to 
a genus of insects hitherto unknown in South Australia hare been found. 



KAaeAmZT, mount, run {N. dUtrict;) leases, Nos. 978 and 979; occupier, 
P. Levi; respectiye areas of leases, 125 and 200 miles; rentals, £62 lOs. and J6100 per 
smiam. This mn Hes at mount Margaret, in tiie far N. 



CREEK (Co. Macdonndl) is a small creek flowing into the swamp of 
the same name from the E., near the township of Kingston. This creek receires the 
OTerflow of Geary's swamp. 

BCABIA CREEK RUN {8,E. district;) lease. No. 65; occupiers, J. and A. Cooke; 
area, 5 square miles; grazing capacity, 750 sheep; Goyder's valuation, £IB 158. per 
ttfraum. This run lies on the coast, 190 miles l^ road, S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 10 
Btdles S.S.W. of Kingston (Lacepede bay.) 

MARIA SWAMP (Co. MacdonneU) is a swampy lagoon, lying to the E. of the 
township of Kingston, and running N. and S. in a line with the coast of Lacepede bay. 
It appears to be a S. continuation of lake Coorong. 

MARINO {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement, lying in the hundred 
of Noarlunga, adjacent to O'Halloran hill, and taken up by a few freehold settlers. 



LAKE, 29** 33' 8. lat., 138° 15' E. long. {Flmders district,) is a she^ 
of water, lying to the W. of the Frome river, and forming one of the cluster of lakes of 
which lake Harry is the largest. 

BKARRVLUBT RUN (8.E. district;) leases. No. 15f and 980; occupier, 
A. McArthur; respectire areas, SO and 25 square miles. This run lies in the Tattiara 
county, near Border town. 

MABBABlSTi {Co, Light) is a postal township in the electoral district of Light, 
and hundred of Gilbert. It takes its name from Mr. Marrabel, formerly a landowner 
in the neighbourhood, and is situated on the main line of road from Kapunda to 
Kooringa (the Burnt Burra mines) being about 15 miles N. of Kapunda. The road in 
course of formation, and nearly completed, is a fine macadamised one. Marrabel is 
adjacent to the river Light, which lies to the E. of the township, and in the course of 
which are several large and deep waterholes. The inhabitants of this towntihip have 
a great advantage in being able to obtain, at a depth of 16 feet from the surface, fresh 
wholesome water, well adapted for domestic purposes of all kinds — ^Uo inconsiderable 
boim in the colony. About 1} miles to the W. of the township lies a range of hills, 
portions of which are known as the Butcher's gap, Belvidere, and Finniss po&t. T^se 
hills abound in fine stone and timber, both suitable for building purposes. Marrabel 
has a steam flour mill, neatly and firmly constructed, and containing grinding and silk- 
dressing machinery of the best kind. There are also 2 general stores, 2 blacksmiths*, 
1 wheelwright's, 1 butcher's and 2 shoemaker's shops. There is a post oMce, and ffood 
school recently erected, a lodge of theM.U. order of Oddfellows (Marrabel lodge,) and 
a commodious hotel — the Marrabel. The district is an agricultm^ one, wheat being 
extensively grown in it. Gold is reported to have been found near the Belvidere range 
amongst some quartz-reefs, but it has never tempted the public to test its value, 
although many persons have visited the locality. The nearest places are Hamilton, 5, 
miles S. on the main road, aAd Steelton, 6 miles N. The communication is by Rounse- 
veil's daily coach, and with Adelaide 63 miles S., by Rounsevell's coach to Kapunda, 
and thence by train. The surrounding country is flat, a plain extending for several 
miles between the Belvidere range on the W. and a smaller range to the £. This plain 
is well-watered, fertile, and much of it under cultivation. The township is only about 
24 years old, but it is in a flourishing and promising state. The population numbers 
about 90 persons. 

MARTATlnOLLS (Co, Adelaide) is a small suburban township Ijring adjacent 
to Norwood and forming part of the municipality of Kensington and Norwood. See 

NOBWOOD. 



POINT, 35** 33' S. lat., and 137° 41' long., {Manaaroo iilwnO) ti)e N. 

fistremity of Kangaroo island, is a cliffy projection, rather lower than the land to the 
W. of i^ and has a spit extending from it in an E.S.E. direction about 9 miles. It 
forms the N. head of Nepean bay, which is 6 leagues across its entrance to Kfmgaroo 

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198 the South AustraUan Oaaettem: [Mar— Max 

head, in the directioii of S.E. bv B.. and contams 3 large sandy coygb, which may^be 
med for anchorage bv yesseU of not very ^eat draught of water. This point was so 
called by Flinders, the disooTsrer, in compliment to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

MjULTIH (Jaffa of Flmders' charts) CAPE, SI"" S(/ 30"" S. lat., 140° 4^ E. long. 
Ofi!o. Orey) U the N. point of the Riroli bay, In which there Is anehonige in 5 or 6 
Citboms. The ooast betweea the two capes aro rery sandy and sterile, with hummocks 
upon it, visible at the distance of 4 leagues. From cape Martin an extensive ledge of 
tockM with heavy breakers stretches off to the S., leaving a passage of 1^ miles wide 
between it and a short reef from cape Buffon (of Flinders) Into the andiorage of 
Rivoli bay. The tide is uncertain on this part of the coast; small coasters should be 
very cautious, and get an offing in time, as the seals here heavy, and rises quickly. 

MAMTOM ISLAND {Spencer's Out/.) See Sm J. Bakks's Gboup. 

iKAJtTIil'3 WASHFOOL {Oo. Owrdwtll) is the name of a waterbole in theN. 
part of Tilley's swamp, and on the side of the main road from Wellington to MaodonnelL 
It lies a few miles beyond the salt creek accommodation house. 

aUATf MOUNT {Kangaroo island) is a peak in the low ranges on the S. side of 
Kangaroo island, lying to the N. of Yivonne bay, and separating the heads of the 
Harriet and Eleanor rivers, which rise to the W. and E. of the hUl respectively. 

KABTTALE BUN (W, district;) leases, Nos. 568, 642, and 828; occupier 
W. A. Horn ; areas, respectively 103, 68, and 11 square miles. This run lies to the 
8.W. of Farlour hill, between Venus and Streaky bays, the next post offices. 

MASlLLOlt ISLE {Flinders district W.) is a small rocky island, lying to the S. 
of the St. Francis's group, in Nuyt's archipelago. It attains an elevation of 209 fiaet 
4ibove sea level ^ 

BCASairS HILL (Oo. RuMsell) is a hill lying to the S. <^ thetownship of Welling- 
ton E., and on the road from that place to the S.E. district. 

BtASSAORS, LAKE {Flinders district. ) See Eadli Bibki. 

BOCATTA MATTA MINE {Co. Daly) is a copper mine lying 85 miles N.W. 
by N. of Adelaide, and one of the richest of the Wallaroo mines. It has 2 shafts, 
and a fine lode of ore, cut at the 10-feet level, consisting of rich green carbonate and 
grey sulphuret, with red oxide and malleable copper ore. Tbis mine is a very wet one, 
and operations have occasionally to be stopped in consequence. It is at present being 
worked by a company, who are progressing &vourably. The following is an abstract 
of the directors' last report:— ''In submitting the usual half-yearly statement of account 
and the captain's report on the mine, your directors have much pleasure in congratu- 
latkig the shareholders on the improved position of their property since last meeting; 
the six months' operations having resulted in sufficient profit to pay off the old debt to 
Messrs. Hughes and Horn. The main drain has entirely fulfilled the purpose for which 
it was constructed; and the strong influx of water, wnich at one time prevented sink- 
ing below the 30-fathom level, has now been reduced to very moderate proportions, 
and is readily kept under control by the engine at a speed of only four and a-hali strokes 
per minute. Sinking the main shaft has, therefore, been resumed, and it has now 
reached 15 feet below the 30-fathom levdL The quantity of ore raised during the six 
months amounts to 909 tons, of which 407 tons have been sold to the English and 
Australian copper company; but considering the low price of ore, and that a change 
for the better may reasonably be expected to take place in a few months, your directorsL 
have latterly considered it more advisable to avail themselves of the low rates of 
fireight to England to ship their ores in preference to selling them on the spot, and 408 
tons have accordingly gone forward per Otmtgh and Meander, leaving 94 tons on hand 
at the uunes." 

WATTAWAajtlTMOAXXA RUN {N. district;) leases, Nos. 238, 334, 420, 
and 496; occupier, C. W. Davies; total area, 190 square miles. Stock on run, 8500 
sheep and 100 head of cattle. The grazing capability is uncertain, and depends oa 
the seasons. There is a government post office, and an aboriginid depdt on this run. 
It lies on the Siccus river, about 12 mues from its source, and 45 miles E. of Eanyaka 
the next post town. See also Hollowblena. 



BUir (8.B. ditiriats) lease>No. 194; occupier, Q* Oleni ana, 94 
sfuare miles; grazing capacity, 13,000 rtieep, (Xt 155 per square mile) Ctoydier's vifikia. 
Hon, £AW per annum, deducting improvements iFalued at £16Q. There are \4^{M 



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Mka — Mjss] The South Australian Gazetteer. 139 

sheep, ISOO liead of cattle, and 300 horses on this run, and on purchased land and 
annual lease in the hundred of Hiadmarsh. Mayura lies 260 miles S.S.E. o( Adelaide, 
and 55 miles bj road S.E. of Guiehen bay. This run lUso indades lease No. 47f, 
hsring |in area of 10 square miles. 

MSABOWS CCo. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
mount Barker, hundred of Euitpo, and under the control of the district council of 
K»Bdof»ringa. It is jitnated on the Meadows' creek, Bali's, and sewersX o^use tmall 
creeks running in the neighbourhood. Mount Observation lies 11 miles S.E., ne«r 
^niss bridge. The district is an agricultural and pastoral one, botfi eattie and sheep 
)iang grazed, and wheat, potatoes, and grapes cultiyated. Meadows has a ateaoi silk- 
dmedag flour mill and a tannery, a post office, a store, a literary institute and Uoensed 
school, and a public pound. There is 1 hotel — the Meadows inn. The neatest places 
are Eangarilla^ 7 miles N.W.; Echunga, 7 miles N.E.; and Macclesfield. 6 miles E. 
There is communication with Kangarilla by weekly coach, and with the other places 
by horse and dray only. With Adelaide the communication is by Ooble's weekly 
conreyance, via Kangarilla, Clarendon, Goromandel raUey, and Uoley, the total dis- 
tance being 28} miles. There is a carrying ofi^e in the township for the conveyance 
of goods per horse waggon to Adelaide. The surrounding district is elevated, and 
consists of mountainous country, with small and large flats, intersected bj numerous 
creeks and watercourses. Timber is abundant, and the country is well grassed. There 
is plenty of stone to be had, suitable either for building purposes or for road metal. 
GkHd has been found in small quantities in the neighbourhood. The population is 
small and scattered. 

aSEL&OSS, 82** 50' S. lat, 138"* 10" E. long. {Co, Frome,) is a postal township in 
the electoral district of Flinders, and hundred of Wongyarra. It lies at the E. foot of 
mount Remarkable, which is half-a-mlle due W., and on the mount Remarkable creek. 
The surrounding district is a pastoral one (sheep and cattle,; and the Spring creek 
copper mine lies on Spring creek, about 10 miles distant N. The nearest place is 
Stirling North, about 35 miles N.W., and near port Augusta, the port of the district. 
There is a mail twice a-week to the port, and a telegraph line nearly completed. With 
Adelaide there is a mail conveyance twice a-week, wa^Kooringa and Clare, the distance 
being about 195 miles. By the telegraph line, which is nearly completed, the distance 
167 miles. There is also communication from port Augusta, distant about 40 miles 
N.W. to Adelaide, by the steamer Lubra. Melrose has a local court, post office, a 
money order office, several stores, and 3 hotels — the Mount Remarkable, the Royal 
Exchange, and the North Star, a public pound, an Oddfellows' lodge, a Foresters* 
court, and a branch of the South Australian insurance company. The country to £. and 
Iff.E. consists of lightly grassed plains, and to the N.W. and S. of undulating hills. The 
geological formation consists of soft aluminous stone, similar to that at Eapunda. The 
be4a in which it is found dip 85° W., and are overlaid by soft, red, gritty, quartzose 
sandstone. The population numbers about 250 persons. 

' BEEMO&T COYE (Co. FUndert) is a small sandy bay about three-quarters of a 
mile across, lying at E. foot of a rocky range, and 1} miles round the N. side of the E. 
extremity of cape Catastrophe, at*the W. entrance to Spencer's gulf. It affords shelter 
in 10 fathoms, sandy bottom, in all winds except those between N. and E. ; and even 
then is somewhat sheltered by islands from 2 to 5 miles distant. It was so called by 
Flinders in memory of a sad catastrophe which occurred there on the 18th Feb., 1802, 
he having lost 2 of his officers, Messrs. Thistle and Taylor, and a boat's crew of 6 men, 
by the upsetting of a boat in which they had gone to find an anchorage. Flinders left an 
engraved copper-plate at this cove, informing future visitors of the disaster. 

HEIflVOSJt (Cb. FusseU) is the name of a township recently laid out, but not 
yet sold, situated 28 mUes S.E .of Wellington, the next post town, and 30 miles S.E. 
of point Macleay. 

MSRSBST BUN (^. district',) leases, Nos. 438, 472, and 543; occupier, 
A. Stewart; respective areas of leases, 84, 12, and 76 square miles. This run lies near 
Blaok Rock, to the N. of mount Bryant, the next post town being Kooringa. 

MZSSBMVBJIAT BUN {8.E, district;) leases, Nos. 159a and 164; occupier, 
J. Stewart; area, 35 square miles; grazing capability, 5000 sheep; Goyder's valuation, 
X20S 168. per annum, deducting improvements valued at £2111. This run lies 82 
miles S.S.E. of AdeUide, 55 miles E.N.E. of Guicbea bay, and 90 miles N. by W. of 
llaodonnell bay. 



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140 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Mer — Mil 



RUN {S.E. district;) lease, No. 87; occupier, E. M. Bagot; area, 6 
square miles; grazing capacity, 350 sheep, or 58 per square mile; Goyder*s yaluation^ 
£12 per annum. This run lies 2 miles S. of the S. bank of the Murray river, on the 
E. boundary of the colony, and 200 miles N.E. of Adelaide. This run also includes 
leases, I^os., 353 and 909, which have respective areas of 25 and 16 square mll68. 



BUN (W: district;) leases, Nos. 103, 752, and 758. See Mikkjuu 
Btm^ 

BUUDJLSBAOK, mount (Flinders district,) is a range of low scrubby faUls, 
lying on the W. side of Spencer's gulf to the S.W. of point Lowly. The surroundtog 
country is po(or and densely scrubbed. The E. point of this range is known as moont 
Middle, and has some available pastoral country near its E. foot. It forms a landmoHt 
to vessels in the gtdf . 

mabXHLl^ LAKE (Oo. Grey) is a lake in one of the craters of mount GamMer, 
and is merelv a good-sized pond of moderate depth. The banks are not precipitous, 
but slope all round to the water at an equal inclination, with little or no outcropping 
of rock. They are well grassed and studded with sheoak {Oasvarina acqucBfolia) and 
honeysuckle (banksia integrifolia,) the water at the bottom has only made its appear- 
ance within the last few years. 

MIDSLB RANGE (Co, Victoria) is a range of low scrubby hills, lying near 
the centre of the Bundaleer run, and giving rise to the Middle Range and Never Never 
creeks^ 

MIDSLKTOlf (Oo, Mindmarth) is a small postal township in the electoral district 
of Encounter bay, hundred of Goolwa, and under the control of the Goolwa an^d 
port Elliott district council. It lies 4^ miles W. of Goolwa, on the line of tramway ^to 

SiTt Victor, and in a district partly agricultural and partly pastoral, the farmers 
viding their attention between wheat growing and sheep-farming. The nearest places 
are Goolwa, 4^ miles E.; and port Elliott, 2l miles W. The communication being l^ 
tramway thrice per day; and with Adelaide, 60 miles N.N.W. by coach from port 
Elliott, via Willunga, or from Goolwa, via Strathalbyn. Middleton has. a steani 
flour mill (Bowman's,) a store, a chapel, a public pound, and one hotel — the Middleton 
(Hargreaves's.) The surrounding country is flat, with a range of hills to the N., 
the soil is black and sandy, overlying a stratum of limestone. The population 
numbers about 200 persons. The resident magistrate is W, Bowman, Esq., J. P. 

MIISTZPT RUN (W. di8trict,)—See Chadina Run. 

ittK&ntARUN (W. district;) lease, No. 103; occupiers. Brown and Margarey; 
area, 26 square miles; grazing capacity, 2800 sheep, or 108 per square mile; Goyder's 
valuation, £45 16s. per annum deducting improvements valued at £346. This run lies 
at Sleaford bay, 12 miles S.W. of port Lincoln, and 420 miles by overland route from 
Adelaide. This run also comprises leases Nos. 752 and 758, an area of 128 square 
miles. On the entire block are 6200 sheep, and 26 head of cattle. 



35° 30' S. lat, 139° 3' E. long. {Co. Hindmarsh) is a postal township 

and telegraph station in the electoral district of mount Barker, hundred of Bremer, and 
under the control of the Bremer district council^ It is situated on the border of lake 
Alexandrina, and is the nearest port on the Murray waters to Adelaide, possessing 
every accommodation for the shipping which trades on these waters. The Angas 
creek flows into the lake about 2 miles N. of Milang, and Langhome creek, in the same 
direction, about 5 miles distant. The district is both a pastoral and an agricultural one» 
the former interest being largely represented by both sheep and cattle, although 
the latter interest is rapidly superseding it. The nearest mines are those of Strathalbyn 
and Callington, distant about 17 miles in a W. and N.W. direction respectively. Th& 
nearest townships are Clayton, 7 miles S.W.; Langhome creek, 10 miles N.; Hamburg, 
10 miles W.; and St^thalbyn, 12 miles W. The communication is by Rounsevell'a 
conveyance, and with Adelaide, 48 miles, by Rounsevell's mail coach, twice a week, or 
by the Milang and river Murray carrying company's drays once a week or to order. 
Milang has a post office, a telegraph office, a public pound, an aboriginal station, a 
volunteer rifle corps, a branch of the South Australian insurance company, and .1 
hotel—the Lake. The surrounding country is to the S. gently undulating, and to the 
K. flat, rising to the foot of the ranges. The surface of the country is lightly grassed, 
with occasional belts of scrub. It is mostly sandy, coral limestone, cropping out plentifully 
on the rises. From the nature of the subsoil of the low lands and the number of shdlii 



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Mil — Min] The South Amtralian OazettOr. 141 

acattered upon them, it appears eyident that those portions of the country have, at no 
Teiy distant period, emerged from the lake. The population numbers about 130 
persons. 

1KZU>&ES SPRING (Flinders district) is a spring of fresh water situated at the 
fix)t of mount Harvej, the S.E. extremity of Hanson's range. 

BnXiLB&OOK {Co. Adelaide) is a postal Tillage in the electoral district of 
Gumeracka, hundred of Para Wirra, and under the control of the central road board 
and the district council of Para Wirra. It is situated on the creek of the same name^ 
and on the main N.E. road from Adelaide to mount Pleasant. The district is both agricul- 
tural and pastoral, wheat is grown in small quantities, and- much of the land laid out 
in yineyards and fruit gardens, raspberries, gooseberries, and apples beins cuftiyated. 
Ck)nsiderable numbers of cattle are depastured in the hilly parts, and small quantities 
of gold, generally in quartz, haye been found in the beds of some of the creeks. 
Hiereis a large quantity of iron ore of a high per centage in the neighbourhood, and 
in some of the hills lodes of copper haye been discoyered, but not worked. The nearest 
place is Philipstown, \\ miles distant N.E., the communication being by Rounseyell's 
daily mail conyeyance. The Chain of Ponds creek is crossed by the main road, at a 
distance of about a mile from Millbrook, by a pretty bridge. With Adelaide, 18 duIm 
8. W., the communication is by Rounsey ell's daily mail coach. Millbrook has a post 
office, a store, a fiye-storey steam flour mill (Cornish and Barclay's) and 1 hotel— the 
Millbrook. The surrounding country is eleyated and mountainous, and in some places 
exceedingly rugged, there being abundance of dense scrub. The formation is ferru- 
ginous sandstone, with slate and quartz. The population numbers about 150 persons, 
there being 21 dwelling-houses in the yillage. 

1KXLLBB.OOK CREEK (Oo. Adelaide) is the name of a tributary of the Torren's 
riyer, rising in the main range, aboye Millbrook, and running N. and S. in a yery 
tortuous course. It flows about 6 months in the year. 

IPL^DII: CREEK (Flinders district N.) is a stream flowing into lake Eyre on its 
S.W.side. 

BIPLHIS (Co. Stanley) is a central hundred of the county, containing about two- 
thirds of its area of purchased land, the remainder being taken up for pastoral purposes. 

MTTiHSR (Co. Gawler) is a proclaimed township on the N. bank of the Gawler 
riyer, lying in the hundred of Port Gawler, about 2 miles N.E. of the township of 
Port Gawler. 

B|SX.l(tS SPRINGS, 28° 20' S. lat., 136° 2' E. long. (Flinders distric^in the name 
giy^i to a cluster of fresh water springs lying to the N.E. of the N.W. end of the 
Denison range. They were found by Stuart in 1859. 

mLUIWA (Co. Adelaide) is a small yillage lying on Lefeyre's peninsula, oppo- 
site port Adelaide, and being a residential suburb of that place. The flagstaff fuid 
semaphore lie near this place, and there is a public pound in the yillage. 

amrCHZM'S WELLS. See Stibling N. 

BKXNE CREEK (Flinders district TT.) is a small creek flowing into the W. side of 
Spencer's gulf, at Tumby bay. It runs for the greater part of the year, and its waters 
are generally brackish. 

mZirGBOOL RUN (S.E. district;) lease, No. 208 ; occupier, J. Meredith; area, 
35 square miles (actual area, 36 square miles;) grazing capability, 7500 sheep, or 194 
per square mile; Goyder's yaluation, £239 per annum, deducting improyements. This 
run lies 270 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 30 miles N.N.E. of Macdonnell bay. On 
this and the MuUel run, and on purchased land in the hundred of Gambler are 12,000 
sheep, 450 head of cattle, and a few horses. 

1CZNTAB.0 (Co. Stanley) is a postal township in the electoral district of Sti^nley, 
a^d hundred of upper Wakefield, and under the control of the upper Wakefield district 
council. It lies 1 mile N. of the Wakefield riyer, in an agricultural district growing 
considerable quantities of wheat, and haying one flour mill. The nearest places are 
Wateryale, 6 mUes; Leasingham, 6 miles; and Auburn, 9 miles distant, the communi- 
cation being by horse or dray, and the mail being conyeyed on horseback to Leasingham. 
With Adelaide, 89^ miles, the communication is by horse or priyate conyeyance to 
L^isingham or Wateryale, thence by Rounsey ell's mail coach to Kapunda, and thence 
by rail. Mintaro has a post and money order office, a public pound, a Foresters' court 



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142 tL SoiUh Auatraitan Gazetteer. [MlR — MoB 

1^ branch of the South Australfan insorance compaDy, and 2 hotels—the Mintaro and 
the Devonshire. The surrounding country is elerated. I'he population numbers about 
350 persons, including the neighbouring farmers. 

KZ&AOE CREEK {Plindera distri^) is the name given, in 1857, by Goyder, the 
discoverer, to a small stream flowing in an N. directign into lake Blanche, then sup- 
posed to be a part of Lake Torrens. 

KZ&AMB LAGOON (Flinders district) is the name of a small waterhole lying 
i» Swindell's country to the W. of lake Torrens^ and fed by a good creek. The countsy 
t» the S.B. oonusts of a stony plain. 

HttMBXT, lifOUNT (Co,Eyrt,) is a volcanic hill lying near the towiishi]! eif 
KQrneton. 

i(Z8Sl£S8Tf CAPE (Flinders district^ Wl) is the name of acapeformihg thetf, 
point of the peninsula, which is the S. head of Smoky bay. It lies K of point Brown » 
and has never been minutely examined, but is believed to be dang^us. 

mrCSlAi (^0. Adelaide) is a postal townriiip in the hundred of Adelaide 
electoral district of the Sturt, and under the control of the Miteham district ooundL 
It is situated on the Brownhill Creek, in' the bed of which small quantities of water- 
worn gold have been found, no diggings, however, being carried on there. Thid 
district is partly pastoral, but chiefly agricultural, the principid produce being wheat, 
flmit, and vegetables. The nearest places are Glenosmond, on tSie main' S;E. ready 2 
miler E. from Miteham^ W. Miteham, on an adjoining^ section, in a S.W. direction ; 
lower Miteham, 1 mile distant W., adjoining which are Clapham and Springfoank; and 
Unley, 3 miles distant, on the Adelaide road. There is communication by omnibus 
at nearly every hour in the day, through lower Miteham and Unley, with Adelaide, 
which lies 4^ miles distant. Miteham lies within the suburban postal district, and is a 
fftvourite place of residence with merchants and others having business in the metro- 
polis: It is considered to be one of the most h^lthy and pleasant townships in the 
neighbourhood of Adelaide, overlooking the plains, and a great extent of country td 
ttie Nl and N.W., and'the sea to the W.,and being highly recommended by medical men 
t» a place of reridence for invalids, or a» a retreat from the summer heat of the tovm. 
The surrounding country is exceedingly picturesque, the township lying immediately 
nnder the N. and W. slopes of the mount Lofty range, whilst the plains from the foot 
of the range stretch away to thie sea. The resident magistrates are W. Townsend; 
E. J. Spence, W. Morsan, J. W. Lewis, and G. Hall, Esqs., and the Hon. A. BIyth. 
lliere are large quantities of granite in the neighbourhood used extensively for road 
metalling. Magneslan limestone (dolomite) is also found in considerable quantities. 
Copper, lead, and silver have also been found, but not in silflicient abundance to pay for 
eontinued working. The geological formation is of hard, grey, micaceous flne^grained 
flagstones, aliBO blue and brown slaty beds, and hard dark blue rock, with small nests' of 
crystallized carbonate of lime, dipping S. 10° to 15°, E. about 10^ There is also a very 
hiurd siliceous rock used for building purposes. In a quarry near Miteham this 
fbrmation appears to underlie the slates, and has all the appearance of a massive dyke 
of quartz rock. 

MZTCHAM (Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of the 
Sturt. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being 1^. B. T. Burton, 
df B^by, Sturt, and 4 councillors. Miteham was the flrst district council proclaimed 
in the colony. The receipts and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as 
follow:— Assessment, £26,087— rate Is. in the pound; rates collected, £1246 48. 4d.; 
totfid receipts, £3208 48. Id.; office expenses and salaries, £314 14s. 2d.; expended on 
public works, £2313 2s. 5d. The population numbers 3814 persons; the area is 42 
square miles, or 26,880 acres; land under cultivation, 6204 acres; and number of 
dwelling-houses, 796. 

BIZTCB£LIU BXJTS (N. district;) lease, 113; occupier, J. Williams; area, 68] 
square miles ;. grazing capability, 11,200 sheep, or 165 per square mile; old rental and' 
assessment, £113 6s. 8d.; Goyder's valuation, £680 per annum, deducting improve- 
ments valued at £700. This station lies between Lock's hill and Black rock, 70 miles 
from port Augusta, and 160 from Adelaide. It consists of rough spurs and hills, and 
fidrly grassed plain, and is watered by the Yadna and Illapinipa cre^krand 9 wells. 

IWWlBaaiAi GAIPE (Fiindere district) is a spot on the W. coast of Denial bay^ 
where good water can be obtained by digging in the sand-hills. It lies on the track of 

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Mob — Mow] The South AvstrdUan Cfazetteer. 143 

Syr^B terrible jmaney from port Linc(^ to Western Attstralia its 1940. the sur- 
roundingr coantry n an arid and icrubbj desert, but much of the back country it taken 
up for pastoral purposes. 

BKOB&OMrO {€h. I^uri) is an E. hundred of the county, lying' on the Tf. bank 
of the Murray river, below Mannum, and crossed by the road from mount Barker to 
lliompson's crossing. It consists almost exclusively of pastoral country, and lies in the 
belt of mallee brush known as the Iffurray scrub. The area of this hundred is 74^40 
acres, of which only 30 acres are under cultiration. The population numbers 50 
persons. 

KOOHATOOIIA MINE {N, dittriet) lies about 2 miles K. fh>m Angipena, but 
has not been worked fbr some years, aitbough the ground looks fkrouraMe for mining. 

KO^RSJlL TOWER {If. district) is the name given to a peak of the main rangjer 
lying at the head of Boolcoonda creek, and to the £. of port Augusta. It it a trigono- 
metrical station, and a prominent hmdmaik lor the surrounding pastoral country. 

KOVBVST (Co, Adelaide) is a postal village in the electoral district of Yatala, 
hoodred of Yatala, and under the control of the district council of Tea-tree gully. 
It is situated on the Dry creek, the river Tonrens fliowing about 2 miles to the S^., att# 
is4n the midst of an agricultural country where wheat and hay are extensively grown. 
The nearest places are Hope valley, 2 miles S.E. i Tea-tree gully, 3 miles £. ; and Gddeti^ 
grove, 4 miles N.E. With Adelaide, 9 miles S.W., the communication is by daily eoadL 
Modbury has a post office and 1 hotel— -the Modbury. The resident magistrate is 
Hl & Sirily,£sc[., J.F. The surrounding country is undulating, the mount Lofty rangea 
]^4nf 3 milea to the S., and ^te Para plains extending to the W. to the shores of the 
gulf of St. Vincent. The formation is principally limestone. The population, including 
Tea-tree gully and Golden grove, numbers about 1000 persens. 

MOLDOBXY STATION (N.S. dit^riet/) lease, No. 654; is part of the Outaalpa 
run — ^which see. 

MOLOIIG or Mount Maointthe, BUN (S.E, district;) lease, No; 183; occupiers 
B. R. and E. J. Leake; area, 24 SG[uare miles (correct area» 23 square miles;) grazing, 
capacity, 3500 sheep, or 152 per square mile; Goy dor's valuation, £217 per annun^ 
deducting improvements valued at £ 1 5. There are 50,000 sheep, indudiog; lambsy abouft 
300 horses, and 6000 cattle on this run, and about 51,000 acres of purchased land and 
land in the hundreds of Grey, Hindmarsh, and Toung. This run lies 255 miles S.S.E. 
of Adelaide, and 35 miles N. by W. from Macdonnell bay, where the wool is shipped. 
The stock is watered from wella and waterholes. The head staUen of this run ir known 
as G'lencoe, and lies near the mount Btirr post office. 

BKONAJbTO (,Co» Addaide) is a vineyard lying on the hills' above MitCham, and 
being the property of R. B. Andrews, Esq. It lies near the " Devil's elbow," and< within 
the township of Belair overlooking Ck>romandel valley, and due E. of the Government 
fiurm. The wine trade in ^is vineyard is considered excellent, and is made, the wlilte 
from Gouais and Yerdeilho, and the red from Black Portugal, Garignan, and Mataro. 

n01iAin9 (^^- Slurt^is a central hundred of the county consisting almost 
eaKslusirely of pastorid cduntiy, and lying^ in the belt of mallee brush, known as the 
Mnm^ scrub. 

MCWBITbLA {Co, Orey) is one of the N. hundreds of the county. It lies in the 
N Ji.^ and is but little taken up for agriculture. The old road from Adelaide to W&\* 
bourne via the Glenelg river, passes through this hundred. 

MOHAUtLLA BUN {CcGrey;) lease^ N^^ 706 ; occupier, A. McLeod ; area, 9 
square miles; rental, £4 10&; assessmenty £11 per annum. The next post town is 
(SunbiOT town. 

MOnSTB&t MOUNT, 36^|ld^ S. lat., 140° 20'E. long. {Victoria district,) is a 
lofty detached hill on the road htmi' Wellington to Border town, lying in tlie N. W. of 
the Tattiara country, and about 80 miles S.E. of Welliogton. It is surrounded by 
pastoral country, and is a landmark to the neighbourhood. 

BCairSTat, mount, bun, (S.E, district;X lease, 843 ; occupiers, Walker, 
Btaikineand) Co. (manag^er, W. Cbok ;) area, 32 square miles. This run lies at mount 
Mbnster, in the ninety miles desert or Tattiara country, on the road from Wellington to- 
Border town, and 80 miler S.E. of Wellington. There is no surface water, the run being 
dependent en wells: • 

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• 



144 ^^ SoxUk Awtralian Cfazetteer, [Mon — Moo 



MONSTnb MOUNT, S. BUN, (<S.J7. dUtrict;) leases, No. 864 and 865$ occupier, 
J. Forrest; respectiye arpais, 10 fmd 10 miles; tot^ reatal, £10 pl|r aaa^m. Next 
post office, Border town. 

IBOaiSTSJt RUN (8,E. district;) leases, Not. 224 and 225; oociiDier, P. Kelly; 
area, 37 square niiles ; grazing capability, 4200 sheep (on the whole block are 8000 
theep, 30 horsey and 20 head of cattle?) Goyder*s yaluation, £182 per annum, deducting 
improvements valued at £140. This run lies at mount Monster, on the road from 
Wellington to Melbourne, via Border town, 145 miles S.E. by S. of Adelaide, and 85 
miles from Guichen bay. The head station is at Swede's flat. The Monster run also 
includes lease No. 574; area, 10 square miles. 

MOV^TIQII BUN £. No. 1 (8,E. dUtriet}) leases, Nos. 844, 849, ^d 850; 
occupier, E. Stark; respective areas, 18, 31, and 19 square miles. The next pojt office 
is Border town. 

MONBTlOt BUN £. No. 2 {8,E. distnc^;) leases, Nos. 797 and 829; occupier, 
James Foot; respective areas, 18 and 10 square miles. Next post office Border town. 

IBOaiSTEIt BUN N. {S.E, dittrict;) lease. No. 809; occupiers S. and C. Heriot; 
aroa, 22 square miles. Next post office Border town. 

BMNSTnt BUN N.B. (S.E. district;) lease, No. 887; occupier, the hon. J. Mor- 
phett; area, 126 square miles; rental, £63 per annum. This run lies N. by E. of mount 
Monster, the next post town being Border town. 

M0N8TZ£R BUN S.E. (S.E, district;) leases, Nos. 827 and 962; oocnpier, 
p. J. E. Hull; respective areas, 10 and 10 square miles. Next post office. Border 
town. 

MONSTSB. WELL (Victoria district) is a well on the road from Wellington to 
Border town, lying a little to the N.W. of mount Monster, and about 77 miles S.E. of 
Wellington, at the edge of the Tattiara country. 

KOKTAOVTB MINE (Co. Adelaide) is a copper mine, lying on a steep spur of 
the mount Lofty range, about 10 miles N.E. of Adelaide. Outcroppings of ore are 
seen near the surface, but the mine has been for some time abandoned. The Sixth- 
creek gold mining company have their claim near this place. 

MONTAOV (Co. Adelaide.) See D&v Cr«bk. 

MO<^LOOLOiO BUN (N. district.) See Oratunga Bun. 

MOOXiOOirilXNA LAKES (Flinders district) is the name given to a cluBter 
of saline lakes, lying to the S. of the Gawler ranges and stretching in a N.W. and S.E. 
direction, between mounts Wallaby and Sturt They are situated in a tract of country 
covered with dense mallee scrub. 

MOOir HILL (Co, J^indmarsh) is a small hill, lying in the scrubby ranges to 
the N. of the hundred of Encounter bay. 

MOONTA, 34"" 3' S. lat., 137° 35' E. long. (Co. Daly) is a postal copper mining 
toYosbip, in the electoral district of port Adelaide and hundred of wallaroo. • It is 
situated near a small bight on the E. side of Spencer's gulf, known as Moonta bay, and 
in an undulating country, the plains being crossed at intervals by hills of a sandy 
formation varying in height, but none of them worthy a more dignified name than 
hillocks. There are no running streams in the neighbourhood, but there is a remark- 
able spring about 12 miles S. of the township (see Tipara.) Fresh water is obtained 
by distilling salt water by means of stills, of which there are several of considerable 
magnitude. Tt^e surrounding district is a mining one, although pastoral pursuits are 
carried on to some extent, from Moonta in a S. direction about 120 miles, or to the end ot 
Yorkers peninsula, in the N.W. part of which it is situated. The runs are, for the most 
part, well grassed, the drawback throughout being the absence of creeks. Wells are 
sunk in various places for the supply of the stations, and the watering of cattle uid 
sheep. These wells vary in depth from a few feet near the coast, to 150 feet and 180 
feet farther inland, where the water is frequently brackish, that nearest the sea being 
best. The mining interest is largely represented, there being numerous copper mines* 
The most important is the Moonta mine, which employs about 1000 hands — men and* 
boys. Next in order are the Earkarilla and Yelta mines, each employing from 50 to 
60 men; whilst there are several smidler claims of considerable promise^ 8U0ha«. th» 

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Moo] Tke South Australian Gazetteer. 145 

Euko, Poona, Wheal Haghes, Wilkawat, Wheal James, N. Yelta, Farramatta, and 
Cballa, employing from 5 to 15 men each. Some of these mines have copper, others 
are simply prospecting; hut all are more or less valuable. The nearest places are 
Kadina, 11 miles N.W., and Wallaroo, 12 miles N. With the former place the direct 
communication is by mail trap, which starts at night (about 10 o'clock.) A new line of 
road has been surreyed, but is not yet cleared. With the latter place there is com- 
munication thrice daily by the tramway from Moonta to Wallaroo and Kadina, by means 
of which both passengers and goods are conveyed. With Adelai<le, 94 miles S.E., the 
communication is by tramway or car to Kadina^ thence to port Wakefield by mail car, 
and ^ence by steamer or saiUng vessel. The weekly steamers between Wallaroo and 
Adelaide also call at Moonta bay for passengers and cargo; this latter route being 
generally used for goods, and frequently by commercial and other travellers, who thus 
reach the largest centre of population first. So soon as a township is laid out and sold, 
on the beach, and a jetty extended to deep water, the advantage of Moonta bay as a 
shipping port will be more adequately realised than (in the absence of these desiderata) 
it is at present. Moonta possesses a flourishing mechanics' institute, with a serviceable 
circulating library and reading-room, in which the colonial and intercolonial and English 
papers may be read. Lectures are given monthly in this institute, and are well 
attended. The institute has over 100 members. There is a mutual improvement 
flJMociation affiliated, holding weekly meetings for debate, the reading of essays, elocu- 
tion, &c.; the number of members being about 40. The township has 5 hotels — the 
Prince of Wales, Royal, Globe, Moonta, and Miners' Arras; also a tramway station 
where passengers and goods are booked for Wallaroo and Kadina, a post and money 
order office, telegraph station, court house, police station, Oddfellows' lodge (M.U.,) 
Foresters^ court, and branches of the South Australian and National banks, and the 
South Australian insurance companies. There is also a volunteer rifle corps in the 
township. The places of worship in the town are in connection with the Church of 
England, Bible Christian and Baptist persuasions, and on the mines with the Wes- 
ley an s, the Bible Christians and the Primitive Methodists, a Baptist chapel being 
contemplated but not yet commenced. The resident magistrate is J. Meredith, Esq., J.P. 
The soil is loose and sandy, and abundance of limestone is found in nodules and blocks 
on the surface. The whole of this part of Yorke's peninsula is moderately grassed in 
large patches of pasture land, surrounded by mallee scrub. The population of the 
township and Moonta mines, with smaller mines, numbers about .5000 persons. 

The Moonta mines are situated in the N, part of Yorke's peninsula, in the hundred 
of Wallaroo, and to the S. of the Wallaroo and Kadina mines. They are the great 
rivals of the Burra Burra mines, and are described as follows by Mr. Austin, in his work 
on the mines of South Australia : — ^ There are 4 distinct lodes in these mines, all 
nearly parallel, within a space of half-a-mile, and running about N. and S. The first 
discovery of ore here ^as made about 2 years ago (1861), when a quantity of small 
stones of green carbonate was found upon the surface. Some holes were sunk, and a 
lode of fine ore cut at a small depth. This lode was named after one of the proprietors 
Taylor's lode. Four shafts have since been sunk on it, and named after proprietors ; 
Elder's, the deepest, is now 30 fathoms, and Smith's, Waterhouse's. and Taylor's, 20 
fathoms each. A house for an engine of 60-inch cylinder is now in course of erection here 
for the purpose of pumping the mine. In the drives from Smith's shaft, a fine lode of 
yellow ore, from 18 inches to 2 feet wide, is being worked at the 20-fathom level. The 
lode is 4i feet wide in Elder's shaft ; in which shaft, at the 10-fathom level, a splendid 
Iqde of rich black ore, largely mixed with malleable copper, has yielded great quantities 
of ore ; at one time it was being hauled up at the rate of 20 tons a day. From the 
drives from Taylor's shaft a quantity of rich ore has been raised, consisting of black 
and grey sulphurets, red oxide, and malleable copper. The drives on the lode extend 
altogether for a length of about 350 fathoms at the lO-fathom levels, and for 250 fathoms 
at a depth of 20. Two other lodes, Young's and Macdonnell's— the latter named after 
our late Governor — have produced ore of a higher percentage than that from other parts 
of these mines ; it is grey sulphuret, some of which has given, on assay, 66 per cent, of 
fine copper, and the average of the lodes is estimated at nearly 60 per cent. Both lodes 
have been driven on for a considerable distance at the lO-fathom levels. Young's being 
6 feet wide, and Macdonnell's varying from 6 inches to 12 feet, but averaging a less 
width than Young's. At Buchan's shaft, a large deposit of nnalleable copper and rich 
black ore was met with, and some beautiful specimens of native dendritic and foliated 
copper were found both here and on Taflor*s lode. Buchan's shaft has been lately 
iimk to 20 fitthoms, and a fine lode of black and yellow ore cut. The buildings on this 



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t 

146 The South AuUralian GazeUeer. [Moo 

iBioe are large and aab8tantial,4iod besides offices, stables, &c., comprise a complete and 
well-fornished assay office, under the management of Captain R. H. Hancock, a scien- 
tific gentleman who came to this colony a few years since to superintend the Wheal 
EUen mine. The wonderful richness of these mines will be seen from the following 
approximate return of ore raised during 20 months, since the commencement of the 
workings, viz., 8,000 tons of ore, averaging nearly 25 per cent, of pure copper ; and 
which have been raised at such a comparatively small cost as to enable 2 dividends of 
£10 per share each (together £64,000) to be declared on 1st October last, and 25th 
February this year. The miners say the Moonta will be a mine when the Burra is 
forgotten — because she has lodes and the Burra has none ; but this remains to be pronred. 
As long as one has plenty of gold it matters little whether it be in the shape of long 
bars or heaps of sovereigns. About August or September last year, when a large 
quantity of ore was required at port Wallaroo for shipment — a distance of about 10 miles 
from the Moonta— -1700 tons of ore were delivered in 9 days I by means of drays. The 
number of hands employed on these mines is nearly 300 ; but, until the last few months, 
not nearly so many were engaged. Ample provision is made for a supply of water, by 
means of large tanks holding many thousand gallons, collected from galvanized iron 
roofs." Since the date of that report, 1863, the works at the Moonta mines have been 
carried on with spirit, and the progress of the mines has been highly satisfiwjtory ; The 
fifth annual report of the directors of this mine to the shareholders, dated 28th Sep- 
tember, 1866, is appended, as showing the present state of operations upon it. ^^^ 

Report of (he Directors of the Moonta Mining Company to the Shareholders aJt the Fifffi 

Annual General Meeting, held at the Company's office, Adelaide, on Friday, 28th 

September, 1866. 

The directors beg to place before the shareholders their usual report with subjoined 
accounts of the mine for the past 6 months. The yield of ore during that period 
amounts to 1 1,066 tons, of an average produce of 20| per cent. The cost of production 
£66,900, or £6 Os. lOd. per ton; and the value estimated at £121,726, or £11 per 
ton, leaves a profit of £54 826, or £4 19s. 2d. per ton. From the above it will be 
seen that a reduction has been efiected in the cost of production of nearly 30s. per 
ton, as compared with the previous half-year. Considering the low price of copper, 
and the realisation of so much produce in a falling market, it will not surprise the 
shareholders to learn that the depreciation in value has materially diminished the 
profits during the past 6 months. The accompanying statements show that 3 
dividends of £5 each have been paid during the half-year, and in plant upwards of 
£8000 has been added to the value of the company's property at the mines. An 
improved system of dressing the low percentage ores has been introduced upon the 
mine, from which considerable benefit is expected to accrue. The railway between 
Moonta and Wallaroo is now in full operation, and has pro vedf» very advantageous to 
this company. 

Captsun Hancock's report upon the progress of the works and general state of the 
i^ine i» as follows:— 

"Moonta Mine, September 18, 1866. 
" I have the pleasure to forward to you the following report on the mines for the 
bidf-yearly meeting:— 

" Milne's Shaft. — The east lode at the 20-fathoms level has been laid open for a con- 
siderable distance, and is now being worked by tributers. A new whim-shaft has been 
sunk to the 20-fathoms level on the west lode, and the hoEse-whim which was at 
Smith's shaft has been erected here, which will enable us to push the sinking of this 
Shalt to the SO-fathoms leveL 

** Smith's Shaft.— The lode in the 40-fathoms level south is 2\ feet wide, yieldinjf 
alKHit 4 tons of ore per fathom. The lode in the shaft now being sunk below the 
40-fathom8 level is about 1 foot wide, yielding about 3 tons of peacock ore per fathom. 
Several tribute pitches are being worked in the back of the 40 and shallower levels. 
the stuff" from this shaft being now drawn by steam power, the further use of the 
horse-whim has been remlered unnecessary. 

"Hughes's Shaft. - The large pumping engine continues to w*rk satisfectorily, the 
pitwork is in good order, and we are erecting the balance bob. This machinery, with 
the pitwork now on hand, will be sufficient for draining this part of the mine fi)r some 
time to come. The ground in the shaft is extremely hard, but we are prosecuting the 
tmking with all possible despatch. « 

<* £u>bk's Shaft is now being sunk below the 55-&thoms level; the lode if all the 

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Moo] The South AustraUan Gazetteer. 147- 

width of the shaft, turniag oat good yellow and peacock ores. The west lode at the 
55-fathoms level north is yielding 5 tons of ore per fathom; the lode in the south drive 
it 34 feet wide, turning out some good yellow ore^ the east lode at the same level north 
is 2 feet wide, yielding 4 tons of ore per fathom; at the south drive the lode is 2^ feet 
wide, producing 6 tons of ore per fothom. There is a large quantity of good orey 
ground now laid open between this and the upper levels. In each of the winzes which 
are beiag sunk below the 40-fathoms level, the lode is very productive. In the various 
tribute pitches and stopes in the backs of the 40 and shallower levels, the lode is yield- ' 
ing sa^^actory qwrntities of ore. The engine which we some time ago converted into 
a steam whim continues to do its work in a very satisfactory manner. 

"Watbrhousb Sbapt.— Now sinking below the 40-fathoms level. The lode is 
about 1^ feet wide of good yellow ore; the 40-fathom8 level south is communicated with 
Elder's workings; the lode in the north drive, although very hard, is yielding 5 tons of 
ore per fathom; the lode in the various backs of the upper levels is turning out average 
quantities of ore. We have here also dispensed with the horse whim, and are hauling 
the stuff with Elder's engine. 

«* Taylor's Shapt is now being sunk below the 40-fkthoms level We cannot state 
the size of the lode, as we are not carr3ring all of it in the shaft, in consequence of its 
having less underlay than heretofore. The 40-fathom8 level has been driven south 
through a good course of hard purple ore. The lode averages 3 feet in width, and is 
yielding 6 tons of rich ore per fathom. The various stopes and tribute pitches in the 
backs of the different levels are turning out good purple and yellow ores. Between 
this and Stirling's shaft preparations are being made for the erection of the new 
winding engine and crusher. 

" Stirling's Shaft.— We have just commenced to sink this shaft below the 
40^&thoms level. The lode in the various tribute pitches and stopes here is turning 
out ftom 3 to 6 tons of ore per fathom. Large quantities of ore are being raised from 
between this shaft and Taylor's workings. 

" Warmington's Shaft. — The lode at the 40-fiithoms level N. is 5 feet wide, 
yielding 7 tons of yellow ore per fathom; but being of a very hard nature, can be but 
slowly wrought. The lode in the 40-lathoms level south is yielding 3 tons of ore per 
&thom. At the stopes in the back of the 30-fathoms level the lode varies from 1 te 
3 feet wide, consisting chiefly of hard yellow ore. 

<< Stugket's South Shaft has been sunk about '5 fathoms below the 30-&thom8 
level. The lode is 3 feet wide, yielding 5 tons of ore per fathom. There is a large 
extent of good orey ground standing between this and Warmington's shaft. The various 
tribute pitches are very productive. 

** M*Coull's Shaft. — We have recently resumed operations here by driving the 
20-fathoms level N. ; the lode, which was unproductive, has improved, being IJ feet wide> 
yielding a little rich grey and yellow ore. 

*♦ Green's Shaft. — A large extent of rich orey ground is now being laid open at 
this part of the mines. The lode at the bottom of the shaft is yielding 4 tons of rich 
grey, black, and peacock ores per fisithom. The tribute pitches and stopes are turning 
out their usual quantities of good ores. The steam-engine continues to do its work 
efficiently. 

« Bower's Shaft.— The lode at the 32-fathoms levd N, is U feet wide, of a very 
haErd character, turning out 3 tons of ore per fathom. In the S. drive it is yielding 
about 4 tons per fathom. In the shaft which is being sunk below the 32-£Bithoms levelj 
the lode is 1^ feet wide, of good yellow ore. 

<< Simpson's Shaft has jast been completed to the 32-fathoms level through a good 
course of yellow ore, and drives have been commenced both N. and S. The stopes and 
tribute pitches are being profitably worked. 

'* Dominic's Shaft.— The lode at the 42-&thoms level south is 1 foot wide. In the 
tiepee at the back of this level it varies from I to 2^ feet in width, and is yielding, ob 
file average, 4 tons of ore per fathom . 

** Magdonnbll's Shaft.— The lode has improved in the back of the 32-&thoms level; 
it is tm'ning out good yellow ore coated black. We shall immediately commence te sink 
the shaft to the 45-fathoms level. The various tribute pitches are producing some ri(A> 
black and grey ores. 

"Young Shaft.— We are here driving the lO-fathoms level south in the directioil 
of Green's workings, with the prospect of making discoveries. The other works 
aiee confined to tribute operations. 

^'BuosMi's SKAS^.-^Ffeparatloiif an bebig siade to ifaik tills shaft bek)w Ite 



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148 The South Amtralian Gazetteer. [Moo 

ao-fathoms lerel. A small quantity of good ore is being raised from tke back of the 
90-&thom8 lerel. 

** Hancock's Shaet. — Tiie lode here varies from 1 foot to 2 feet in width, and is 
turning out some good ore, which is being raised chiefly by tributers. 

''Garolinb Shaft. — A small quantity of green chloride is being raised from this 
shaft. 

** Blanche Shaft. —By extending the workings in depth some rich black ore has 
keen struck, and profitable ground is now being opened up. 

<' At the surface the engineering and other mechanical departments are in efficient 
working order. We have made additions to our dressing machines, which were con- 
•tructed on a new principle. They are valuable appliances for making the low class 
ores merchantable. 

** In conclusion, I beg to say the prospects of the mine throughout were never in 
a more satisfactory state than at present. 

"The directors, with the view of eflecting fresh discoveries and stimulating increased 
production of ore, lately authorised Captain Hancock to resume operations at some of 
the suspended workings, and the result will be seen from his report in reference to 
Young's, Buchan's, Blanche, and Caroline shafts to be encouraging. Notwithstanding 
the satisfactory state of the balance-sheet, the directors pannot recommend the 
declaration of a dividend in the present state of the copper and money markets. Should 
the next accounts from England indicate an improvement in the value of copper, no 
time will be lost in dividing the available assets amongst the shareholders. The 
company's establishment now consists of 14 officers, 546 miners, 61 mechanics, 8 
stablemen, 165 labourers, 158 boys at the mine, and 2 officers in Adelaide, making in all 
954. The weekly wages paid are as follows :— miners, 38s. to 40s.; mech-anics, 40s. to 
75s.; labourers, 33s. to 35s.; and boys, 6s. to 27s. Four vacancies in the direction, 
caused by the retirement of Messrs. Stuckey, Hughes, Green, and Elder, will have to 
be filled up. These gentlemen are eligible and offer themselves for re-election. Two 
auditors require to be elected for the ensuing year, and the remuneration to the 
directors, and to Messrs. Giles and Wicksteed, for their past services, has also to be 
fixed by the meeting. — Thomas Eldee, Chairman. Adelaide, 20th September, 1866." 

Return showing the quantity of ore raised from the Moonta mines and shipped and smelted 

during the half year ending 2Qth September, 1866. 

•* Total quantity of ore on hand 20th March, 1866, (21 cwt. to the ton,) 3012 tons 
11 cwt.; do. raised during the half-year, 11,066 tons 13 cwts. 3 qrs.; total, 14,079 tons 
3 cwt 3 qrs. Total quantity of ore delivered to Wallaroo smelting works, (21 cwt 
to the ton,) 4514 tons 5 cwt.; do. do. shipped to England, 6670 tons 19 cwt. 3 qrs.; do. 
do. on hand, 2894 tons; total, 14,079 tons 3 cwt. 3 qrs. Thomas Elder, chairman; 
T. F. M*Coull, secretary. Adelaide, 20th September, 1866." 

Return showing the quantity of copper received and disposed of during the half-year ending 

20th September, 1866. 

" Total copper received from the Wallaroo smelting works, 364 tons 2 cwt. qrs. 
2 lbs. Copper sold in the province, 75 tons; do. shipped to England, 114 tons 2 cwt. 
qrs. 2 lbs.; do. shipped to India, 175 tons; total, 364 tons 2 cwt. qrs. 2 lbs. 
Thomas Elder, chairman; T. F. M'CouU, secretary. Adelaide, 20th September, 1866." 

The proprietors of this mine exhibited, at the Melbourne exhibition of 1866, the 
following 5 specimens of copper ore: — ^Yellow ore coated black, 85 per cent; purple ore, 
60 per cent; purple ore, 60 per cent; yellow ore, 30 per cent; yellow and purple ore, 
and malleable oxychloride, 47 per cent; malleable and ruby copper. 

MOO&E FARM {Co. Adelaide) is a vineyard lying on the road from Adelaide to 
the Heedbeds, and is the property of A. H. Davis, Esq. It is one of the oldest vineyards 
in the colony, having been planted about 24 years. It lies on the banks of the Torrens 
river, and has an extent of 25 acres. The grapes are chiefly Muscat, Crystal, Shiraz, 
Verdeilho, Frontignac, and Gouais. The wines are the Moore farm red, and the Moore 
fturm white. Samples of the Shu*az vintages of 1858, 1859, aujd 1860, and of the 
Verdeilho of 1858, were selected by the wine committee for transmission to the 
•xhibition of all nations. 

MOO&OO MINE {Flinders district ^.) is a copper mine lying to the W. of Prism 
hill, and to the N. of mount Chambers. It is not worked at present. 

M00B.00B.00 (Co. Light) in a S.E. hundred of the county, lying to the S. of 
the N. Para river, and consisting for the most part of purchas^ land, chiefly agri- 



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Moo— Mob] The South Australian Gazetteer. 149 

cultural, and taken up by an indostrious race of farmers who grow wheat and other 
produce in large quantities. The townships of Angaston and Tanunda lie in this 
hundred. The resident magistrate is W. Jacob, Esq., J. P. 

MOO&OWSE RUN (Yorkers peninsula;) lease, No, 79; occupier, W. Fowler; 
area, 42 sqnare miles; grazing capability, 8000 sheep, or 190 per square mile; Goyder's 
yaluation, £184 16s. per annum, deducting improvements valued at ^£2076. The stock 
is watered from shallow wells, and the run extends from Sturt bay on the S., to 
Hardwicke bay on the N.W. The wool is shipped at the former place, 60 miles W.S.W, 
of Port Adelaide as the crow flies. The head station is 10 miles N, by W. of Sturt 
bay, and 170 miles overland from Adelaide, via Eadina. On this and other runs held 
by the same lessee, at cape Spencer and Green's plains, are 15,000 sheep, 4000 lambs, 
100 horses, and 1000 cattle. There is an aboriginal depot at this station. 

MOO&UNDEE (Co. Albert) is an agricultural settlement and aboriginal station 
on the E. bank of the Murray river, near Blanchetown — which see. There is a public 
pound at this place. 

MOPPA HILL (Cb. Light) is a small agricultural settlement, lying 3 miles N.S, 
of Greenock. 

KORA&B DE GALLES, CAFE (Co. Oardwett,) is a cape on the S.E. coasty 
lying opposite the Coorong crossing. The Flinders Black rocks lie off this cape. 

IKO&AMB&O RUN {S.E. district;) lease. No. 159 ; occupier, Mary Oliver; area» 
103 square miles ; grazing capacity, 24,000 sheep, or 233 per square mile ; Goyder's 
valuation, £1428 16s. per annum, deducting improvements, valued at £2356. This run 
lies 200 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 62 miles N.E. by E. of Guichen bay, where the 
wool is shipped. This run also includes leases, Nos. 539 and 719, having areas of 20 
and 8 miles respectively. 

MOBAMBBA RUN, S. W. {S.E, district;) lease, No. 990; occupier, Neil Orr; area, 
6 square miles. Next post town, Kingston. 

MO&AMB&A W. STATION {S.E. district;) lease, No. 1096; occupier uncertain; 
area, 28 square miles. This station joins Morambra on the W. 

KO&ENZA CREEK (N. district) is a small creek flowing in the pastoral country 
about 35 miles from Tudanamutana. 

IKORIALTA (Go. Adelaide) is a vineyard, the property and residence of the 
hon. Jno. Baker. It lies at the head of the Morialta creek, in the midst of the hills 
overlooking the Adelaide plains. The wines made from this vineyard have attained 
considerable celebrity. There is a splendid orchard on the property, an olive plantation, 
and an orchard and vineyard intermixed. 

IKORZALTA CREEK {Co. Adelaide,) is a fine creek, rising in the mount Lofty 
ranges, and flowing through the estate of Morialta and fine agricultural country into 
the Torrents river in the Adelaide plains. There is a picturesque waterfall at the 
end of this creek. 

MO&VBETT {Co. Albert) is the S.W. hundred of the county, lying on the E. 
bank of the Murray river, above Chucka bend. It is mostly taken up for pastoral 
purposes. 

HKOBPfiOiTT'S HILL {Co. Hindmarsh) is a peak nearly detached, and lying in 
thehuudred of Kondoparinga, in a rugged scrubby district, about 5 miles E. of mount 
Magnificent, and 8 miles S.W. of Strathalbyn. 

MO&PBETT VALE (Co, Adelaide) is a postal township in the hunted and 
electoral district of Noarlunga, and under the control of the district council of fforplietl 
vale. It is eituated in a fertile valley on the Great South road, on a creek generally known 
as Anderson's creek, from a gentleman of that name through whose ground it flows;. 
To the E. lies a range of hills which separate the Morphett vale and Clarendon districts. 
In the township is a small flour mill, but operations have ceased there for some years 
past. The district is an agricultural one, wheat being extensively grown, and there 
being also many well cultivated vineyards. The Worthing copper mines lie about S 
miles N.W., but nothing is at present being done there. The country generally, how- 
ever, bears strong mineral indications, and will most probably at some period be found 
worth the working. The nearest places are Reynella, 2 miles N.; and Hackhnm, 2 miles 
S;E. With these places, as with Adelaide, 15^ miles distant N., the communication it 
by Rounsevell's mail coaches and omnibuses. Morphett Vale has I hotel— the £mu; 



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150 The South Australian GazeUeer. [Mob — MoY 

it is has also a mechanics' institute, 2 government schools (duly licensed by the 
tsentral board of education and well attended,) a Foresters' court, a Presbyterian (John 
Knox's,) Baptist (union chapel,) and Roman Catholic (St. Mary's) churches, all under 
the charge of resident ministers. The ruins of an edifice, formerly a church <^ Scot- 
. land, are still standing, and give an older appearance to the township than is seen in 
most places in the colony. There is a local court (with the usual number of magistrates 
. in attendance, possessing all the magisterial powers invested in such institutions,) a 
police court, a public pound, a post and money order office, several stores, workshops, 
&c. There are also a large number of neat residences, many of which have fine vine- 
yards attached, from which wine of excellent quality is produced, some being favour- 
ably known as being really sound and valuable wine There are also several orangeries, 
to which considerable attention has been paid of late years, with a most gratifying 
result The surrounding country is elevated, the formation being generally limestone 
and sandstone. The population of the township and surrounding ^strict numbers 930 
persons. 

MOBPBSTT VALE {Co, Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Noarlunga. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. Bobt. Bain, 
and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were 
as follow: — Assessment, £4970 10s. — rate Is. in the pound; rates collected, £249 14s ; 
total receipts, £627 98. 2d.; office expenses and salaries, £56 38 6d; expended on public 
works, £552 18s. 2d. The population numbers 930 persons; the area is 23 square 
miles, or 14,720 acres; land under cultivation, 7124 acres; and number of dwelling- 
houses, 175. 

MOBJtISj MOUNT (i\r. district^) is a peak of the main range, and a trigonome- 
trical station, lying on the W. side the North road, opposite Angipena. The mount Coffin 
copper mine lies to the N.W. of this hill. 

IKO&BISOV POINT (Kangaroo island) is a bold rocky headland in Nepean 
bay, in the N.E. end of the island, forming the E. horn of Western cove. There are a 
few straggling rocks in deep water off the point. 

MORTTANVA CREEK (N. district) is a small creek flowing from the N.W. 
end of Elder's range into lake Torrens, and crossing the road from port Augusta to the 
north. 

MOSQUITO CREEK (C6,Robe) is a drainage creek, flowing 10 miles N.of Narra- 
coorte, in a W. direction, into Geary's swamp. 

MOSQUITO CREEK RUN, (S,E. district;) lease. No. 169; occupiers, W. and J. 
Bobertson; area, 59 square miles, (actual area 61 square miles;) grazing capacity, 
10,000 sheep, or 164 per square mile. Goyder's valuation, £675 Ss., deducting im- 
provements valued at £373. This run lies 240 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 120 miles 
from Portland (Victoria,) where the wool is shipped. 

MOSQUITO HILL {Co. Hindmarsh) is a peak and survey point lying in the 
scrubby country in the hundred of Nkangkita, about 3^ miles N.W. of CJurrency creek. 

MOSQUITO PLAINS (Co. Robe) is a tract of flat sWampy pastoral country lying 
to the W. of Narracoorte, and extending N. and S. about 60 miles, and E. and W. 
from 8 to 15 miles. These plains are bounded on the E. and W. by sandy ranges, 
^nd are watered by the Mosquito creek. Limestone abounds upon them, and much of 
the soil is suitable for agricultural purposes. The resident magistrates are H. Seymour, 
A. T. Gunning, and W. Wallace, Esqs. 

BUSS GILL ((7o. Adelaide) is an agricultural settlement, situated near the 
township of Morphett vale, and inhabited by a few farmers. 

MOUNT GAMBIER {Go. Grey), See Gambieb Mount and Gahbieb Toww. 

MOUNT BARKER (Co, Hindmarsh), See Babkbb Mount. 

MOUNT CRAWFORD {Cos. Adelaide and Light.) See Cbawfobd Mount. 

MOUNT PLEASANT [Co. Adelaide.) See Pleasant Mount. 

MOT HALL (or Woolgabuboh) RUN {S,E, district;) lease, Na 168; occupier, 
W, Robertson; area, 65 square miles (^actual area, 63 square miles;) grazing capa- 
bility, 12,000 sheep, or 190 per square mile; Gojder's valuation, £483 I6s. per annum, 
deducting improvements valued at £2081. This run lies 230 miles S.S.B. of Adelaide, 
,«0 miles N. of Macdonnell bay, and 70 miles E. hy N. ot Ouicben bay. 



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Mtrc — Mun] The South AustraUan Gazetteer. 161 

HEVCBA station {N. district;) occupier, Price Maurice. See Pekina Run. 

KUDDT FLAT (Flwden district) is a vast tract of flat country, lying to the 
S.W., of 26° S. lat., 139° E. long. It has no visible limit to the S.W., is bare of vege- 
tation, and traversed by numerous water-channels. 

MUD HUT STATION {N, district;) leases, 69 a^d 308. See Balcabbib Run. 

ICUBLA WIRRA (Co. Gawkr) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Stanley. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. C.T. Scown 
of Willaston, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council 
for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, <£12,238 14s. 6d~rates, 6d. in the pound; 
rates collected, £158 138. lid.; total receipts, £421 3s.; office expenses and salaries, 
4116 128. lid.; expended on public works, ^335 6s. lid. The population numbers 
1598 persons; the area is 110 square miles, or 70,400 acres; land under cultivation, 
18,811 acres; and number of dwelling-houies, 322. 

BHTDLA WIRRA {Co. Gawler) is an E. hundred oi the county, consisting 
principally of purchased land, much of which is under cultivation, and inhabited by a 
body of industrious small farmers. 

MUDLIPSlfA CREEK {Flinders district) is the name of a fine mountain stream 
rising to the N. of Angipena, and flowing in a S.E. direction through the gap of t^ 
same name. 

IKlJDUPXSirA GAP {Flinders district) is a piece of flne rocky scenery, with 
walls about 100 feet in height, and extending for a considerate distance between the 
hills to the E. of Angipena. A pretty little gravelly flat, of 4 or 5 acres, lies in the gap, 
and has some fine pools of water near it. The Angipena racecourse lies near this 
place. 

MtnCRKSAD, MOUNT {Co. Grey,) is a peak lying in the cluster of volcanic hills 
near Mount Burr. 

KVIiE YARDS MINE {Co. Burro) is a copper mine lying near Stony gap. It 
is not now worked. 

MUIB.KEAD, MOUNT, RUN, No. 1 {S.E. district;) lease. No. 211; occupier, 
A. Johnson ; area, 75 square miles; grazing capacity, 9200 sheep, or 130 per square 
mile; Goyder's valuation, £388 8s. This run lies 245 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 
63 miles E.S.E. of Guichen bay, where the wool is shipped. 

MtTLLEL RUN {S.E, district;) lease, No. 209; occupier, J. Meredith; area, 
3 square miles (actual area, 2 square miles;) grazing capability, 400 sheep; Goyder's 
valuation, £22 per annum. See Minobool Run. 

IKULLXGON RUN {N. district;) lease. No. 966; occupier, P. Ferguson; area, 300 
square miles ; rental, X'173 per annum. This run lies near lake Eyre. 

MUlfDAT RIVER {Flinders district) is a stream rising near mount Clive, and 
flowing N.N.W. past mount Lyndhurst, into the S. end of lake Eyre. It is fed by 
several springs and small creeks during its course. 

ICUNIHIO ISLAND {Co. Hindmarsh) is a low sandy and swampy island lying to 
the S.E. of Hindmarsh island, and inside and opposite the sea mouth of the Murray 
river. 

IKUNDOWADAN RUN {N. district;) lease. No. 939 ; occupiers, T.^T. H. and 
A. Matthews; area, 200 square miles; rental, £103 per annum.* This run lies near 
Decoy hill, the next post town being Yudanamutana. 

MUNJIBBZE CREEK {N. district) is a stream flowing on the E. side the main 
range, over the run of the same name, and through good saltbush land, fairly grassed. 

IKUNJIBBZE RUN {N.E. district) is the head station of the Munjibbie run, 
occupied by Mr. Geo. Hiles (lease. No. 64, ) and having an area of 3 1 square miles, and 
a grazing ci^ability for 6200 sheep, or 200 per square mile. Munjibbie is the N. half 
of the run originally held by Messrs. Hiles and Chewings, and since divided into two 
distinct runs for the convenience of the lessees. The Munjibbie portion consists of 
fidrly grassed country, with saltbush and clumps of mallee, wattle, and other bushes. 
It is watered from wells and from the Munjibbie creek, where the head station and 
woolshed are situated, and whence there is a tolerable road to Kooringa, 35 miles S.W. 
Bent and assessment, Jib^ 8s. 4d.; Mr. Goyder's valuation, £147 5s per annum, deduct- 
ing improvements, which are valued at £1 600. This run also comprises lease, No. 345, 
wbi(^ lias an area of 41 square miles. 



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152 The South Austrafian Gazetteer. [Mun — MuR 



PARA (Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district ot 
Yatala. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. J. Smith, of 
Smithfleld, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district for 1865 
were as follow:— Assessment, £7691 14s. 8d. — rate, 6d. in the pound; rates collected, 
£\5S 198. Id.; total receipts, £434 9s. 7d. ; office expenses and salaries, £65 178.; ■ 
expended on public works, «2S8 12s. 9d. The population numbers 986 persons. The 
area is 43 square miles, or 27,520 acres; land under cultivation, 12,067 acres; ind 
number of dwelling-houses, 175. 

MmTNO PARA (Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Tatala. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. S. Smitham, 
of Peachy belt, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council 
for 1865 were as follow: — Assessme^nt, £l4,664~rate, 6d. in the pound; rates collectdl( 
£359 188. 3d.; total receipts, £1009 12s. lid.; office expenses and salaries, £102 2s. Id; 
expended on public works, £639 6s. 8d. The population numbers 2323 persons; the 
area is 60 square miles, or 38,400 acres; land under cultivation, 28,965 acres; and 
number of dwelling-houses, 4 1 8. 

MVNNO PARA ((7o. Adelaide) is a hundred lying in the N. part of the county, 
on the S. bank of the Gawler river, and consisting for the most part of purchased 
agricultural land, taken up by small farmers. There is a volunteer rifle corps in this 
hundred. 

IKUNTA WURTA (Yorhe's peninsula) is the native name for a small tract of 
good laud on the E. side of Yorke's peninsula. See Clat and Ropbr's Gullibs. 

MU&AT BAY {Flinders district W.) is a deep indentation into the land in the 
B. part of Denial bay, and to the N.E. of the Bird rock. It is a fine bay, having 
soundings in from 5 to 3 fathoms, and secure anchorage for vessels of any tonnage. In 
common with the other parts of this coast, the country inland is scrubby, with swamps 
and sand-hills, and the scarcity of water, which may however generally be found by 
digging in the sand dunes near the coast. 

MV&CULLET (or Marcullbt) RUN (S.E. district;) lease, No. 155; occupier, 
A. Mc Arthur; area, 30 square miles (actual area, 32 square miles;) grazing capacity, 
3700 sheep or 115 per square mile; Goyder's valuation, £164 5s., deducting inprove- 
ments valued at £104. This run lies 180 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 70 miles N.E. 
by N. of Guichen bay. It is in the Tattiara country, the next post office being at Border 
town. On this run and adj6ining leases of different date are 4100 sheep. 

MURDOCK HILL (Co. Adelaide) is a high peak in the main or Adelaide range, 
in the hundred of Onkaparinga, and about 8 miles to the N.E. of the township of 
Balhannah. 

MURMSSBKA RUN, {N. district;) lease. No. 432 ; occupier, J. and J. H. 
Browne; area, 93 square miles. Rent and assessment, £79 Is. 8d. per annum. This 
run lies near mount Samuel, the next post town being Blinman. 

MURKBO RUN {S. E. district^) leases 520, 557, 1143 and 1144; occupier, 
D. Power; respective areas of leases, 2, 24, 24 and 42 square miles. This run lies at 
the N.W.bend of the Murray river. 

MVANINNZE MINE (Flinders district W.) is a copper and bismuth mine, 
lying ^144 miles N.W. by N. of Adelaide, and on the N.W. side of Spencer's gulf, 
about 130 miles N. of port Lincoln. By the last report from this mine (July 31st, 
1866) it appears that the directors have turned their attention to other methods of 
reducing the metals than those which were at first adopted (Cossin's patent,) and have 
found that that by acids is attended with satisfactory results, but the large cost of the 
necessary chemicals, and the difficulty of procuring them, may possibly interfere to 
prevent that process from being made use of to any great extent in the colony. In the 
meantime they have placed themselves in communication with a firm in England on 
the subject of the smelting of the ores by the methods in use there, with a view of 
having them treated either in Great Britain or in this colony, as may prove most 
advantageous to the company. They have also sent to London a sample of plumbago, 
which is found in large quantities at the mine, and a report upon it is expected at an 
early date. They have also shipped about 10 tons for sale, and* should it prove to 
be worth only the very moderate price of £10 ^er ton, hundreds of tons can be pro- 
cured and shipped without delay, and at a good profit. In No. 1 Winze, south adit, 
the 17-fathom level has passed under the shoot of bismuth ore, and as yet no change 



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ilxnil The i%uth Australian Gazetteer. 158 

bftck to it has taken place. The lode .there is still from 6 to 8 feet wide, and well 
defined, and consists principally of plumbago. The directors sent a stone of plum- 
bago and some dust to England several months ago, and they shipped 10 tons, which 
was now on the way. They had put down plumbago as being moderately worth £10 
per ton. Plumbago from Ceylon is fetching £20 to £25 in London, and if this plum- 
bago proved of value, there are hundjreds of tons of it at the mine, and considerable 
facilities for shipping it. 

HKV&NINNllfi BUN (fT. district;) lease, No. 1030; occupier, U. Holroyd; area> 
38 square miles ; rental, £19 per annum. This run lies W, of mount Young, and 130 
miles N. of port Lincoln. ' 

UKURRABINVA RUN {S.E, district;) lease, No. 198; occupier, D. Gollan; 
area, 16 sqnare miles (31 square miles of the Blackford run have been transferred to this 
lease, the correct area therefore is now 47 square miles;) grazing capacity, 5650 sheep, 
or 120 per square mile. (On the entire run and land held under annual lease in the 
hundred of Lacepede are 1200 sheep, 900 head of cattle, and 200 horses.) Goyder's 
valuation, deducting improvements, £130 12s. per anaum. This run lies 180 miles 
S.S.E. of Adelaide, 12 miles S.K of Kingston, and 30 miles N.N.B. of Quichen bay. 

KUBJIANVVGA STATION ( W. district) lies 55 miles N.W. of the township 
of Flinders; occupiers, Heath aad Wooldridge. See Wallianippib. 

XU&BJLY FLATS RUN {Co, Burra;) occupier, W. H. Neale, area, 42 square 
miles; grazing capability, 85^0 sheep, or 200 per square mile; rental and assessment, 
£64 15s; Mr. GFoyder's valuation, £630 per annum, deducting improvements, which are 
valued at £300. (No. of lease, 14.) This run lies about 8 miles S.E. of Eooringa, and 
95 miles N.E. of Fort Adelaide. It consists of well-grassed plain and undulating land, 
with well-grassed valleys ; there are also bare and scrubby rises, and patches of salt-bush 
and mallee. There are no springs or surface waters on the run, but water is obtained 
by means of wells, and there is access to the Stone Chimney creek on the N. 

IKU&RATy HUNDRED OF (Flinders and Victoria districts.) is the name given 
to the pastoral country lying on both sides the Murray river from the E. sides of the 
hundreds of Stuart and Cadell (in counties Young and Albert respectively,) in an B. 
direction to the border of the colony. This hundred comprises a tract of fine pastoral 
land, interspersed with belts of mallee scrub and sandy plains, with ridges ot fossil shell 
limestone, which form lofty and precipitous bluffs on the banks of the river, alternating 
from side to side as it bends in its tortuous course. 

IKU&BAT RIVER (Pastorql* district) is a sub-district of the N.E. district 
lying in the S. part of that district, and along the banks of the Murray river. It also 
takes in theN. part of the S.E. pastoral district, and comprises the Murray scrub, and 
extends in an E. direction to the border of the colony. 

MURBAT RIVER is the most important river, not only of the colony, but 
also of the continent, and is the only river navigable for vessels of any size in the colony, 
excepting the entrance to Port Adelaide, which can scarcely be considered a river. It 
rises in the Snowy mountains of New South Wales, and flows in a general W, direction, 
(dividing the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria) until it arrives at North-west 
bend in S. Australia, when it takes a S. direction, and empties itself into lake Alexan- 
drina, at Pomonda point, near Wellington, whence it flows into the sea by a narrow 
opening from that lake called the Murray mouth. It is navigable duMng 8 months in 
the year for large steamers for a distance of over 1790 miles, and, with its tributary, the 
Darling, which is navigable 2000 miles in New South Wales, enables the settlers of 
Queensland, New South Wales, North-west Victoria, and the E. part of South Australia 
to draw supplies from, and forward their wool to Goolwa (on the W. side of lake Alexan- 
drina, or the Lower Murray, as it is called,) which is looked upon as the natural port. 
The Murrumbidgee, another New South Wales river, is also navigable as far as Gundagai. 
About 30 steamers and barges are engaged in navigating the Murray and its tributaries 
from Goolwa, and convey a large amount of merchandise for the supply of settlers 
and of the various townships, bringing down annually several thousand bales of wool, 
for despatch to London direct, Melbourne, or Port Adelaide. The South Australian part 
of the Murray river was discovered by Start, in January, 1830, the upper part of that 
portion of it being found to be a noble stream, flowing through dense forests of sandy 
scrub, and bounded, sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other, by high cliffs, 
forming precipices from 150 to 500 feet high. The rock was white, like chalk, and 
qtute as soft. Parts of these cliff's were very beautiful, A great many of the fossils, 
' sometimes a whole precipice, was changed to selenite, which, while retaining all the 

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154 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Mttb 

■ ■ ■ -^ 

varied forms and fanciful tracery of marine ornaments, was as clear as crystal, and 
looked like fancy work in ice. When the setting sun shone full on the face of th€»e 
cliffs, the red rays were reflected hack off the crystalline facets into the dazzled gaze of 
the explorers, and made them imagine that they were in fairy land, and that palaces of 
diamonds were not quite things of fable. Sturt voyaged down the river to lake Alex- 
andrina, which he partially examined, and then retraced his weary way backward. 
Captain Barker, after whom mount Barker is called, being the next to explore the 
newly-found region. This gentleman, however, having swum across a channel of the 
lake to a sand-hill on,the other side, for the purpose of obtaining a better view, was 
treacherously murdered by the natives, and his body thrown into the water. On the 
South Australian banks of the Murray are large tracts of dense mallee scrub, the mallee 
being a small tree whose roots spread horizontally, and retain water, often found useful 
for travellers; and the quandong, or native peach, is also plentiful. There are but few 
streams flowing into the Murray in this part of its course, the principal ones being the 
Burra creek and the Rhine river, both of which fall into it on its W. bank. The lower 
part of the river, known as the Goolwa or lower Murray, is, in point of fact, a narrow 
arm of lake Alexandrina, separating the main land in the W. corner from the low 
sandy island known as Hindmarsh island. It is, however, navigable, and the channel 
which the Murray steamers use. Most of the land lying along the river banks is 
reserved in hundreds for agricultural purposes, although taken up in fact under 
pastoral leases at short dates. The river is crossed at Blanchetown, Swanport, 
and Wellington, by roads leading from Adelaide into Victoria. The towns and 
post offices on its banks are Overland corner. North-west bend, Blanchetown, 
Moorundee, Maunum, Wall, Swanpdrt, Chucka bend, and Wellington E. and W. 
The sea mouth of this river bears from the Sturt light on cape Willoughby, N.E. by E. 
i E., 41 miles; and from Kosetta head, E. by N., about 13 miles. The bearings are 
magnetic; magnetic variation 6° 35^ E. The sea mouth of the Murray may be 
recognised by Barker's knoll, the first bare sand-hill of any elevation or extent to the 
eastward of the high land of Encounter bay. This extraordinary sand-hill, which is 
ever-changing in its form and appearance, according to the prevailing winds, and is 
fast receding to the eastward, in which direction the entrance has shifted 500 yards in 
4 years, is about 90 feet high, and forms the eastern side of the entrance of the Murray; 
the western side being the termination of the low sand-hills of Sir Richard's peninsula. 
From the base of Barker's knoll an extensive sand-bank trends in a south-wfisterly 
direction, forming the eastern limit of the channel. On the highest part of point 
Pullen, the termination of Sir Richard's peninsula, is a flagstafi, from which the tidal 
and other signals are made. The flagstaff lies in lat. 35° 34' S., long. 138° 67' 15" E., 
and bears from port Elliott obelisk E., distance 10^ miles; and from Victor harbour 
N. 81° E., 13 miles; whilst a course of N. 69° E., for 19 miles, leads directly from 
Porpoise head. On the opposite or western shore, point FuUen and its adjoining bank 
forms the western boundary of the channel. The bar, on which the least depths of 
water have been found recently to be from 6 to 8 feet, is constantly shifting in extent, 
depth, and relative position to the western extremity of Barker's knoll. The channel 
will generally be found deeper and more direct in the winter months, trending more in 
a westerly direction, as the descending currents become lessened in volume during the 
summer. The bar itself is composed of sand, covered with masses of seaweed. Inside 
the bar the soundings vary considerably, but, in all places between the Goolwa and the 
mouth, afford plenty of water for 111 vessels that can pass the bar in safety. In order 
to point out the deepest portion of the channel over the bar, two large triangular 
beacons have been placed inside the entrance; these beacons are shifted as occasion 
requires; at the present they bear N. 19° E., and S. 19° W. respectively. 

MVBJLAT SCRUB {Cos. Sturt, Eyre and Burra) is a belt of sandy country, 
thickly covered with mallee scrub, lying on the Murray river, along its lower end, 
below the great or N.W. bend, and extending to the N. into the plains to the E. of 
Kooringa and mount Bryan. There are numerous patches of good pastoral land, which 
are taken up by squatters. 

MV&&AT SCRUB RUN, BUTTON'S {Co. Burra;) lease. No. 721; occupier, 
F. H. Dutton; area, 20 square miles; grazing capability, 2500 sheep, or 125 per cjiiiare 
mile; old rental and assessment, £78 ;.Goyder's valuation, £140 per annum, with<mt 
improvements valued at i>'100. It lies 28 miles N.E. of Kapunda, and 75 miles N.E. 
of Adelaide, and is well-grassed, b^ has no surface water. This station is worked in 
connection with the Emu flats run, the head station being Anlaby. 



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MuB — Nai] The South AmtrcUian Gazetteer. 165 



SCRUB BUNS {Murray River dUtrict) consist of the fi^owing 
leases, their respective areas and occupiers' names being attached: — 294, T. and W. 
Seott, 6 square miles; 339, M'Bean, 3 square miles; 793, S. Hedger, 20 square miles; 
867, J. Keynes, 21 square miles; 869, J. Keynes, 25 square miles; 870, J. Keynes, 32 
square miles; 1055, T. Worsnop, 20 square miles ; 1057, T. Worsnop, 35 square miles; 
1058, J. Keynes, 13 square miles; 1059, J. Keynes, 11 square miles; 1060, J. Keynes, 
15 square miles; 1089, B. Hicks, 10 square miles. These runs lie in the scrubby 
country on both sides the Murray river, the nearest post town being Blanchetown., 

BKinUtTWTANVA LAGOON (Ob. Flinders district N.) is a fine sheet of water 
formed by an expansion of the Frome river, 40 yards wide, 150 yards long, and 20 feet 
deep. It lies in a rocky bed, the rocks rising perpendicularly from the water. 

MUSSEL WATER HOLE {Flinders district N,) See Davenport Crbbk. 

BSTPONOA {Co, HindmarsK) is an agricultural settlement, lying in a valley to 
the S. of Sellick's hill, and 14 miles S. of Aldinga on the main road firom Adelaide to 
Yankalilla. It lies 44 miles S. of Adelaide, and has daily communication with all the 
places mentioned, by Bounsevell's mail coach. Myponga has a post office for the 
convenience of the neighbourhood, a store, and 1 hotel— the Myponga. The population 
is small and scattered, consisting chiefly of farmers. There is a public pound in this 
settlement. 

BSTPOVGA {Co. ffindmarsh) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Encounter bay. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. W. 
Pavey, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council for 
1865 were as follow: — Assessment, £2761 — rate. Is. in the pound; rates collected, 
£128 Is. 3d.; total receipts, £201 Os. lid.; office expenses and salaries, £68 6s.; expended 
on public works, £103 12s. 6d. The population numbers 585 persons; the area is 79 
square miles, or 50,560 acres; land under cultivaticm, 2778 acres; and number of 
dwelling-houses, 80. 

MTPONOA {Co. HindmarsK) is a W. hundred of the county lying on the coast 
of the gulf of St. Vincent, at Rapid bay. The district is rich in minerals, and there 
are several silver lead mines in operation in the neighbourhood. About half of its area 
is purchased land, mostly agricultural. 

IKTPONGA HILL ( Co, Hindmarsh) is a peak and point of survey lying in the 
scrubby country to the S. of Myponga township. 

MTPONGA RIVER (Co, HindmarsK) is a stream rising in the coast ranges 
in the hundred of Myponga, and flowing N.W. into- the sea by a wide channel. 

ITACKABA HILL, 32° 45' S. lat., 139° 10' E. long. {Flinders district N.) is a 
detached hill lying in the pastoral district of Eastern plains. 

NACKAJIA MINE {N. district.) Under this name there are some small copper 
workings upon mineral claims. No. 2354, dated June 12, and Nos. 2387 and 2388, dated 
June 26, situated between 50 and 60 miles N. of the Burra. The proprietors, three 
Comishmen, named James Pott, Thos. Williams, and Thomas Hodge, called at our 
office recently with samples, producing at the same time for our satisfaction the 
Government documents relative to their claims, and a certificate from Mr. Elphick, of 
which the following is a copy:—" Kooringa, August 24, 1866.— Assay of two samples 
of copper ore from Nackara mine for Mr. Thomas Hodge.— No. 1, produce 52^; No. 2, 
produce 51.- (Signed) Wm. K, Elphick, assayer.*' No. 1 appears to be red oxide, and No. 2 
grey and green ore and oxide. The men state that they have been working the mine 
without assistance, pecuniary or manual, for the last 3 months, and have sunk 2 shafts, 
viz., Pott*s shaft, which is now 12 fathoms deep, and in which they passed through a 
bunch of ore about 7 fathoms down; and Williams's shaft about 60 fathoms N. of the 
other. This is 7 fathoms deep, and carries a good copper-bearing lode. The samples 
are from Pott's shaft. They state that they have about 5 tons of ore at grass, and 
that the lode is 2 feet wide. Another sample was shown us— silver oxide— 
which we were informed had been assayed by Mr. Thomas and found to contain 61 
per cent, of copper, but of this no certificate had been given. 

NAnS WORTH {Co, Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of 
Yatala, hundred of Yatala, and under the control of the Yatala district council. It is 
situated about 14 miles from the Torrens river, and about 8 miles W. of the mouet 
Lofty range, in an agricultural, hay producing district. There is a manufactory of 
winnowing machines (Sloman's) in the township, a post office, and 1 hotel — ^the 



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166 The South Amtredian Gazetteer, [Nai — Nab 

Windmill (Matthews' s.) The nearest places are Enfield, 2 miles N.; Prospect, I mile 
N.W.; and Walkeryille, 1 mile B.; there is communication hy omnibus with Enfield 
only, that with the other places being by horse or prirate vehicle. The communication 
with Adelaide, 2^ miles distant, is by omnibuses which run thrice a-day. The . 
surrounding country is elevated, and the formation of the limestone is abundant round 
Adelaide. The population numbers about 100 persons. 

VAntNE \Co. Start) is an agricultural village in the hundred of Eanmantoo, 
council district of Nairne, and electoral district of Onkaparinga, situated on Nairne 
creek, 24^ miles from Adelaide, on the main line of road between Adelaide and the 
Murray, via Callington, mount Barker lying 1^ miles S. In the township are '2 
flour mills (steam) and a tannery. The Nairne district is an agricultural, pastoral, 
copper and gold quartz-mining district, there being 1 copper mine near the village, 
promising well, but not having yet been thoroughly tested. The nearest places are 
Dawesly, a copper-smelting village, 2^ miles E., and consisting of about 12 cottages, 
prettily situated on Scott's creek; Kan man too, 8 miles E., and Callington 12 miles £., 
both mining townships; and Harrogate, 11 miles N.E, an agricultural village of 9 
cottages. There is communication by RounsevelPs daily coaches^ and with Adelaide, 
24^ miles W., by the same means. Nairne has a post and money order office, a 
telegraph station, a public pound, branches of the Adelaide and South Australian 
insurance companies, an Oddfellows' lodge (M.U.) and a Foresters' court. The hotels 
in Nairne are the District, Millers' Arms, and Beehive. The surrounding country is 
elevated, and generally hilly. The population of Nairne numbers about 500 persons, 
the number of houses being about 100. A fair for agricultural produce and live stock 
is held at Nairne annually, in March and September. The resident magistrate is 
O. Wild, Esq., J. P. 

VAI&irE ((7o. Sturt) is a district council in the electoral district of Onkaparinga. 
It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. D. Chapman, and 4 
councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district council, for 1865, were as 
follow :— Assessment, £17,057 5s. — rate, 6d. in the pound; rates collected, ^446 9s 4d.; 
total receipts, £1,561 Us. 4|d. ; office expenses and salaries, £214 19s. 9d.; expenditure 
on public works, £1224 89. 2d. The population number 3120 persons; the area is 
199 square miles, or 127,360 acres; land under cultivation, 9729 acres; and number of 
dwelling-houses, 631. 

NAKA&A RUN (N.E. district;) lease, 229; occupier, A. McCuUoch; area, 12 
square miles; grazing capability, 1620 sheep, or 135 per square mile. Old rent and 
assessment, £13 I5s.; Goyder's valuation. £66 per annum, excluding improvements 
valued at £95. . It lies 70 miles N. of Kooringa, and 170 miles from Adelaide, and 
consists of fairly grassed valleys with salt and blue bush, and rough hills and gullies, 
with mallee scrub. It is watered by the Nakara spring, a well, troughs, and iron tanks. 

VAKA&A SPRING (Ecatern springs) is a fine spring under the hill and on the 
run of the same name. It has been opened out in the form of a tank, and troughs been 
placed for the watering of stock. 

NALANO RUN (8.E, district;) leases, Nos. 151 and 152 ; occupier, L. H. 
McLeod; total area, 126 square miles; grazing capacity, 2800 sheep. Goyder's valua- 
tion, £1998 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £508. This run lies 180 
miles S.E. by S. of Adelaide, and 100 miles N.K by N. Guichen bay. 

NANGWARRT RUN {S.E. district;) lease. No. 182; occupier, A.Watson; 
area. 62 square miles; grazing capacity, 10,000 sheep, or 161 per square mile. (On thi* 
run, and an adjoining one in the colony of Victoria, are 10,500 sheep, 100 head of cattle* 
and 250 horses.) The stock is -watered from swamps. (Joyder's valuation, £253 per 
annum, deducting improvements valued at £1235. This run lies 250 miles S.S.E. of 
Adelaide, 75 miles by road E. by S. of Guichen bay, and 40 miles N. by. E. of Macdon- 
nell bay. 

NAPERLT STATION (Co. Victoria) is a sub-head station on the Crystal brook 
run — which see. 

NAPOLSOV MINE {N. district) is a copper mine Ijdng 200 miles N. of Adelaide, 
and about 7 miles N. of the Eirwan mine. About 15 tons of ore have been extracted 
from this mine, but operations have been suspended upon it for some time past. The 
country consists of carbonate of lime and felspar, containing a few specks of ore, 
but is of unpromising appearance. 

If A&&ACOORTE {Co. Robe) is a small township or village in the electoral 

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Nab — Nea] The South Australian Gazetteer. 157 

district of Victoria, 254 miles S. W. from Adelaide, on the main line of road between 

Adelaide and Melbourne. A mail coach runs to Kingston, 57 miles; Fenola 32 miles, 

twice a week, and to Border town, 56 miles, twice a week. It has a local court, a 

mechanics' institute, a telegraph office, an aboriginal station, and a post and money 

order office. It is situated on the Narracoorte creek. Mosquito creek flows partdlel to 

Karracoorte creek, 10 miles N. from Narracoorte. There is a large lake on Mr. 

Seymour's run, 15 miles S.W.from Narracoorte; lake Ormerod, about 2 miles long by 

1 wide, 4 miles W. from Narracoorte and Geary's swamp, 5 miles N.W. from 

Narracoorte. The district is a pastoral (sheep-farming) one. The surrounding country 

contains excellent soil, with sandy ranges running through it N. and S. (from Fenola to 

Border town, Narracoorte being situated in a gap in the range.) It is all either the 

property of the sheep-farmer or the Crown. The country to the W. of this range is flat, 

and is called Mosquito plains ; this flat country runs N. and S. about 60 miles ; E, and 

W. 8 ^> 15 miles; beyond this to the W. is another sandy range. There are no mines 

in the neighbourhood; no minerals have been diecovered more useful than stone. 

limestone abounds in every direction. To the E. of this range there is also good 

country, more undulating than Mosquito plains, and well timbered. The country is all, 

with ihe exception of a few patches of sandy soil, fit for agriculture, and limestone 

quarries may be found in all directions. The nearest places are Kingston, 59 miles W. ; 

Penola, 32 miles S. ; Apsley, 20 miles E. (in the colony of Victoria;) Border town, 

56 miles N.; Robe town, 76 miles S.W. Fenola and Apsley are upon two different 

roads to Melbourne; there are two mails a week from Apsley to Melbourne, but no 

mail communication between Narracoorte and Apsley. With the other places there 

is communication. by Rounseyeirs mail coaches, which sometimes take passengers, 

and with Adelaide by Rounsevell's mail coaches. Distance, 250 miles N.W. The 

hotels are the Globe and the Commercial. Narracoorte is under the control of the 

south-eastern board of main roads in a hundred not named. The surrounding country 

to the N. and S. is mountainous, to the W. flat, and to the B. undulating. The formation 

is of limestone. The population of Narracoorte is about 500. Number of dwellings, 150. 

ITA&BACOO&TE RUN (SE. district;) lease. No. 165; occupier, T. Magarey; 

area, 83 square miles; grazing capability, 14,000 sheep, or 169 per square mile; 

Goyder's valuation, X'966 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £420. This 

run lies 230 miles S.S.E of Adelaide, and 60 E.N.E. of Robe (Guichen bay,) where the 

wool is shipped. Tliere are 22,000 sheep, 280 head of cattle, and 30 horses on this run, 

and on 2300 acres of purchased land round the township of Narracoorte, the next post 

town. 

If AT AN {Co. Light) is a postal township in the electoral district of Light and 
hundred of Gilbert. It is situated on the river Gilbert, 70 miles N. of Adelaide, and 
15 miles N.W. of Kapunda. Finniss point, a high hill, lies to the E., and on the W. 
are some low hills, dividing the valley of the Gilbert apd Alma plains. The district is 
an agricultural one, large quantities of wheat being grown in the valley, and sheep are 
depastured on the hilly ranges to the E. and W. The nearest places are Gilberton, 
3 miles S., and Riverton, 3 miles N. (the next telegraph-station.) The communication 
with these places is by horse or private vehicle, and with Adelaide, 64 miles S., by 
Rounsevell's coach from Gilberton to Kapunda, and thence by rail. Navan has a 
, post office, and a Roman Catholic church and school. The nearest hotels are at 
Gilberton and Riverton. The surrounding country consists of low hiUs lying E. and 
W., with rolling plain and valley land between. The formation is slate with fossils, 
and occasional basalt and freestone, also suriieuie limestone. The population of Kavan 
and its agricultural neighbourhood numbers about 300 persons. 

NEALES {Go. Eyre) is a newly-formed hundred, lyii^ in the N.W. part of the 
county, and containing only a small quantity of purchased land. 

VEALES FALL {Flinders district) is a picturesque waterfall on section 1410, S. 
of the Yudanamutana workings. It is about 20 feet in height; but the surrounding 
scenery is very beautiful. The water flows along a narrow gully, between steep, rocky 
hills about 300 feet high, covered with porcupine grass and pine and gum trees. The 
water is unfailing. Near the end of the gully there is a peculiar formation of rock, 
which rises perpendicularly to a height of about 70 feet, forming two-thirds of an 
elliptical basin, about 100 feet long and 60 feet wide. The water flows out of this basin 
Ihrough a deft, and under a natural rocky bridge. 

VEAXES RIVER (Flinders district N,) is a fine stream, the recipient of the 
drainage of Stuart's and Hanson's ranges, and of the table land to the W. of the N. 



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158 The 8onth Australian Gazetteer, [Nbp— New 

part of lake Eyre. It spreads out over a sandy and grassy plain in numerons channels 
in its lower part, where it occnpies a space of about 4 miles in width, although it is 
but seldom that any but the main channel contains water, and has abundance of green 
feed and fine gum trees along its banks. This river flows in an E.S.E direction, and 
empties itself into lake Eyre by a broad salt channel, A little above its mouth it is 
fed by a smaU creek flowing flrom springs, so salt as to crystallise every object it flows 
over. At its upper end it is fed by the Frew, Blyth, and Davenport rivers, taid the 
Hume, Fincke, and other creeks, in some of which the water is salt, but where fresh 
water can be easily obtained by digging near the banks. The channel of the Neales 
may be described as a series of gorges cut in the sandstone level through which it 
flows, and which is generally of a light-brown colour, with stones on the surface and 
plenty of vegetation in the wet season. Sometimes the soil shows gypsum underneath, 
and thus opens out into fine grassy undulating country of a dark-red colour, slightly 
covered with scrub. Stuart found a bulbous plant somewhat resembling the Egyptian 
arum in and near the bed of the river. At the upper end of this stream fine smooth- 
barked gum trees, and splendid hakeas, 20 feet in height, with bark, like cork, are found. 

irSTEAN BAT {Kangaroo island) is a wide opening in the E. part of the N. coast 
of the island, lying between Marsden point on the N.W. and Kangaroo island on the 
S.E. It contains Eingscote harbour, and at its S. end is a shallow channel leading 
into the Pelican lagoon. Flinders discovered this flne bay on the 20th May, 1802^ and 
named it i^ter Sir E. Nepean of the admiralty. 

NEPOWZE GREEK [Flinders district N.) is a small stream rising in the Nepowle 
peak, and flowing in a S.E. direction into lake Blanche, on its W. sMe, through the 
pastoral district known as the Eastern plains. Its flows about 30 miles from Tudan»- 
mutana. Shales, slates and silicoH»Ucareou8 rocks. 

HZFI^WZE PEAK {Flinders district) is a lofty peak on an E. spur of the main 
range, lying about 30 miles S.*of Yudanamutana, and at the head of Nepowie creek, in 
good pastoral country. 

NEPOWXB BUN {N, district;) leases, Nos. 615, 560a, and 652; occupier, 
M* M'Callum; total area, 200 square miles; grazing capability, 2000 head of cattle* 
This station lies 40 miles distant from Yudanamutana, the nearest post town; and is 
watered by the Nepowie creek, the John, Itelowie, and Bulknona creeks, flowing in 
the locality. 

NEPOWZS N. BUN (iV. district;) leases, Nos. 560 and 689; occupiers, McTaggart 
and McCallum; area, 89 square miles. This run lies near mount McKinlay, and 
adjoining the Nepowie run . 

MEPnnfS ISLES, between 35** 12' and 25** 22' S. lat., and 136** 1' and 136° 9' B. 
long, {Co, Flinders,) is 'the name given to a cluster of small low islands lying to the S. of 
Thistle island. They are rocky and surrounded with breakers, with some low detached 
reefs amongst the North isles. Captain J. L. L. Stokes, of H.M. surveying ship Beagle, 
passed close to these isles in 1840, and places the southernmost in 35° 22' 15" S. lat., and 
136° 17' 45" E. long. 

NET&ET {Co, Adelaide.) See Twiokbkhail 

HEVBORF {Co, Adelaide) is a small agricultural and vinegrowlng setticment, . 
inhabited chiefly by Germans, and lying half-a-mile distant from the postal township of 
Lob ethal. 

filS¥ ES^METSU CBBEK {Co, Victoria) is a small stream watering the central 
part of the Bundaleer run, and rising in the middle range of Scrubby hills. 

VinmiiE (Co. Cardmell) is a hundred lying in the S.W. part of the county, and 
taking in portion of lake Coorong, upon whose E. bank are a few small patches of pur- 
chased land. 

WSW CORHWAIA MINE {Co, Daly) is one of the Wallaroo copper mines^ 
lying 85 miles N.W. by N. of Adelaide and 1 mile E.S.E. from Eladina. Austin, 
writing in 1863, deseribes the mine as follows: — ** It is now about two years since thig 
mine was opened by the present company, and during the former part of the time 
operations were pureued with great vigour. Several shafts were sunk, drives cut, and 
stoping done. There mre two main lodes— Lucas's and Sismey's. The former is the 
principal. They are almost parallel lodes, running neariv N.W. and S.E., but con- 
TCtging both as to their dirsiDtioB and their underlie. AH the veins and strings of ore 
met with also oonverge toward* thenudn kkle. It is therein ei^ected that whete iSb^ 



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New] The SoxUh Australian Gazetteer. 169 

lodes meet there will be a very large deposit of ore. Lucas's lode has varied in width 
from 1 to 14 feet. Squarey*s (engine^ shaft is now sank to a depth of 29 fathoms 
on Sismey's lode, and No. 2 shaft, on tne same side, is down 20 fathoms. A cross-cut 
is being driven from this level to intersect Lucas's lode. This is considered one of the 
leading points of the mine, as, 8 fathoms below the surface, the lode was opened on for 
a length of 15 fkthoms, presenting a strong and promising appearance, and containing 
quartz, green carbonate, and muriate of copper. The cross-cut now being made will 
cut the lode at 12 fathoms lower. The lodes at present are not first-rate courses of ore, 
but disturbed and dredgey. There was a considerable influx of water in this cross-cut, 
but arrangements are being made to put the machinery in order to keep it in fork. 
Unfortunately, an accident, similar to what occurred some time since, has recently 
happened to the engine; and to prevent a recurrence of it the engine will have 
to be reset, which will cause the works to be suspended for about a month. The 
country in Squarey's engine shaft is as favourable in appearance as could be 
desired, and contains some good stones of ore and pieces of native copper. 
The ground throughout the mine is generally favourable. I must not omit 
to mention that a large block of ore, said to weigh nearly 5 tons, was sent 
to the International Exhibition of 1862, having been raised from Lucas's lode, out 
£4 White's shaft. Between 3000 and 4000 tons of stuff are now at grass, and will be 
dressed up so as to yield, probably, from 800 to 1000 tons of ore, worth 15 per cent, of 
copper. The buildings on the mine are substantial — being chiefly of stone and brick — 
and comprise captain's house, store, office, smiths' and carpenters' workshops, besides 
engine-house and chimney-stack (72 feet high,) also a crushing-house, with a separate 
engine to work up to 12-horse power, driving 2 feet rollers. There is also a still for 
distiUing water, and a tank to hold 15,000 gallons, stone stables, and several miners' 
cottages. Close at hand is Mr. Kodda's smelting establishment, which will be described 
in another place. Though the prospects, or rather I should say the present position, of 
the mine is anything but satisfactory. Captain East, who is evidently a very intelligent, 
practical man, entertains the best hopes for the future, and I think not witliout good 
reason. I trust, for the sake of the shareholders, these anticipations may be realised. 
I should recommend them not to sell out; but to hold tl^ir shares for another six 
months at least." Since the above was written the mine has been actively worked; 
and, in July la^, the third ordinary half-yearly meeting of the New Cornwall mining 
company was held in White's room, Adelaide; Mr. W. G. Luxmoore in the'chair. The 
directors' and captain's reports were received and adopted. The balance-sheet showed 
an estimated balance in fiekvour of the company of £11.886 9s. 6d. Captain East was 
present, and reported a fresh discovery in the new north lode, of a promising nature, 
consisting of a soft clayey ore, containing a good quantity of green carlxmate. This is 
to the westward of the other portion of the property, and sev^al sections have been 
taken out by the directors adjoining the property in the direction in which the new 
lode is expected to mn. It was resolved in accordance with the recommendation of 
the directors that a further call of 10a. per share be made— 5s. payable in July 25, and 
the remaining 5s. at such time as the directors may see fit. 

KSWBAVSN or North Arm {Co, Adelaide) is a small rural village, lying on 
the N. arm of the entrance to port Adelaide. 



ESy (or Mo0NT BsTANT,) CREEK (Co, Burro) is a small stream flowing 
in ^e mount Bryant run to the S.£. of the hill of that name. 



LAKE, 33° 30' S. lat., 134'' 50' E. long. (Ptmdtrs district,) is a salt 
water lagoon lying along the E. coast of Anxious bay, about 12 miles S.E. of Venus 
bay. The surrounding country is taken up for pastoral purposes. This lake lies 2 
miles S. of the Talia post office, and 12 miles N.W. of Bramfleld. Salt may be 
obtained in large quantities on its shores, although there are several fresh water springs 
round it. 

HEWXJLND LAKE E. BUN {W. district;) lease. No. 430; occupier, J. Tennant; 
area,^ 38 square miles; rent and assessment, £68 Is. 8d. The next post office is Talia. 

NZW&AKD LAKE RUN (W. district;) lease No. 507; occupier, J. Kelsh; area, 
10 square miles; rent and assessment, £11 5s. per annum. The next post office is TaUa. 

VBWULVB'S^ HILL (Co. Hindmarsik) ia an elevation and surrey pouit lying 
about 11 miles from the coast at Enooooter bay, Jdiid 2 milea W.N.W. <rf Bosetta 



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160 The South Australian Gazetteer. [New — Noa 

HEW MECKLENBU&O (Co. Adelaide) is a email agricultural and vine- 
growing village lying 4 miles N.E. of the postal township of Rosenthal. It is inhabited 
by a small German population. 

NEW TIERS (Co. Adelaide) is a vineyard lying in the mount Lofty ranges at 
the head of Cox's creek, and the property of his Honor the Chief Justice. Messrs. 
Campbell, Cobbledick, and Brooks have also vineyards in the New Tiers valley. 

NEWTON {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural village, chiefly hay growing and 
market gardening, lying 6 miles N.B. of Adelaide, and 1 mile E, of Campbelltown. 
The main reservoir supplying the Adelaide waterworks lies near this village. It has 
a population of about 30 persons, mostly gardeners and labourers, and 12 dwellings. 

NZBLET*S GAP (Co.Burra) is an opening in the ranges lying near to the S.E. 
of the township of Apoinga. 

NZLPENA RUN (^W. plains;) leases, Nos. 635, 636, 422, and 634; occupiers, 
W. J. and J. H. Browne; areas of leases respectively, 40, 56, 93, and 72 square miles. 
This run lies near mount Samuel, the next post town being Nuccaleena. 

NILPENA RUN W. {W. plains;) lease, No. 1005; occupiers, Thompson, Stobie 
and Fowler; area, 177 square miles; rental, £88 lOs. per annum. This run lies to the 
W. of the Nilpena run, and S. by W. of mount Deception, Nuccaleena being the next* 
post town. 

NZZON CREEK (Co. Hindmarsh) is the name of a small stream flowing E. and 
W. through the agricultural settlement of Inman valley, and falling into the Inman 
creek at 3 miles distance from that place. 

NKANGKZTA (Co, Hindmarsh) is a central hundred of the county, having 
about half its area of purchased land, and the remainder scrubby and mountainous 
pastoral country. 

NOABXVNGA, 35'' 15' S. lat., 138"" 30" E. long. (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal 
township in the electoral district of Noarlunga, hundred partly of Noarlunga and partly 
of Willunga, and under the control of the district council of Noarlunga. It is situated 
on the banks of the river Onkaparinga, about 3 miles from its mouth, and is almost 
surrounded by the river which at this portion of its course flows in a curve of the form 
of a horseshoe, from which fact the town is known as ** The Horseshoe.*' There is a 
creek called the Fedler's creek, flowing about 2^ miles distant S., but no other creeks 
or rivers in the neighbourhood. The district is a purely agricultural one, growing 
wheat principally; small flocks of sheep are, however, kept by many of the farmers. 
Both copper and gold have been found on the banks of the Onkaparinga river, but not 
in paying quantities. The nearest places are Hackham, 2^ miles N.; and Bellevue, or 
McLaren's vale, 5 miles S.E. The communication as with Adelaide, 20 miles N., is by 
Rounsevell's daily mail coach, and by drays and passenger conveyances. Noarlunga 
has a post and money order o£Sce, a telegraph station, a council chamber, 1 Episcopal 
church, 2 Wesleyan, 2 Bible Christian, and 1 Primitive Methodist chapel, a public 
pound, a volunteer rifle corps, and branches of the Adelaide and South Australian 
insurance companies, and 2 hotels — the Horseshoe, and the Jolly Miller. There is a 
steam flour mill in full work in the township, a brewery (unoccupied,) and a brickyard. 
At the port of Noarlunga (Castleton) which is 3 miles distant, N.W. by W., is a 
harbour formed by a natural barrier of reef, about half-a-mile from the shore, behind 
which vessels can ride in safety in any weather. There is a jetty about 400 feet long, 
un^er the care of the district council, who receive jetty dues. Most of the wheat grown 
in the district is shipped thence to the other colonies. The resident magistrates are 
J. Clark, R. Budgen, and R. Bosworth, Esqs. The township lies low, not being many 
feet above the level of the sea; the surrounding country is hilly, but none of the 
elevations are of great altitude. The formation is principally of limestone. The 
population of Noarlunga numbers about 200, and that of the district about 1340 
persons. 

NOA&LUNGA (Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Noarlunga. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. W. Oliver, 
of the White hills, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council for the year 1865 were as follow :— Assessment, £5736— rate, Is. in the pound; 
rates collected, £336 7s. lOd.; total receipts, £714 13s. Id. ; office expenses and salaries, 
£121 5s. 2d; expended on public works, £473 Os, 2d. The population numbers 1341 
persons; the area is 46 square miles, or 29,440 acres; land under cultivation, 10,162 acres; 



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NoA— Nor] The South Australian Gazetteer. 161 

And number of dwelling-houses, 254. Noarlanga district council is bounded on the N. by 
the S. boundary of the district of the Sturt, and by the main South-eastern road, from 
the £. angle of the last-named district to the'Onkaparinga river; and on the W. by the 
tea coast; on the E. by the centre of the Onkaparlnga river, from section 3816 to the 
<!rossing of a road which forms the S. boundary of section No. 820, and the N. boundary 
of section No. 834; thence along the centre of this road to the S.W. comer of section 
No. 821; thence by a direct line, following a direction nearly S.E., to a trigonometrical 
station known as Wickham's hill; thence following the summit of the range about 
S.W., passing by another trigonometrical station, McLeod's hill, and crossing the 
Encounter bay road at the summit level above Willunga; thence continuing along the 
same range, passing mount Terrible; and thence fbllowing that feature of the range 
which terminates at the S.W. corner of section No. 674. It comprises the district 
councils of Aldinga, Clarendon (N. part), Echunga (W.part), Morphett vale, Noarlunga, 
and Willunga (W. part,) and has a population of 6287 persons, and an area of 193 square 
miles, or 123,520 acres, of which 34,168 ^res are under cultivation. The voting-plac^es 
for this district are Noarlunga, Willunga, and Happy valley. NOarlunga is represented 
. in the legislative assembly by J. Carr and J . Ck>lton, Esqs. The number of registered 
electors for 1865 in this district was, for the Legislative Council 600, and for the 
Xegislative Assembly 1058. 

NOA&LUNGA {Co. Adelaide) is a W. hundred of the county, lying to the S. of 
Adelaide city, between the rivers Sturt on the N. and Onkaparlnga on the S. It con- 
sists for the most part of purchased land, much of which is under cultivation. The 
townships of Clarendon, Glenelg, and Noarlunga are in this hundred. 

NONIf ONO {Flinders district) is a postal township in the W. part of the electoral 
district of Flinders. It is situated about 6 miles N.E. of lake Macdonald, in the centre 
of a pastoral district taken up as sheep runs. Streaky bay lies to the S.E., the township 
of Watts being about 124 miles distant. The comn^unication is by horse and dray only, 
the mail being carried on horseback once a fortnight. With Adelaide, 524 miles distant, 
the communication is by horse to port Lincoln, 324 miles distant, and thence by fortnightly 
steamer 200 miles, or by horse to Streaky bay, aUd thence by occasional coasting vesseL 
The surrounding country is low, sandy^ and scrubby, alternating with limestone ridges 
and large open well-grassed plains, the ridges running generally £. and W. The 
population is scattered and small, consisting principally of the residents on the neigh- 
bouring stations. 

irOmrOKG (or point Bell,) station ( it. (fw^nc^;) leases, Nos. 877, 1033, and 
1153; occupiers, Marrabel and Miller; total area, 191 square miles; grazing capacity, 
20,000 sheep. This station lies at point Bell, to the W. of Denial bay, and has a post- 
office (the furthest W. in the colony) for the convenience of the district. It lies 324 miles 
N.W. of port Lincoln, 124 miles N.W. of Streaky bay, and 180 miles N.W. of Venus 
bay. It is watered by wells dug in the sand-hills bordering the coast. 

NOXtKEANVZLXiE {Co . Hindmarsh) is a postal township and small harbour in 
the electoral district of Encounter bay, hundred of YankaliUa, and under the control 
of the district council of Yankalilla, It is situate on the Bungala river, and is sur- 
rounded by hills and fresh water creeks, fresh water being to be had by sinking in any 
part of the distj-ict, which is both an agricultural and a pastoral one. There are several 
copper and silver lead miles in the neighbourhood, the principal one being the Big 
Gror^e silver lead and copper mine. There is abundance of silver lead in Mr. Barritt*s 
sections, and gold has been found in small quantities. The Big Gorge mine lies 2mile8 
S. of the township, on the face of a steep hUl rising almost abruptly from a flat half-a- 
mile from the sea. The copper lode runs about N.N.E., and is traceable for above 250 
yards on the surface. It is composed of a quartzose rock, strongly impregnated with 
blue and green carbonate oif co{^er, and containing three veins of ore. Barritt's stations 
Ue li miles N. of Normanville. A mine (Barritt's) was opened on a hill in sight of 
the sea, in this place, in 1862, and ore, rich iji gold and silver was raised. A discovery 
has been made at the Great Gorge mine which warrants the anticipation that that pro- 
perly will become one of the most valuable in the South. An adit level has been lately 
driven on the foot of the hiU, and at 32 fathoms a lode has been cut fully 12 feet wide, 
carrying sulphate of copper and peacock ore, interspersed with felspar and micaceous 
slate. Several mining ** authorities'* who have seen Uie lode speak in the highest terms 
of i^. It is intended to drive further on the level, as it is expected there are two other 
lode^ even richer than this. Th^ d^covery was made only a short time ago. The 
Qaif|re mine is admirably suitable for the dressing and shipment of ores— it being on the 

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162 The South Australian Gazetteer^ [Nor 

Yankalilla river, and not more than a mile and a-half from the Normanyille jetty, with 
a good metalled road the whole distance. The following is an extract from Captain 
Price's report of the ahove mine, dated 7th September, 1866 : ** I find that there is still 
flye fathoms more to drive before we can commence the rise to hole the shaft. These 
5 fathoms I have let at £4 per fathom, and when this is driven the rise will be im- 
mediately commenced. I am happy to say that the mine looks well. We have driven 
through orey ground on the course of the lode N.E. 2 fathoms, and S.W. I fathom 
from which a quantity of stuff is laid aside for dressing. We have also sunk a 
winze on the lode in the N.E. side of the adit to a depth of 4 fathoms, in which, I am 
happy to say, the lode looks remarkably well, and yields some fine rocks of yellow 
sulphurets of copper, in fact, the lode in the winze is all paying work." The nearest 
places to Normanville are Rapid bay, 10 miles S.; and Yankalilla, the ne;Et telegraph 
station, Smiles N.; the communication being by mail coach. With Adelaide, 53 miles N. 
the communication is by Rounsevell's daily mail coaches from Yankalilla. Norman- 
rille has a post office, a distriot court house, a custom house, 2 steam flour mills in full 
work, a brewery, a brick yard, a Foresters' court, an Oddfellows' lodge, a local court, 
a branch of the Adelaide Assurance and Guarantee company, and 1 hotel — the 
Normanville (Bryant's.) There is a coach office (Rounsevell's) at Hewitt's auction 
rooms. A new jetty is in course of construction, and will be, when completed, a great 
boon to the district. The surrounding country is mountainous, with abundance of good 
timber and fresh water, and the entire district is in a very flourishing state. There 
are some quarries of good building stone, and an the township several good sub- 
stantia stone buildings are erected. The population numbers about 1500 persons in 
the town and neighbourhood of Normanville. The geological formation consists of 
granite, euritic schist, mica, and chlorile schists, with magnetic iron ore, and occasional 
deposits of hornblende and epidote. There are beds of gravel and occasionally good 
beds of marble found in the locality. 

NO&TB ARM CCo. Adelaide) is a branch of the entrance to port Adelaide 
running off from the main stream in an N.E. direction into the swamps which lie at 
the back of that part of the coast. The small village of Newhaven is situated in a bend 
of this creek. 

NOaTB AVENUE STATION (Oo. Grey;) lease, 335a; occupiers, Tilley and 
Ormerod; area, 50 square miles. This station lies 30 miles W. of Penola, at the head 
of Reedy creek. See Avenob Run, North. 

irOaTHSair pastoral district is the name given to the vast area of 
country in the electoral district of Flinders, lying to the N. of the settled districts, and 
comprising the whole of the waste lands of the colony, to the N. of about lat. 34°, 
excepting the W. and N.E. pastoral districts. It is an immense tract of country, 
consisting for the most part of sandy and stony desert, arid, or covered with dense scrub 
and spinifex grass, and badly watered. Lar^e portions of it are taken up by immense 
salt lakes and marshes, the principal of which are lakes Torrens, Gairdner, and Eyre^ 
each of which is many thousands of square miles in extent, and lie in a depression, 
supposed to be volcanic, which extends from N. to S. across the continent. It was 
formerly supposed that these lakes were connected, but explorations have discovered 
the fact that there are wide tracts of country separating them, and that much ot the 
country which was supposed to be desert is available for sheep and cattle runs. Very 
large blocks of land are now taken up under pastoral leases to the S. of lake Eyre, S. 
and W. of lake Torrens, N., and on both sides the main range, and to the S. of lake 
Gairdner. Most of these suffer, however, in dry seasons from the want of water, and 
the losses in the N. district during the drought which has prevailed for the last 3 years 
have been very great, many of the stations having been totally unstocked. In the 
country to the S. of lake Gairdner, and that to the W. of lake Torrens, there are some 
tolerably good streams and numerous native wells, whilst in the neighbourhood of the 
main range and lake Blanche, to the N. of the main range, and to the S. and S.E. of 
lake Torrens, the squatters have to rely in a great measure upon surface water, and have 
suffered exceedingly. In the country to the S. of lake Eyre is a series of singular 
springs, many of them hot, which afford a supply of water the year round. (See 
Blanche Cup.) The portion of this district lying to the W. of the main range is usually 
known as the Western plains. The towns and post offices in the district are Melrose, 
Beautiful valley and port Augusta in the S.; Kanyaka, Hollowelena, Blinman, Nucca- 
leenaand An^ripena on and near the main range ; mount Margaret and Oomberatana in 
the N.W. (to the S.W. of lake Eyre;) and Yudanamutana, Blanchewater and lake Hope 

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Nor] The South Australian Gazetteer, 163 

in the N.B. In this district there are 1511 acres of purchased land, 8001 acres enclosed, 
and 12 acres under cultivation. The live stock numbers 2092 horses, 14,643 horned 
cattle, 133,199 sheep, 963 goats, 44 pigs, and 1712 head of poultry. The land under 
cultivation comprises 7 acres fallow, 4 acres garden, and 1 acre vineyard, the latter 
having 600 vines in bearing, and 230 not in bearing, and producing at the last crop 
2 cwt. of grapes. The population numbers 855 persons, and the number of dwellings 
is 315. 

NORTB-EASTERN FASTOHAL DISTRICT. See Eastern Plains. 

NOaTB RHINE {Co. Eyre.) See Rhine N. 

MOaTBSBJr TERRITORY is a vast tract of land annexed to the colony of 
South Australia by commission under the great seal, bearing date 8th July, 1863, 
comprising all the country which lies to the N. of the 26th parallel of S. lat., and 
between the 129'' and 138° of £. long., together with all bays, gulfs, and adjacent 
islands, within those limits. The E. boundary line of this territory cuts the coast near 
the mouth of the Wentworth river on the W. shore of the gulf of Carpentaria, and the 
W. near cape Domett on Cambridge gulf. The following account of the proceedings in 
reference to the settlement of this part of the country is extracted from Forster's work 
on South Australia: — 

** In consequence of the success of Mr. Stuart, in crg^ing the Australian continent, 
from Adelaide to Van Diemen's gulf, and the favourable report given by him of the 
character of the country upon the northern coast, the South Australian government, 
having obtained the protectorate of the new territory, resolved to undertake the 
experiment of colonising it. A town was to be laid out in the most convenient 
siytuation, in allotments of half-an-acre each, and country sections were to be surveyed 
<j a minimum area of 160 acres. It was proposed that, first of all, land orders should 
be issued for 250,000 acres of country land, at 7s, 6d. per acre, half to be sold in 
Adelaide, and half by the agent general in London, each section of 160 acres entitling 
purchasers to a town allotment. A second survey of 250,000 acres was afterwards to 
take place, bnt the price was to be raised to 12s. per acre. 

"The first land orders were offered, simultaneously, in England and in South 
Australia, in March, 1864, and were all disposed of, a company having been formed in 
each place to buy up the residue, after the applications of the general public had been 
satisfied. And on the 29th April, 1864, the official staff sent to prepare the way for 
the settlement of the new colony took their departure from Fort Adelaide in the 
Eenry Ellis. They consisted of :— -B. T. Finniss, government resident; J. T. Man ton, 
engineer and surveyor; F. E. Goldsmith, surgeon, and protector of aborigines; E. Ward, 
clerk and accountant; Clement Young, clerk and postmaster; Stephen King, store- 
keeper ; John Davis, assistant storekeeper; W, Pearson, R. H. Edmunds, H. D. Pack- 
ard, J. Wadham, and A. R. Hamilton, surveyors ; R. Watson and J. W. O. Bennett, 
draughtsmen; and sixty-seven chainmen and survey labourers. 

*' After arriving at his destination, the government resident fixed upon Escape 
cliffs, at Adam bay, as the site of the first town. The rest is soon told, though volumes 
have been written from the new settlement on the subject of the official proceedings 
there. Several of Mr. Finniss's officers and men became disaffected, and sought, 
through the medium of the newspapers in Adelaide, to give publicity to their grievances, 
the principal of which was an objection to the locality chosen for the town. As many 
as could leave the settlement did so, one party having proceeded to Champion bay, a 
distance of 1600 miles, in an open boat. The Government called upon Mr. Fiimis for 
explanations, and finally recalled him to Adelaide, until the complaints against hia 
administration could be investigated, Mr. M'Kinlay, in the meanwhile, being sent to 
Adam bay to report upon the general state of affairs there, and particularly upon the 
site of the 'proposed town. Looking at the correspondence published on both sides, it 
is difficult to come to the conclusion that Mr. Finniss has greatly erred in his proceed- 
ings. Writing to a friend in England, he attributes the failure of the scheme—if 
fi&Sure there should be— to the unnecessary condemnation of his site for the capital, 
and to his being recalled at a time when it would have been much more reasonable 
to have sent him additional men and means of transport The considerations which 
guided him in the selection of the locality for the town he states as follows:—* There 
is an abundance of fine grazing for all the cattle of South Australia in the belt of 
country parallel to the coast, at the distance inland of about 25 miles, and extending 
along the back country of the Adelaide down to the Victoria on one side, and I believe 
towards the Roper on the other. I have been up the Victoria 110 miles, to Palm 

H2 
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164 The South Australicm Gazetteer. [Nor 

itland, in a boat, and landed at several places. I could see enough of the Whirlwind 
plains, of Stokes, and of the distant hills, to be able to form a certain conclusion in 
my own mind that Litchfield's discoveries on the Daly river are connected with the 
"Whirlwind plains by similar country throughout. The extension from the Adelaide, 
at the back of the Alligator river, towards the gulf of Carpentaria, of this same fertite 
tract, I consider established by the similarity of geological formation in that direction. 
This belt of country comprises all the ranges, ridges, and spurs, with their intervening 
Talleys, which stretch out from the line of Gregory's march between the Roper and 
the Victoria. The problem with me was, having first ascertained tlmt there was good 
land enough to supply the demands of purchasers to the extent of 500,000 acres, with 
an unlimited back run, to connect this land with a port of call for shipping. Now, 
this, I consider, exists at the mouth of the Adelaide, to the N. of the Narrows, 
But shipping, if aided by steam, can pass up the river for at least 80 miles, and small 
vessels and steamers much higher. Moreover, boats and barges can be worked in 
almost all the creeks which branch out of the Adelaide, and carry produce either to 
a vessel at the head of the navigation, or to the more convenient port of call near 
the Narrows. I would have put the capital at the head of the navigation, but I 
considered it impossible for the vessels used in trade at present— sailing craft, and 
frequently clippers of great length— to go up the river without steam. The tides are 
so strong, the bends so tortuousy and the winds so uncertain and light, that they must 
be towed either by steam or by boats, or they would constantly get ashore on the soft 
mud, and lose many tides in reaching a capital so placed. I found, also, that the 
iwarops, and marshes, and prairies— or river flats, as they might be called— which 
constitute the valley of the Adelaide, would be injurious to the health of a population 
located within close proximity to the fogs and malaria of the rivers and creeks. I 
therefore prepared a town for residence within the sight and influence of the sea, and I 
found a level plateau, dry in the wettest season, at Escape cliffy.* Its situation, on a 
narrow peninsula, exposes it to the influence of constant breezes either from the S.B. 
or N.W., or I should rather say from the E.S.E. and N.N.W., which are the prevailing 
winds— indeed the constant winds. It was the consideration of its evident healthftd- 
ness, and my extreme doubt as to the healthfulness of other parts more exposed to 
malarious influences, which made me shun all inland harbours for residence. Thus, I 
never dreamt of making the Narrows a principal town, but only a place of business, 
to be deserted at. sunset for the more genial climate of Escape cliffs. With regard to 
the country, Mr. Finniss says:— * The belt of flne land which I have proved to exist 
2.5 miles, on the average, back from the coast, is separated fVom the intervening 
land by low ridges of, say 150 feet elevation, sinking gradually to 30 feet on the coast; 
and these ridges run N. and S., striking the sea at right angles to the line of shore. 
Between them are the various rivers, all tortuous and muddy, with flat plains on each 
■ide, of a black clay soil, which in dry weather breaks up into deep crackp, and in the 
wet weather retains the water, apparently from want of fall towards the river. These 
plains are clothed with long grass, as indeed are the ridges, which are composed of a 
sandy loamy soil, frequently of a reddish-brown hue. I consider this second-rate soil; 
but I have tried its character, and flnd that it produces cotton, I believe equal in 
quality to the Sea island cotton, of which I had seeds to plant, and sample to compare 
it with. Vegetables of all the kinds grown in Adelaide, or nearly so, may be produced 
in this land, not from Adelaide seeds, but from seeds of varieties acclimatised in Java 
and Timor. I have onlpr now to add, that Adam bay itself affords excellent shelter for 
shipping for 9 months m the year. During the months of December, January, and 
February, there are sometimes strong gales from the N.N.W. and W., but I never saw- 
any sea, even in the worst weather, that could cause a ship to drive from her anchors^ 
although it would at such times be undesirable to land goods over the reefs in open 
boats. At first, until stores and wharfs are constructed at the Narrows inside point 
Ayers, ships would remain outside, and discharge at the Cliff, at a place which I hare 
named Beatrice bay. I have no lime to go into the question of port Darwin; but my 
reasons for not preferring that superior harbour are to be found in the fact, that its 
naval capabilities are perhaps its only qualification for settlement, and it has many 
disadvantages.' Some interesting meteorological observations were made at Palmer- 
iton— the name of the embryo capital at Escape cliffs— for the months of January, 
Ifebruary, and March, 1865, by Mr. Jacob Bauer, fbrmerly connected with the 
Melbourne Observatory. The longitude of the locality is given as 131** Id' 55" E., and 
the latitude 12*^ 8' 42^' S. The highest mean temperature for January was 86*8; the 
maximum day temperature for February was 97*5, and for March 98*2| and maximiUii 

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Nob] *The SatUh Australian Gazetteer. 1&5 

BigbA temperature 89*0 and 89*6 respectiyelj. The total rainfall for the 3 months was 
38*608 iaohes; the fall in January being 19*673, in February 12*993, and in March, 
5*842 inches. In January it rained 25 days, in February 17 days, and in March 1€ 
days. The fall in the last month occurred principally between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. 
iFrom the 15th to the 21st of January the large quantity of 10*068 inches of rain feU. 
The plfUD for colonising North Australia, proposed by the Goyernment, was &ulty from 
the beginaing. If, instead of first of all laying out a large town, they had accepted 
some of the proposals sent in to them for depasturing stock in the new territory, the 
usual and only safe course of settlement would have been initiated, t^e gradual 
development of which would have led to the further arrangements necessary for 
meeting the wants of an increasing population. Perhaps it would be well to recur to 
this mode now, without any greater expenditure of time and money in pursuing what, 
at the best, can only be looked upon as a doubtful, experiment. As there appears to 
be little question as to the suitability of the country for the rearing of sheep and cattle, 
it would be a pity if its extensire and splendid pastures were not occupied as speedily 
at possible." 

The following extracts from the report of Mr. Waterhouse, who was employed as 
Jfaturalist to Stuart's expedition, describe the character of the country in the interior: 

"Near here (mount Hay) are some broken ranges, some of which are running 
nearly paralld with the Macdonnell range, forming broad and level valleys, in which 
the soil is much enriched from the washings from the ranges on either side. An 
abundanee of fine grass is found in these valleys, which, judging from a distant view 
which I obtained, on our return, from a high part of the mount Hay range, I think 
must be very extensive. A continuation of these well-grassed valleys seemed to extend 
in a north-westerly direction as far as I could see. * # * From central 
mount Stuart we crossed again the Hanson, which was dry, but found, at a few miles 
ftirther on, some water in small lagoons under some sand-hills; these on our return were 
dry. Near here I saw some bean-trees in bloom (Erithrina.) The blossom of these 
trees is rich and handsome, of reddish colour, in clusters of papillionaceous flowers ; 
the leaf is biloped; the foliage of the tree is scanty, and the wood exceedingly soft and 
spongy. We next came to the Stirling, where we camped, with plenty of water. 

* * * The Bonney, S. lat. 20° 24' 30", was the first running stream 
I had seen since leaving Adelaide. There was a plentiful supply of water here, and in 
parts a fine broad stream of deep water; on our return in September, there were but a 
few long shallow waterholes left. A few smooth-barked gum trees are growing on the 
l^nks. * # » This creek (Attack creek) had some very long, broad, and 
deep waterholes, with much conglomerate rock in the bed of the creek. There were 
some fine smooth-barked gum trees on its banks. On our return in September, the 
water was much reduced, yet there was still a good supply. We next crossed the 
Whitington range, apd camped on one of the sources of the Morphett, where we found 
water. This range is of a very hard, compact, siliceous sandstone. From thence we 
went to the Tomkinson, where we found plenty of water ; and then we proceeded to 
the Burke, where we found some good waterholes. * * * Most of these 
watercourses have the appearance of not having had water in them for many years. In 
the beds of the most considerable are to be seen growing gum trees of all ages, as well 
as acacias and shrubs. In some places, large gum trees, now black with age, that have 
been deposited by great floods, are to be seen scattered over the valleys near the banks. 
The only water I saw in these creeks, either going or returning, was in waterholes in 
the deepest parts of the beds ; many of these were snaall, and contained but a scanty 
supply, and often a great distance apart; they had not the appearance of being per- 
manent. - Many of them we found dried up on our return. I found this portion of the 
country very poor in zoology, having met with, while travelling, very tew species of 
birds or animals. The common rock wallaby was found throughout |n rocky ranges, 
and the uroo kangaroo was occasionally seen in the same localities. The dingo 
or native dog was heard and seen throughout the continent. The birds which 
were seen were chiefly those that are common in the far north, such as the 
small rock pigeon, the blue-crested, the bronzed-winged, and brown flock 
pigeons; kites, on Sturt's plains (where they feed on grasshoppers,) were very 
Dunerous. * * * These ponds (Howell's ponds) consist of a chain of 

small waterholes in a low part of the plain, which are supplied by surface drainage. 
Most of them are deep, and I should think would hold water a long time, the soil being 
of a tenacious clayey nature. Judging from the appearance of the surrounding 
fiouDtry, in which there are many depressions, I think it probable that when it becomes 



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166 The South Australian Oazetteer. [Nos 

better known many similar chains of ponds may be discoyered. Small swamp gums 
are generally growing around them, but so are they also in other low localities where 
no water is, so that they afford no indication that can assist the explorer: the general 
nature of the country is such, that the waterholes can only be seen upon a near approach, 
and a^ thus difficult to find. These fine open plains are evidently yery extensiye, and 
of a dark alluvial soil of a somewhat clayey nature, covered with luxuriant grass, are 
very suitable for pastoral purposes. Belts of thick scrub are frequently met with, where 
sand has been accumulated by the action of the wind. Whilst camping at Howell's 
ponds, I m9t with a beautiful arborescent species of bignonia, with a long yellow trumpet- 
shaped flower. This was the only tree of the sort I found in blossom, though after- 
wards I met with many in fruit, which I was enabled to collect. The tree grows about 
14 feet high, with a delicate foliage; the leaves are long and narrow; the seed-vessel is 
a long pod, with a curiously winged seed inside. » » ♦ The Daly waters 
consist of some waterholes in a conglomerate rock in the bed of a creek; the one near 
which we camped was about 8 feet deep, although not large. In it were many small 
fish of the perch tribe, some skins of which I procured; these fish are of the same 
species as those I found throughout the country from Merchant's springs to the Boper. 
I here met with a very pretty species of green and red parrot, which probably is new, 
as I do not find it figured in Gould's work; also a singular black and white, with long 
bill curiously notched {cracticus picatuSf) and several other birds, which I shet and 
skinned. U'here are several new species of handsome gum trees near these waters, 
the forage of which is bold, the leaves being the largest I have seen, some of the leaves 
were broad and nearly a foot long; one species has a very smooth bark of a pale nankeen 
colour; these trees give a very pretty and varied effect to the scenery. The nut trees^ 
a species of ^ermtna/ta, or, perhaps, achras, are Ttry plentiful near here, and a second 
species was found with a long leaf. The gum of these trees is readily soluble in cold 
water, and is good to eat when pounded very small and dissolved; three large table 
spoonsful we found would make one quart of thick gum water. In appearance it is 
very similar to gum tragacanth. Another new tree was found growing on the banks of 
thecreek; it was about 50 feet high, with a fine thick foliage; the leaves were dark green 
and shiny, the bark was rough, the barrel straight, and about 18 inches in diameter. 
The wood of this tree is exceedingly hard, and much resembles lignum vitce, I , 
regret being unable to procure any fiowers or seeds from this handsome tree. In the ' 
neighbourhood of Daly waters many very interesting plants were common, as several 
malvaceous plants, a species of caper, some acacias, among them acacia farinesiana, a 
grewiuy a terminaiia. ♦ » » The banks of the river (Strangways) are deep 
and steep, and there are many small creeks running into it; the bed is with a rapid tall, 
and was dry, with the exception of a few waterholes in deep places, generally at a great 
distance apart. From this camp, still following the river, we passed over a country 
with good alluvial soil, well timbered and with good grass, till we arrived at the Hock 
camp, where we camped by some immense detached blocks of sandstone rock. To 
the W. and N.W. were seen many sandstone rises, one of which I ascended for the 
purpose of obtaining a view of the surrounding country, which I found in the direction 
of these stony rises appeared to have much porcupine grass, but moderately well 
timbered with small gum and other trees. To the £. the country appeared much 
better, being level, and having larger trees and good grass. * * ♦ The 
general character of the Strangways is that of a narrow, deep river, with steep banks 
in a clayey soil. The banks are well lined with a large species of casuarina and other 
trees, which keep them from falling in. The descent is rapid, which may account for 
the bed being dry, except in a few deep parts, where there were small waterholes. The 
soil near the banks was generally of a rich alluvial character, and the grass both t^ 
and good, although dry. A few good dams, placed at intervals across the river, wouR 
keep the water up and prevent so much running away. # * * » Leavibg 
the camp on the West Koper, June 26tli, for the purpose of making the Adelaide river, 
we returned by following up the river in search of a ford : after passing over some 
excellent and well-watered country, having rich alluvial soil with most luxuriant grass 
and well-timbered with gum trees, we succeeded in finding a ford on the second day't 
journey. The river winds very much, and the banks are so thickly lined with trees, 
palms, and canes, that it is quite concealed from view, and we of^eu found it difficult 
to reach the water from the thickness of the growth of the vegetation on its banks. * • 
These fine springs (Keckwick's spring?) furnished a good supply of water to several 
rivulets, the number and extent of which were concealed by dense vegetation; several - 
species of ferns were growing near these springs, and some of the largest and finest 



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Nor] The South Australian Gazetteer. 167 

callistemons that we had seen. We here met with, for the first time, a beautifal species 
of parrot {tichogloastis rubritorquis) Tery similar to the one known near Adelaide as the 
Blue mountains. Proceeding from the springs we soon arrived at a stony rise, 
ascending which we came on some table-land extending, in the part over which we 
crossed, about 13 miles. The whole of this table-land was well-timbered with tall, 
straight gum trees, of from 1 foot to 18 inches in diameter, of a species much resembling 
stringy bark (^tucalyptus fabrorum^) occasionally a few natiye pines {frenela,) were seen, 
as well as some fan palms {LivisUma) in seed, tome of which I collected. After 
travelling about 4 hours through this forest of trees, we suddenly came on a deep 
precipice of rough porous volcanic rock, from the top of which we had a very extensive 
and beautiful view. In the foreground was a fine broad deep valley, through which a 
stream was running, but so overgrown with trees and palms, some of which were from 
60 to 70 feet high, that the stream was completely concealed from view. « * • 
To the N. and N.E., beyond the valley, the country was flat as far as 
could be seen, and appeared to be well grassed. Far to the N.W. the country appeared 
hilly and well timbered. ♦ • * After leaving Billiatt's springs, July 15th, 
S. lat. 13° 17 22", we met with frequent stony rises, some composed o 3 very hard 
sandstone with veins of quartz, others entirely of very white granular quartz — occa- 
sionally a little coarse-grained grey granite was seen to crop out in the form of boulders, 
and near which was generally some blue schistoze rock of a very finely laminated 
nature. This part of the country is much intersected by narrow deep creeks of running 
water concealed by palms, bamboos, gum, and other trees growing on the rich alluvial 
soil on the banks; and in the valleys, which were well-grassed, and timbered with 
«everal species of gums, with occasionally a few native pines {frenala) and other trees. 

♦ * * On coming on the Adelaide river, which, at the part where we 
struck it, appeared to be about 80 yards broad, with st^p banks and deep water, the 
edge of which was well-lined with palms and large bamboos. The water was without 
any apparent current, and there was no indication of a tidal mark on the bank. Soon 
after leaving the river, we came on an extensive marsh, in parts thickly wooded with 
large gum trees. * ♦ « From Anna's creek the country gradually falls, 
and is intersected by deep creeks of water, thickly lined by beautiful palms, bamboos, 
and trees. Occasionally volcanic rock was seen in small rises, and some thickly 
timbered belts, with a dense undergrowth of scrub and woodbine, which were passed 
through with difficulty. This sort of country continued till we arrived on a very 
extensive and luxuriantly grassed fresh water marsh, on the margin of which we 
camped, where there was some slightly elevated ground a short distance from the river. 
The next morning I went down to the river for the purpose of examining it, and I 
found a fine sheet of water extending in a northerly direction as far as I could see, and 
probably about 80 yards in breadth. ♦ » ♦ « ♦ 

To the E. the marsh was skirted by a low rise of well- timbered ground. The bank 
of the river being too boggy to proceed that way to its mouth, we were obliged to skirt 
the marsh by following the rising ground to the £., which idfter passing over well 
wooded and watered country, with occasionally some fine open grassy flats of rich black 
alluvial soil, we came on a belt of marshy ground, crossing which we found on the other 
side a narrow belt of scrub, composed of mangrove and several sorts of umbrageous 
trees with a thick growth of underwood, in which was much woodbine, which we were 
frequently obliged to cut to clear a passage for the horses. After forcing our way 
through this, we came suddenly on the sea (July 24;) the tide was out at the time, 
and the shore presented to our view nothing but a level sheet of blue mud extending 
half-a-mlle to the water's edge. There was a narrow margin of sand above high- 
water mark, on which were found a few dead shells, but no sea-weed was anywhere 
to be seen." ^ 

The following extract from the South Australian JRegister of 26th December, 1862, 
also bears on the same subject: — *'Our readers will doubtless be glad to have an oppor- 
tunity of perusing such statements as are recorded by other explorers relative to the 
•country which has now been opened up by Mr. Stuart, and which lies between the scrub 
recently passed through and the sea coast which formed the terminus of his journey 
northward. We are fortunately able to supply full particulars on this subject from 
having obtained a copy of Leichhardt's journal, which contains a detailed description 
of that part of Arnhem's Land, which lies between the Roper river and Van Diemen's 
gulf. When Leichhardt described this country in 1846, public attention was struck 
with his account of the magnificent scenery which he had passed through; but, though 
ft strong impression was produced, the new country appeared to the people of these 

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168 The South AvstraHan Gazetteer. [Nob 

oolcmies so far distant, and so completely unconnected with existing settlements, tha& 
DO more immediate results were anticipated from the explorer's discovery than it his 
trayels had been in Borneo or Java. Bat now the case is different. The glowing 
description given by Leichhardt of a country separated from Sydney and Adekide by 
a dangerous journey of many thousand miles, will be applied in the diary of Stuart to a 
country within easy access of our northern boundary, and likely, at a very early date, 
to be occupied by stock from this colony. When Mr. Stuart states that, the public will 
be astonished to learn the particulars of this part of his journey; and when Mr. 
Keckwick remarks, as he does in a communication given elsewhere, that the beauty of 
•ome part of the country, with its palm-trees and other tropical vegetation, was remark, 
able, our readers will have no difficulty in understanding the extent of these statements 
after the report which Iicichhardt has given of the same region. The Roper river, which 
Stuart struck soon after getting through the belt of scrub, is thus described by Leich- 
hardt: — * As far as the tide extends, this river is from 150 to 200 yards broad, deep, 
with steep banks lined with dense hedges of the pandanus, of the drooping tea-tree, and 
several other brush trees, amongst which jasmin in blossom rendered the air fragrant 
with the perfume of its flowers. Vines hung from tree to tree, and a fine luguminoua 
dimber, with green flowers, big pods, and big brown seeds, grew in abundance .''^ 
These seeds, crushed and boiled, formed, it is said, a very nutritious food. Speaking of 
the Roper in another part of his journal, Leichhardt says: — " The country along the 
river is openly timbered, particularly its upper part, which opens into fine plains, and 
would be well-adapted for pastoral purposes. There are, however, many rocky ranges, 
bluff isolated hills, and mountains which frequently approach the river, and render the- 
travelling along its banks difficult." The South Alligator and the East Alligator are 
afterwards fully described by the same explorer. He says: — "The valley of the upper 
East Alligator, which I rather should call Goose river (for nowhere we observed so many 
geese, and what is called an'alligator is no alligator, but a crocodile, ) is one of the most 
romantic spots I have ever seen in my wanderings. A broad valley, level, with the- 
most luxuriant verdure; abrupt hills and ranges rising everywhere along its E. and 
W. sides, and closing it apparently at its southern extremity; lagoons, forming 
fine sheets of water, scattered over it; and a creek, though with salt water, wind^ 
ing through it.'' Descending from the high land through which these rivers run» 
and approaching the coast now reached by Mr. Stuart, but more to the eastward, 
Leichhardt gives a full account of the low country around Van Diemen's gulf. One 
of the first things which attracted his attention was the appearance of buffalo tracks, 
which increased as the expedition neared the sea shore. Describing this part of the 
country Leichhardt says — *' The stringy bark, the melaluca gum, and the leguminous 
ironbark are the prevailing timber. The cypress pine is abundant on the neck of the 
peninsula, the cabbage-palm with long pinnetified leaves grows along some of the 
creeks, and even on the ridges, and forms a grove and almost a forest at Mortejolk. 
Along the creeks and in the swamps the tea-tree grows to a stately size, and yields an 
excellent timber. The small fan-leaved palm is very abundant; the little gooseberry- 
tree becomes a low shrub." As the party proceeded, herds of buffalo were seen, until, 
as Leichhardt says, the whole country became as closely covered with buffalo tracks as 
a well- stocked run in New South Wales could be with bullock tracks. The natives 
whom Leichhardt met in the neighbourhood of Van Diemen's gulf were friendly. 
Many of them used Malay words, and some of them, from having been in contact with 
sailors, were acquainted with a little English. Some attempts at theft were detected 
amongst them, but there was exhibited none of that ferocity which had been met 
with amongst the natives on the other side of the gulf of Carpentaria. The chief 
result of his journey through this country was, he thought, that it demonstrated the 
existence of a practical route between the eastern part of the continent and th« 
Alligator rivers. It seems never to have entered into his imagination that the fine 
country which he was passing through could be possibly approached from South 
Australia, or that the magnificent rivers which he was descending would at any time 
be regarded as possible outlets for a direct overland trade between these colonies and. 
the Indian ocean. Gregory, who in 1856 made a journey from the Victoria river^ 
around the head of the gulf of Carpentaria, to New South Wales, passed at no great 
distance beyond the belt of scrub which Mr. Stuart has now penetrated. It was an 
object with Gregory to keep as fiir inland as possible. But the country towards the 
centre of the continent looked so hopeless that he went round by the Roper river, and 
availed himself of that usefhl stream as Leichhardt had before, and as Stuart has now- 
done, though for a different purpose. Gregory describes the country in the neighboui^ 

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Nob] !rhe South AuOralian Gazetteer. 16^ 

Jiood of the Boper as the heat with which he met after leaving the Victoria. The ranges 
he found were of basalt, and there were feed and water for stock in abundance. This 
eoncurrent testimony in favour of the country around the Roper is valuable, for it 
appears, :from Mr. Stuart's chfirt, that it is by the way of this river that the tableland 
and the sea coast beyond must be j^eached. It is In that direction, after failing in all 
others, that he has now succeeded in penetrating the bad country which repelled him 
in his last expedition — the bad country which made Gregory shun the interior, and 
which had previously caused Leichhardt to hug the coast as much as possible. It is 
by way of the Roper that the whole river system of Amhem's land can be reached. By 
bringing this valuable coast country into direct communication with South Australia 
|ir. Stuart has done more than he would if he had explored new lands in the interior. 
He might have shown us, as some explorer doubtless will before long, what kind of 
region lies between the centre of the continent and Western Australia. An immense 
country never yet trodden by the foot of white man there still remains to be examined. 
But no discovery of new territory could be half so important as this extension of Mr. 
Stuart's previous track to a part of the coast which is supplied with good harbours, 
and backed by a fertile tableland, across which vast rivers take their course downward 
to the sea. We look upon this extension as practically giving South Australia another 
sea frontage. By a coincidence, which we have a right to accept as a good omen, the 
great river which Mr. Stuart followed down already bears the name of Adelaide, and is 
thus associated with South Australia in the minds of all persons." 

13)0 following is an extract from the South Australian Advertiser of January 26, 1863: 
— ** In a kind of postscript to his journal, addressed to the hon. the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, Mr. Stuart thus sums up his views of the newly discovered country: 
— *In conclusion, I beg to say, that I believe this country (i.e. from the Roper to the 
Adelaide, and thence to the shores of the gulf,) to be well-adapted for the settlement of 
an European population. The climate being in every respect suitable, and the 
surrounding country of excellent quality and of great extent. Timber — stringybark, 
ironbark, gum, &c., with bamboo, 50 to 60 feet high on the banks of the river— is 
abundant, and at convenient distances. The country is intersected by numerous 
springs and watercourses in every direction. In my journey across I was not fortunate 
in meeting with thunder showers and heavy rains, but, with the exception.of two nights, 
I was never without a sufficient supply of water. This will show the permanency of the 
different waters, and I see no difficulty in taking over a herd of horses at any time.' " 

On Mr. Finniss's departure from the new settlement, Mr. Manton was left in charg0 
as Government resident, and between him and Mr. M'Kinlay disagreements soon 
l(prung up— the latter stating that he was totally unfitted for the post, and that instead 
<rf forwarding researches into the country he remained at head quarters impeding all 
investigation. M'Kinlay, however, penetrated to a considerable distance into the 
interior and found some good country, but was obliged to return in consequence of the 
floods he experienced during his journey, amd having expended nearly all his provisions, 
and being unable to retrace his steps by land had to perform a considerable portion of 
his backward route in a boat, constructed of saplings and skins. After reaching the 
settlement, and still finding disaffection and misunderstandings amongst the officials 
there, he left for Adelaide, which place he reached in October last, when he bitterly 
complained of the conduct of Mr. Manton, his report stating, in effect, that under the 
system of mismanagement which had been carried on, the undertaking had proved a 
failure. On this, the Legislature, after some deliberation, came to the conclusion that 
they could not, without breaKing fiaith with those person who had invested money in 
the scheme, abandon it, and advertised for tenders for the completion of the survey of 
that part of the country lying near the new settlement. Whether this will be 
carried out, or whether the scheme will prove a successful one, remains yet to be seei), 
NOaTBUMBEBliAND, CAPE, 38° 4' S. lat.. and 140° 42' 33" S. long. {Co, 
Grey,) is a prominent head of the S.E. coast standing boldly out into the sea, and having 
a reef of rocks running off it. The land about this cape may be easily known by 2 re- 
markable mountains near each other. Mount Gambler, the N. one, is peaked and bears 
from the cape N. by E., 12 miles; mount Schanck, the other, is flat-topped, and bears 
N.N.E. 4 E., 9 or 10 miles from the cape. To the E. of the cape lies Macdonnell bay, 
and off it to the S. W. is the Macdonnell light— which see. There is a rocket apparatus 
and a Ufeboat at this place. 

l^rp&TB-WEST BEND, or Von Riebbn's. 34° S. lat, 139° 40' E. long. (Co. 
Myrp,) is the nanie of a post office at the North- West bend hotel, on the main road from 



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170 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Nor 

Adelaide to Wentworth, and on the river Murray, the hotel being situated on a lagoon 
lying parallel with the riyer, and half-a-mile distant to the W. of it. This lagoon is 
deep and contains permanent water; it abounds in fish, and is the breeding-place of 
immense flocks of aquatic birds. It lies in the hundred of £ba, the district being a 
pastoral one, stocked with sheep and cattle. The nearest townships are Blanchetown, 
23 miles S. ; and Eapunda, 45 miles W. by direct road ; the communication with the 
former place being by Rounsevell's weekly mail coach, and with the latter by horse or 
priyate conyeyance. With Adelaide the communication is by Bounseyell's weekly 
mail coach via Blanchetown to Freeling, and thence by rail, the distance by that route 
being 117 miles; or by horse or dray to Eapunda, and thence by rail, 92 miles. There 
is also communication by the river steamers to Goolwa, and thence by coasting steamer. 
The North- West Bend hotel (Von Rieben's) is a calling place for RounseveU's line of 
intercolonial coaches, the next hotel being Mallyon's, 16 miles N.E., and also on the 
main road to Wentworth. The surrounding country consists of an extensive plain, 
which lies about 100 feet above the level of the river; it extends about 40 miles E. and 
W., and is sandy and intersected by dense belts of mallee scrub. The predominating 
formation is tertiary, represented by limestone very rich in tertiary fossils. The popu- 
lation within a radius of about 30 miles numbers about 100 persons. The resident 
magistrate is B. N. Bell, Esq., J. P. 

MORTB-WSST BEND RUN (Co. Young;) lease. No. 94; occupier, C. H. 
Armytage; area, 55 square miles; grazing capability, 5500 sheep, or 100 per square 
mile; old rental and assessment, £82 10s.; Goyder*8 valuation, £184 10s. per annum, 
deducting improvements valued at i.'865. The sheep are shorn at the woolshed in the 
hundred of Stuart. The stock is watered from a deep well and the river Murray. This 
run lies on the great bend of the Murray river, 50 miles E.S.E. of Eooringa, and 110 
miles' N.E. of Adelaide. The post ofllce is on the main road, at Von Reiben's North- 
West Bend hotel, Jiear the run. The main overland road passes through the run, and 
on it about 15,000 sheep pass every year. This run also includes leases, Nos. 253, 370, 
441, 242, 893, 896, 900, 901, and 944. The entire block has an area of 820 square 
miles, the grazing capability being variously estimated at from 50 to 150 sheep per 
square mile. . The stock on the run at present is 8000 sheep, 200 head of cattle, and 
195 horses. On the whole of this run are 137 miles of wire and brush fences, forming 
sheep paddocks, and several wells, some of which are from 200 to 300 feet in depth. A 
portion of this run is known as the Government Well station. The manager is Mr. 
D. McLean. 

NORTB-WSST BEND E. RUN {Murray river district;) lease. No. 330; occu- 
pier, F. Taylor; area, 43 square miles; rent and assessment, £44 15s, lOd. per annum. 
The next post office is at the North- West bend. 

irOaWSST, mount, 29° 68' S. lat., 137° 45' E. long, (Flinders district,) is a 
high rocky peak forming the S. point of a range of hills which run in a N. W. and S.E. 
direction from the pastoral country to the S. of lake Eyre, for about 20 miles through 
rugged desert country. 

NORWOOD (Co. Adelaide) is a postal township suburban to the city of Adelaide, 
and forming part of the municipality of Kensington and Norwood, in the hundred of 
Adelaide. It lies on the E. side of Adelaide, at a distance of about 2^ miles from the 
central part of the town. There are 2 creeks runnin|j|through Norwood, known as 
the First and Second creeks. Both rise from the hills about 4 miles E. of Norwood, 
and only flow during the wet season of the year, or about 3 or 4 months, and empty 
themselves in the river Torrens. In Norwood there are 2 brick manufactories, and 
several wine maniifactories, or distilleries of brandy ; also, in Kent town, a brewery; 
and in Hackney, a flour mill. Both these places adjoin and form part *of Norwood 
township. Glenosmond is the nearest mine to Norwood; it is a silver lead mine, and 
lies about 6 miles S. Norwood is bounded on the h). by Kensington and Marryatville; 
N., by Stepney and Hackney; and W., by Kent town. It has 4 sections, the other 
places 1 section each. Conveyances run to and from Adelaide or Kensington, passing 
through the above towns every 10 'minutes. In Norwood there is a benevolent asylum 
known as the Female Refuge, which is supported by voluntary contributions by all 
denominations. There are the following hotels in the township— Britannia, Old Colo- 
nist inn, Alma inn. Vintage* Shades, Gold-diggers' Arms, Bath hotel, and Rol in Hood 
inn; in Kensington are the Rising Sun and Globe inn; in Marryatville, the Marryatville 
hotel; in Stepney, the Maid and Magpie, and Buck's Head; and in Kent town, the Keot 



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N0O — ^Nut] The South AmtraUan Oazetteer. 171 

Town hotel, and Kentish Arms. There is a cab ^tand at Kensington for conveyances 
to Adelaide. There is a post and money order office, and a public pound in the town- 
ship. The resident magistrates are G. W. Hawkes, and T. Ward, £sqs. Norwood, 
Kensington, Marryatville, and Kent towns, are under the corporation of Kensington and 
Norwood, consisting of a mayor and 8 councillors; and Stepney and Hackney under a 
district council. The country is flat, surrounded E. and S. by hills. The College of 
St. Peter is situated in Hackney, St. Bartholomew's church, Norwood; St. Matthew's 
church, Kensington; and Dissenters haye 6 places of worship in the above townships. 
(See Kbnsinoton and Norwood Municipality.) At the N.E. extremity of Norwood, 
Mr. E. Cartwright has a vineyard, where he grows table grapes, and Grenache, black 
Portugal, Malbec, and Shiraz, for red wine. Under the house is a capital cellar. Near 
Mr. Cartwright's, Mr. A. H. W. Meyer has a vineyard of 2^ acres, chiefly planted with 
the Grenache variety. 

HVCCALESITA, SI"" 3' S. lat., ISS'' 30" E. long. (AT. district,) is a postal mining 
Tillage in the electoral district of Flinders, and lying on the W. side of the main North 
road, to the S, of mount Hemmons. The resident magistrate is P. Morrison, Esq., J. P. 
The Nuccaleena mine is situated about 120 miles to the N. of port Augusta, and is the 
property of an English mining company (the Great Northern mining company, limited,) 
which was formed in the year 1859 to work the several mineral claims taken out by 
Messrs. Chambers and Fincke. A large deposit of very valuable ore was found on .the 
surface, which yielded in little more than 12 months about 800 tons. This deposit, 
however, ran out in a few fathoms, and though the lode continued, the yield of ore so 
far diminished, and the difficulties of mining operations were so much increased by the 
drought which then prevailed in the north, that the works were suspended about 2 years 
ago. Another of the company's properties is the Two Brothers mine, about 2 miles N. 
of Nuccaleena, and exceedingly promising at first, a lode of rich red oxide, nearly 2 feet 
in width, being traceable the entire length of the section, but being lost when sinking 
was commenced. The Oratunga, Mooroo, and Mount Chambers mines all lie in the 
district, and there are strong indications of copper in them all, malachite and green 
carbonates being plentifully scattered on the surface, particularly of the last named 
mine. Operations are, however, suspended at present on them all. The formation of 
the country is hard pipeclay, with boulders of primitive limestone. 

NUMBER TWO CREEK {Co, Adelaide) is a small creek flowing past the foot of 
O'Halloran hill. There are some quarries of excellent road metal in the neighbourhood. 

NUBlOOTPik {Co. Light) is a postal township in the electoral district of Light, 
and hundred of Nuriootpa. It is situated on the Gawler river, and lies in an agricul- 
tural district. The nearest places are Angaston, 4 miles E.; Tanunda, the same 
distance S.; Stockwell, the same distance N.E.; and Greenock, the same distance W,; 
the communication with them being by mail cart, and with Adelaide by mail cart to 
Freeling, and thence by rail, the entire distance being 47 miles. For goods there is also 
communication by means of 2 4-hor8e carriers drays to Freeling. Nuriootpa has a 
post and telegraph office, branches of the National bank of Australasia, and of the 
Adelaide assurance and guarantee company, a brewery, a lemonade and soda-water 
manufactory, a steam flour mill, 2 brickyards, 3 stores, and the usual tradesmen's shops. 
There are 2 hotels— the Nuriootpa, and the Angas Park. Tfte surrounding country is 
flat and taken up by small farmers and vignerons. The population, within a radius of 
about 4 miles, numbers about 350 persons, mostly German; the number of dwellings 
being about 60. 

NU&ZOOTPA (Co, Light) is a S. W. hundred of the county, lying to the N. of the 
N. Para river, and consisting for the most part of purchased land, chiefly agricultural, 
and taken up by an industrious race of farmers, who grow wheat and other produce in 
large quanUties. The townships of Greenock, Freeling, and Nuriootpa are in this 
hundred. Its area is 64,000 acres, of which 38,890 acres are under cultivation. The 
population numbers 2968 persons, mostly agriculturists. There are 3 steam flour 
mills in this hundred, working 7 pairs of stones by an aggregate of 46 horse-power. 

MUTT'S ARCHIPELAGO (Flinders district W,) is the name given to a number 
of islands-contained in a large bight of the main coast between point Bell and cape 
Westall, or between 32*^ 18' 36" And 32° 53' 45" S. lat., and 133° 8' 30" and 134° E. long. 
This archipelago is the E. extremity of New Holland as discovered by Peter Nuy t in 
1627. The principal islands are those of St. Peter and those of St. Francis (10,) 
although there are numerous others which are named as follow:— Purdie island. 



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172 The South AMBtraiUan GazeUeer. \Y{fm — O'fi^ 

Lound's i«le, Land's reef, Bird rock. Goat island, Eyre's island, FraBldin islands (3,) 
FUnders reef, Evans island, Lacy's group (2,) MftsiUon isle, F^nelon iski, Caiman's i«e^ 
Hart's island, Olive island, and Eba island. There are, besides l^iese, some rocks 
scattered amongst them, but there is generally -deep water dose to them, and th^ are 
flafe to approach, except between Purdie island and point Bell, where there is a siutt^D 
rock rising ont of 9 fathoms water, npon which the sw^ does not always break. 
There ia no tide upon them worthy of notice, either from its velooity or its rise and 
fall. Land and sea breezes are experienced in this archipelago during the summer 
months, the sea breeze setting in from the W. usually about noon, after a few hours' 
calm or light winds, and veering at night to the N.E. 

irmr'TS cape, 32° 2' S. lat., 132** is' E. long., is the high cliffy extremity of 
some rocky land that extends to the W. upwards of 9 miles towards Nuyt's reefs, 
whence it takes the direction of N. W. by N. for 60 miles, forming the Great Australian 
bight; a pyramidical rock lies near the cape, and to the E. of it are 2 small bights 
with a steep rocky projection between them, but they are both open and encumbered 
with rocks, which appear to front the shore for sevend miles on ea<^ side of the cape. 
The country inland from this cape consists of salt swamps, with sandy hills and 
scrubby ridges, having intervals of sparsely-grassed plains, and occasional pods of 
brackish water, 

NVTT'S REEF, 32** ^ S. lat., 132° E: long., is the name given to a number of 
rocky islets, lying off the coast to the W.S.W. of Cape Nuyt's. 

OAKBAJIB. {Go, Adelaide) is a small postal township in the electoral district 
and hundred of Onkaparinga, and under the control of the Onkaparinga district 
council. It is situated on the Onkaparinga river, 20 miles E. of Adelaide, on the 
main line of road to mount Torrens, and at the junction of the Western Branch 
creek with the Onkaparinga river. The district is an agricultural one, cheifly wheat. 
Gold has been found in some of the watercourses near, but not in such quantities as to 
pay for the working. The nearest places are Woodside, 3 miles N.E. ; and Balhannah, 
U miles S.W. With these places, as with Adelaide, 20 miles distant W., the commu- 
nication is by Rounsevell's daily mail coaches. Oakbank has a post office, a mechanics* 
institute, a brewery, and a sodawater manufactory. The nearest hotel is at Balhan- 
nah. The resident magistrate is J. Johnstone, Esq., J. P. The surrounding country is 
mountainous, well grassed and timbered, and exc^ently adapted for agricultural pur- 
suits. The formation is mostly of micaceous slate. 

OASDSN HILLS (Flinders district) is the name given to a range of low flat- 
topped hills, lying between the Island lake andf the Pernatty lagoon, in the country to 
the W. of lake Torrens. Messrs. Oakden and Hulkes found good country and plenty 
of water about this place in 1857, and afterwards took up a run there, but were obliged 
to leave it in consequence of drought. There is, however, good available pastoral Ismd 
in the district. 

OAKLANDS (Co, Adelaide) is a vineyard, the property of S. and J. H. Keame, 
lying on the banks of the ISturt river, about 6 miles from Adelaide, and 1 mile from the 
shore of the gulf of St. Vincent. This vineyard is leased by several gentlemen, and is 
managed by Mr. Kelsey.- There is a large cellar, and 4 kinds of wine are made on the 
property, pure Verdeilho, pure Rousillon, pure Gros Rubico, and a mixed white wine. 

O^SSaVATtON, MOUNT (Co. Hindmarsh,) is a peak and survey point in the 
hundred of Nkangkita, on the S. bank ol the Finniss river, and about 5 miles N. E. of 
Currency creek township, whence it is a prominent land mark. It lies near the 
Finniss bridge, and 1 1 miles S.E. of Meadows township. 

QGDISK, MOUNT {Co. Stanley,) is the name of a hill lying about 14 miles W.of 
^e tojvnship of Penwortham, and abounding in iron ore, with traces of copper. 

O'BALLOBAN CREEK, 27° 30' S. lat., 139° 30^ E. long. (Flinders district,) is a 
OTeek of considerable size, having a pond of water at its termination^ It was dis- 
covered by M'Einlay. It lies to the S. of a range of irregular sand-hills, wliich 
sepiarate it from the Tooraringana creek and lake M'Kinlay. In his despatch of the 
end of September last. Major Warburton states that he had traced this creek, which, 
he says, ought to be called a river, to its junction with the Barcoo river. He reports 
that the country in the neighbourhood is of good quality, and not wholly dependent op 
Ipcal rains; but that if any danger in its occupation is to be appr^endedat all, itia 
jR^ther from an excess than a deficiency of water. 



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O'HAr— Onk] The Seuih Australian Gazetteer. 173 

O'HAUaO&AlV HILL (jOo,Addaxde) is a straggling postal village in the electoral 
district and hundred of Noarlunga^ and under the control, partly of the Brighton, and 
partly of the Clarendon district councils. It commences at the top of an eminence at 
iJM Main South road, called Tapley's hill, and runs along that road from Adelaide to 
WillUBga and the S. townships, in a S. direction for about 2 miles, where it crosses a 
OKcky kfiewn as the No. 2 creek, from the land through which it runs having been 
fonneffly called the No^ 2 station of the South Australian company. O'Halloran hill 
19 11 miles S* of Adelaide, adjoining it on the £. is Happy valley, 2 miles S. is the 
township of Beynella, 4 miles N.W. is the corporate town of Brighton, and 7 miles 
S;£. is Clarendon. The O'Halloran hill post office stands at the junction of the South 
load and the E. branch of the Bull*s creek road, 11 miles S. from Adelaide, and about 
19 N. fipom Willunga^ Rounseveirs coaches run daily from Adelaide to Willunga, 
thrice a week to Cliurendon, and twice a week to Talisker, passing through 0*HaUoran 
hill. There are no regular means of conveyance to Brighton. The hotels are the 
Victoria, at Tapley's hill; and the Crown, at Reynella. The surrounding country is 
hilly, the Sturt river running within 3 miles S.E. of the village. The soil is excellent, 
and where not cropped produces a most nutritious and fattening grass. Most ot the 
timber in the neighbourhood has been cleared off, and the land taken up for agricul- 
tural purposes, wheat and grapes being extensively grown. Limestone is abundant to 
the W. of the South road, but is absent to the £., where the formation is of sandstone 
and schist. Some of the rock along the course of the No. 2 creek forms excellent road 
metal. The population numbers about 250 persons, scattered over the neighbourhood, 
and chiefly employed in farming. There is a post office and a branch of the Adelaide 
aif urance and guarantee company in this village. 

O'HAIiLOaAN, MOUNT, 27° SO' S, lat., 135° 15' E. long. (Flinders district 
N,W,,) is the name of a prominent peak in the N.W. end of Hanson's range. It is 
situated on the N. bank of the Neales river. 

OKXLTXBZE BUN, (W. district;) occupiers, Bishop & Beard; area, 54 square 
mUes; grazing capability, 2650 sheep, 12 head of cattle, and 4 horses. This run lies 
140 miles N.W. of port Lincoln, and 8 miles from the post office at Talia. 

OUNTHUS, MOUNT, 33° 20' S. lat., 136° 33' E. long. {Flinders district,) is a 
lofty peak of a low range, lying in Eyre*s peninsula, on the W. side of Spencer's gulf, 
and to the N.W. of Franklin harbour. This peak attains an altitude of 2000 feet 
above the level of the sea, and forms a prominent landmark both from the gulf and the 
surrounding district. It is situated in a scrubby country, there being, however, 
tolerably good pastoral land at a little distance to the S.E. 

OZiIVB ISLAND {Flinders district W,) is a small rocky island, about a quarter 
of a-mile in diameter, and elevated 60 feet above sea level, lying E. \ N., distance 4} 
miles from Cape Bauer, the S. head of Streaky bay. It is surrounded by reefs and 
dangerous straggling rocks, over which the sea almost always breaks. 

OMAUNOA (Cos. Hindmarsh and Sturt) is a district council in the electoral 
district of mount Barker. It is imder the control of a chairman, the present one 
being Mr. W. May of .Wanstead, near Woodchester, and 4 councillors. The receipts 
and expenditure in this district council for 1865 were as follow:— Assessment, 
£6002 — rate. Is. in the pound; rates collected, £237 6s.; total receipts, £597 I4s. 9d.; 
<^ce expenses, £96 13s. 8d. ; expended on public works, £431 6s. The populatlbn 
numbers 851 persons; the area is 121 square miles, or 77,440 acFCs; land under cul- 
tivation, 10,295 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 157. 

OMS-V&BB HILL {Co. Idgh^ is^ a postal village lying on the One-tree hill 
creek, about 10 miles E. of mount Crawford, and to the E.S vE. of Smithfield. It is in an 
agricultural and vine-growing district, the principal vineyalrlt being that of D. Randall, 
iStn^, J. P. (See Glbn Para.) There is a public pound in the village. 

OHB'iiTABS HILL CREEK {Co. Stwrt) is a stream rising in the E. slope of the 
BUdttirange, and in the hundred of South Rhine, and flowing in a N.E. direction into 
theNorth Rhine river. 

OMCAIPASliraA {Co, Adelaide) is a district council in the electoral district 
of Onkaparinga. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being 
Mr. W. Grasby of Balhannah, and 4 councillors. The receipts and' expenditure in' 
tfaiff district council for 1865 were' as follow i-^Assessment, £14,765 Us.— rate. Is. in 
the pound; rates- collected, £648 128. Id;; totid receipts, £1371 178. lOd.; o£Bce 

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174 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Onk — Ora 

expenses and salaries, £192 ISs. 9d.; expended on public works, £11?6 15s. lOd. The 
population numbers 2963 persons. The area is 77 square miles, or 49,280 acres; land 
under cultivation, 8929 acres; and number of dwelling-bouses, 609. The resident 
magistrate is A. Farmer, Esq., J.P. Onkaparinga electoral district is bounded on the 
W. by the £. boundary of the district of East Torrens; on the S., by the districts of 
Noarlunga and Mount Barker; on the E. by the centre of the river Murray; and on the 
N. by district of Gumeracka. It comprises the district councils of Crafers (E. part,) 
East Torrens (E. part,) Naime, and Oakaparinga, and the hundred of MobUong, and 
has & population of 7393 persons, and an area of 422 square miles, or 270,080 acres, of 
which 19,311 acres are under cultiration. The Yoting-places for this district are , 
Woodside, Naime, Eanmantoo, Hahndorf, and Lobethal. Onkaparinga is represented 
in the LegislatiTe Assembly by W. Milne and W. Townsend, Esqs. The number of 
registered electors for 1865 in this district was, for the Legislative Council, 797, and 
for the Legislative Assembly, 1262. 

OmLAPAJUMOA (fio, Adelaide) is an ^E. hundred of the county, lying on the 
upper part of the Onkaparinga river, and consisting mostly of purchased land, much ot 
which is under cultivation. Large crops of grapes and garden produce are grown in 
this hundred, which contains the townships of Woodside, Balhannah, and Hahndorf. 

OmLAPAJUMOA 'SCEa^'E (Co. Adelaide) IB a reef of hard rocks runing out 
from the coast near the mouth of the Onkaparhiga river, and 7 miles N. of port 
WiUunga. 

OmLAPAJUMGA BIVER {Go, Adelaide) is a fine stream rising in the ranges 
to the S. of mount Torrens, and flowing in a S.W. direction 30 miles into the gulf of 
St. Vincent, near port Noarlunga, by a wide mouth. It flows by the townships of Bal- 
hannah. Woodside, Clarendon, and Noarlunga, and waters a large tract of good agricul- 
tural country. The Onkaparinga has numerous tributaries, the principal ones being 
Cox's, Scott's, Echunga, Jupiter, and Cattle company creeks. This river forms a curve 
round the township of Noarlunga, near its entrance into the sea, whence that township 
derived its former name of **the Horseshoe." Small quantities of gold have been 
found in its bed in the district of Echunga, but the diggings have never been properly 
or regularly worked. 

OOMBEBATAIfA, (St Umbbratana (Flinders district N.,) is a small postal 
hamlet in the electoral district of Flinders. It is situated at the head of the Windo- 
wiedina creek, and is in a pastoral district where both sheep and cattle grazing are carried 
on extensively. The nearest place is Blinman, 90 miles S., with which place the com- 
munication is by horse or dray. With Adelaide, 415 miles S, the communication is 
fh)m Blinman by Rounsevell's weekly coaches; and for goods to port Augusta by means 
of camels, and thence by steamer. The surrounding country is mountainous. The 
population numbers about 30 persons. 

OOMBEBATANA RUN (N, district;) leases, Nos. 527, 540, 544, 556, 562, 565, 
592, 566, 686, and 1133; occupier, the hon. T.Elder; respective areas of leases, 15, 80, 
74, 32, 31, 105, 1 10, 69, 45, and 25 square miles. This run lies at the postal station of 
Oomberatana, in the far north. 

OOBAPASZHN A RUN (N, district;) leases. Nos. 231, 382, 457, and 501; occu- 
pier, S.Boord; respective areas of leases, 56, 20, 73 J, and 32 square miles. This run 
lies near the Patawarta hill and N. of the Passmore river; the next post office being at 
Eanyaka and Blumit, being 20 miles due N. The total area of this run is I8O4 square 
miles, and the grazing capability about 6000 sheep and 1000 head of cattle in average 
seasons; but during the last two years, owing to the severe drought, there has not been 
feed for a fourth of that number. 

OO&OOLDANA CREEK (Flinders district) is a fine mountain stream rising in 
mount Painter, and flowing S.E. past the Welcome mines into lake Blanche, on its W, 
side. It waters the pastoral country known as the Eastern plains. Geological forma- 
tion : shales, slates, and calcareous rocks. There is a mine on this creek, consisting of 
an immense mass of rocks, about 100 feet wide and 12 or 15 feet high. They are very 
hard quartzose rocks, and contain numerous stains of copper. At one place the rocks 
have been broken, and some fine thin veins of rich grey ore displayed. The workings 
are however stopped. 1 his mine lies 320 miles N. of Adelaide. 

OBATAN ROCK, 32"" 50' S. lat, 139'' 58' E. long. C^indert district,) if a 
solitary rocky hill lying in the scrubby wilderness of the Eastern plains. 



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Ora— Owa] The South Australian GazeUeer. 175 

OBJLTAN AND PANDAPPA RUN {NJS, district;) leases, Nos. 878, 880, 882, 
and 894; occupiers. Elder and Smith; respectire area of leases 109, 56, 62, and 73 square 
miles. This run lies in the £. plains — the next post office being Outaalpa, and the 
oext post town Eooringa, to the W. See also Paratoo. 

OBATVNGA AND MOOLOOLOO (A\ distinct;) leases, Nos. 236a, 367, 387, 443, 
444, 476, and 598; occupier, P. Levi; respective areas of leases 18, 325, 141, 42, 109, 32, 
and 50 square miles. This run lies to the S.W. ef mount Serle, near the Mundaj riTer— 
the next post office being at Angipena. 

OBJSEROD LAKE (Co. Qrey) is the name of a sheet of water lying 4 miles W. of 
the township of Narracoorte. It is 2 miles long, by I mile wide, and receives the 
waters of the Narracoorte creek. Its surplus waters drain into Geary's swamp. 

08MAHU BEEF {Kangaroo island.) See D'Estbbb Bat. 

OVUnXA HILIv32*' 35' S. lat., 139"" 55' E. long. (Flinders district,) is a detached 
hill lying in the pastorid district of Eastern plains. 

OUZiNINA BUN (N.E. district) is a large run lying in the pastoral district of 
Eastern plains. It comprises leases, Nos. 397, 666, 678, 665, 889, 893, 892, 907, 888, 
304,397, 568, 730, 564, 679, 735, 949, 953, 954, 955, 957, 950, 951, 1141 and 1142; 
occupiers, Levi and Sprigg ; respective areas of leases, 25, 12, 17, 12, 51, 21, 15, 63, 3, 
12, 25, 50, 12, 10, 31, 20, 24, 36, 66, 74, 65. 34, 62, 46 and 34 square miles. The n^xt 
post office is Outaalpa,.S0 miles S., and the nearest post town Kooringa, 110 miles S.W. 
The grazing capability is 30,000 sheep. There is an aboriginal station on this run, and 
the resident magistrate is H. L. Sprigg, Esq., J. P. The present mail track to the 
Eastern plains passes the N. W. corner of this run. 

OUTA ALPA (Flinders district N,E.) is a postal hamlet in the electoral district 
of Flinders, lying in the midst of a pastoral (sheep grazing) country. No mines have 
been opened up, but copper has been found in the neighbourhood, and competent judges 
imagine that gold may be found by a thorough investigation. The nearest township is 
Eooringa, the distance being 169 miles S.W., a mail conveyance running fortnightly 
between the two places. With Adelaide the communication is by Bounseveirs fortnightly 
coach via Eooringa to Eapunda, and thence by rail, the total distance being 269 miles. 
The surrounding country consists of ranges of low hills, with flat grassy and saltbush 
plains intervening, and is known as the Eastern plains. The population numbers about 
40 persons. 

OUTAALPA BUN {N',E, district;) leases, Nos. 402, 607, 526, 653, 654, 1092, 
1112 and 1113; occupiers, Duffleid and Uarrold; respective areas of leases, 32, 77, 189, 
202, 20, 60, 38 and 30 square miles. This run lies near Weakeroo hill and Eing's bluff, 
the Outaalpa post office being at the head station. 

OVERXiAND COBNER, 34° 10' S. lat., 140** 25' E.long. {Co. Young,) is a postal 
namlet in the electoral district of Flinders, and hundred of th^ Murray. It is situated 
on a bend on the N. bank of the river Murray, about 6 miles N.W. of lake Bonney. 
The lake Bonney, Bal Bal and other creeks, forming a complete network in wet seasons, 
lie to the E. The district is a pastoral one, sheep, cattle and horses being grazed in 
liurge numbers. Excellent grapes and garden produce are produced on the alluvial flats. 
A copper mine was opened some years ago by Mr. J. Brand, but nothing payable was 
found. The nearest township is Blanclietown, 55 miles S.W. by the new, and 85 miles 
by the old mail route via North West bend, Mallyon's and Little Yarra flat. The 
communication is by H. Brand's coach, and with Adelaide, 174 tiiiles S.W., by that 
coach to Blanchetown, thence to Freeling by Bounsevell's mail coach, and thence by 
rail. The direct horse and dray route is via North West bend to Eapunda or Eooringa, 
each 1 10 miles distant from Overland corner. There is a post office and 1 hotel, — 
the Overland Corner (G. Brand's,)— the Lake Bonney (Napper's) being 6 miles, and 
Hallyou's hotel, 38 miles distant. There is an aboriginal station at this place. The 
furrounding country is flat, with undulating hills and occasional swamps; it is timbered 
with box, polygonum, and stunted blue and flooded gum. The soil is sandy, and over- 
lies beds of tertiary limestone abounding in fossils, the limestone strata showing dis- 
tinctly in the bluffs at the bends in the river. The population is small and scattered. 

OWANEG AM POUND {Flinders district N.) is an opening in the hills, surrounded 
on all sides by steep hills, except at a narrow entrance, which is fenced across. The 
hills are bold and capped by rocks. Within the enclosure there is abundance of grass, 
and pine trees and occasional gums grow in the entrance and within the pound. 



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176 Ths South Av^stralian Gazetteer, [Owi — ^PaiT 

Owanegan was formerly the head station of M*Kinlay, the explorer, and was at that 
time, 1850, the most distant station from Adelaide, ahout 300 miles N. It lies a few 
miles N.W. of Blinman. There is a remarkable mass of rocks which, when viewed 
from one side, resemble an old man's fieu^e, and are named accordingly. There is a creek 
in the pound, but it is often dry. 

CWIHIA COUNTRY (Flinders district) is the native name of a large tract of 
country, much of which is now taken up for pastoral purposes, watered by theFrome 
river, and lying to the N.E. of lake Torrens and the S.E. of Lake Eyre. This country 
was crossed by Parry in 1858, who describes it as soft yet stony ground, with broken 
hills, and large ponds containing abundance of water. There were thousands of pigeons 
about these waterholes. 

OTSTXS BAY RUN {YorWs peninsula;) lease. No. 21; occupiers, Rogers, 
Landon and Stephens; area, 52 square miles; grazing capability, 7000 sheep, or 135 per 
square mile; Gt)yder's valuation, £353 IBs. per annum, deducting improvements valued 
at £831. This run lies at Oyster bay, 50 miles W. by S. of port Adelaide in a straight 
line, and 150 miles overland, via port Wakefield, from Adelaide. On this run and the 
lake Sunday, Comey point, and other runs, held by the same lessees, are 23,300 sheep, 
75 horses, and 240 head of cattle; the total area being 244 square miles. 

^AOTRAWAT (^^ Campion's,) RUN iS.E. district;) leases, Nos. 156 and 157; 
occupier, R. Lawson; areas of leases respectively, 34 and 45 square miles (correct area 
of the latter, 50 square miles;) total grazing capability, 17,000 sheep; Groyder's 
valuation, £1186 12s., deducting improvements valued at £492. This run lies 190 
miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 75 miles N.E. of Guichen bay, where the wool is shipped. 
This run also includes leases Nos. 824, 872, 913, and 921, which have respective areas 
of 6, 14, 18, and 9 square miles. On the entire block are 26,500 sheep and 250 head 
of cattle. There is an aboriginal station in this run. 

PAGhAN CREEK {Flind&rs district) is a mountain stream found by Hack, in 

1857, in the Gawler ranges, to the S.E. of lake Gairdner. The country is now taken up 
for pastoral purposes. 

P AGS Sj THE {BacTcstai/rs passage^ is the name given to a group of rocky islets, 
lying 9 miles N.E. by E. of cape Willoughby, and at the entrance from the Kof 
Backstairs passage. The N. Page, which is the largest of the group, is about 60 
feet in height, and is visible from a distance of 1 1 miles from the deck of a moderate- 
sized vessel. Between the two larger islets, soundings of 10 fathoms were found; the 
passage, which is a mile and a-quarter in width, is quite safe with a commanding 
breeze. The S. Page is of nearly equal height with the northern one, and lies if 
S. by W. from it. The northern extremity of the rocks, three-quarters of a mile to the 
S. of the southern Page, show above water at all times of tide, btlt the S. portion forms 
a reef covered at low wat^r. During light S. winds and a flood tide, this i^eef should 
be most carefully avoided by vessels standing across the passage when to windward of 
the group. 

PAnrT£B.9 MOUNT {Flinders district,) is a peak of the N.E. end of the main 
range, lying to S. of the township of Yudanamutana, and near the head of the 
Arcaroola Creek. 

PAZSIiET {Co.Alberf) is a hundred lying on the E. bank of the Murray river, 
opposite Blanchetown. It is taken up tor pastoral purposes. 

PAXStEY, MOUNT, 30° 3' S. lat., 135° 40^ E. long. (Flinders district,) is the name 
given to the E. extremity of an E. spur of the limestone range crossed by Stuart in 

1858. It has stony plains, with sand-hills and patches of grass and saltbush to the 
S. and S.E., and to the E. lie several fresh water lagoons. 

PAXiIMCNSA RUN {W, district;) l&Me, No. 974; occupier, J. Geharty; area, 
10 square miles; rental, £5 per annum. The nearest post town is at Yenus Bay 
Parkin.) 

PANBAPPA' run {N.E. district;) leade, No. 229; occupier, A. McCulloch; 
area, 12 square miles; rent, £7 15s. per annum. This 'run lies to the E. of Black rock, 
the next post town being Kooringa, to the W. 

TAXtDA^P a: STATION (N.E. district:) occupiers, Elder and Waite. See 
PaIkatoo Run. 



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Pan — Par] The SotUh Australian Gazetteer. 177 

PAMBXiOTINOA CREEK (Co. Hindma/nh) is the nkme of a perennial stream 
flowing through the township of Reynella. 

PANDO {Flinders district) is the native name of lake Hope^which see. 

PANOBAMA, MOUNT [Co. Adelaide) is a high peak in the coast range, lying 
about 4 miles to the S.E. of the township of Clarendon. It is a survey station, and 
takes its name from the fine view afibrded from its summit. 

PAPEOOONA CREEK [Flinders district) is a small creek flowing into the 
W. side of lake Blanche, in an E. direction from its source in the Freeling heights, a 
short distance to the N.E. of the township of Yudanamutana, passing through the 
pastoral district known as the Eastern plains. Shales, slates, and calcareous rocks. 

PAPPA&DAAR (or Appbrdaab,) LAKE, 28° 2(/ S. lat., 139'' 8' E. long. 
iPlinders district,) is a frefeh-water lake, dry in time of drought, lying in a polygonum 
flat, on course of a branch of O)oper's creek, of which it is an expansion, and situated 
about 14 miles N.W. of lake Hope. The surrounding country consists of ranges of 
low sand-hills, with moderately wide flats between, having good feed for a great part 
of the year. 

PA&ABARANA CREEK (Flinders district N^ is a. small creek flowing in an 
£. direction into lake Blanche, Arom its source in the Freeling heights, near Yudana- 
mutana. It waters the pastoral district known as the Eastern plains. Shales, slates, 
and calcareous rocks. On this creek is a copper mine, with 3 distinct lodes on the 
section— 2 running N. and S., and the other E. and W. Two pits have been sunk on one 
of these lodes— one in the creek, and the other at a short distance from it, in each place 
blue and green carbonate having been found. Openings have also been made in the 
other lodes. The late drought has, however, put a stop to operations on this, as on 
almost all the northern mines. 

PABABARANA STATION {N, district;) lease. No. 715j occupiers, W. and 
J. Jacob, is part of the Paralana run — which see. 

PARADISE [Co, Adelaide) is an agricultural village in the hundred of Adelaide 
It lies half-a-mile N.E. of Campbelltown, 14 mile N.W. of Athelstone, and 5 J miles N.E. 
of Adelaide. It contains 1 hotel— the Paradise bridge— and 15 cottages, with a 
population of 70 persons, mostly labourers engaged in farming and gardening pursuits. 

PA&A HILL {Co. Adelaide) is a peak in the Yatala range of hills, situated about 
S miles S.E. of the township of Salisbury, and overlooking the cemetery belonging to 
that town. 

PABAliANA CREEK (Flinders district) is a small tributary of the Arcaroola 
creek, flowiog through some magnificent scenery, the sides of the creek being composed 
in many places of rocks, rising to a height of 300 to 400 feet, sometimes smooth and ' 
regular, and at others wild and rugged in the extreme. 

PA&AXiANA RUTS (N. district;) lease, No. 595; occupiers, W. and J. Jacob; 
area, 130 square miles. This run lies N.E. of mount M^Kinlay — the nearest post town 
being Yudanamutana, to the N.W. This run also includes leases, Nos. 613, 714, 
715, 987, 988, and 997, having respective areas of 186, 140, 121, 10, 12, and 69 
square miles. 

PAB AM ANA COON A (Co. Hindmarsh) is a small creek, flowing into the gulf 
of St. Vincent, at Rapid bay. 

PABAPET, MOUNT (Flinders district,) is a peaked hill, lying to the N. of 
Franklin harbour, and on the W. shore of Spencer's gulf. There is tolerably good 
pastoral country in the neighbourhood. 

PABA PLAINS {Co. Adelaide) is the name given to a tract of fine agricultural 
and grazing country in the hundred of port Adelaide, and watered by the Little Para 
river. It is bounded on the E. by a range of wooded hills, and on the W. by a large 
salt swamp, into which the Little Para empties itself. Much of the land is taken up 
by farmers, who cultivate wheat and hay; and the border of the swamp affords exceUent 
fattening pasturage for sheep and cattle. 

PABA RIVER, LITTLE (Co. Adelaide) is a stream rising in the Gawler ranges, 
and flowing in a W. direction for about 30 miles, until it loses itself in the swampy fiats 
lying round port Adelaide. It flows through the township of Salisbury, where it is 
inrofsed by the N. railway line. It is fed near its source by Gould's creek. 



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178 The South Austrafian Gazetteer. [Pab 

PA&A RIVER, NORTH {Co. Light,) is the name given to the K. head of the^ 
Gtewler river. It flows through good pastoral country, and joins the S. Para at Gawler. 
the stream being then known as the Gawler river. 

FAUi RIVER, SOUTH {Go. Addaide,) i8« fine streaita vidng ki the knain or 
Adelaide range ran, and flowing in a N. W. direction Ibr aboot 24 miles into the Oawler 
river at Gawler. It is fed by the Tenefieite creek, which joins it near the Gawler town 
Mil. 

VARATOO AND PANDAPPA STATIONS {N.E. dig^Hct/) leases, Nos. 348,. 
998, 434, 548, 549,656, 873, and 890; occupiers, Elder and Waite; ave stations lyiB«r in 
the Eastern plains — t^e former one, Paratoo, bdng the head station, and the post office- 
for the district. It lies 80 miles distant from Eooringa, in a N.E. direction, and 190 
miles N.E. of Adelaide. The latter station, Pandappa, is about 50 mUes N.E. of 
fiooringa, or about 30 miles S.W. of Paratoo. Both runs comprise an area of 719 
square miles, and have grazing capability for 40,000 sheep. The wool from these stations 
is sent bj horse or bnUock teams to Kapunda, and thence bj rail to port Adelaide. 
There is fortnightly communication with Adelaide by Rounsevell's coach. See alsa 
Obatan. The resident magistrate is P. Waite, Esq., J. P. 

TARA WIESA {Co. Adelaide) is a district council in the electoria district of 
Oumeracka. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. Jamea 
Jones, of mount Gould, Eersbrook, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure 
^1 tl^ district council for 1865 were as follow:— Assessm^at, ^£6552; — rate 6d. intfaa 
pound; rates caUeoted, £98 13s. 8d^; total receipts, £262 17s. 6d.; office expenses and 
salaries, £50 6s.; expended on public works, £80 88. 5d. The population numbers 
958 persons; the area is 64 square miles, or 40,960 acres; land under cultivation, 2949^ 
acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 191. 

-VAllA WIRRA {Oo, Adelaide) is a hundred m the NiE. p«*t «f the county^ 
lying to the S. of the South Para river, and consisting for the most part of purchased 
land, much of which is under cultivation. In this hundred, on the W. side of the Nortb 
railway and 1 mile ftrom Gawler, Is situated Mr. W. Duffield*s vineyard -and orchard. 
T'he principal varieties of grape are Frontignac, of Vhich a pure wine is made; Mataro 
and Shiraz, of which a red wine is made; and Verdeilho^nd Muscat, of which' a white- 
wine is made. There is also an excellent orangery and apiary on this property. 

PAStHOA {Co. 8turt) is a small mining village, lying 3 miles 'S. of 4he^ownship^ 
of Eanmantoo. The population consists principally of miners. See 'Eanmantoo. 

PABINOA RUN (Murray River district;) lease. No. 93; occupier, D. Cudmore^ 
area, 16 square miles; grazing capability, 1000 sheep, or 62 per square ndle; Goyder's 
Taluatiqn, £35 per annum. This run lies 20 miles E. of lake Bonney, and 180 miles 
N.E. of Adelaide, at a distance of 2 miles from the river Murray, on its S. bank; the 
next post office being at Overland corner. This run also includes leases 3d3A, -380, 
510. and 1088, which have respective areas of 12, ^9, 58, and 13 square uHiM. On the 
•entire block are 7000 ^eep, 2000 lambs, 500 head of eaMfle and 40 houses. 

'PAJBJUH {Flinders distHct W.) is a newly established township at the head of 
Venus bay. It lies 40 miles N.W. of Bramfield, and 150 miles W. of port Lincoln, 
and has at present a settled population of 6 persons only. There is a hotel, a post office, 
fUid a store in the township. See Vejots Bat. 

PARSSIDE {Co. Adelaide) is a small postal residential subui^ of Adelaide, 
lying 2 miles distant from Adelaide on the S. side. It is a favourite plaee of vesidence^ 
TOr merchants -and others whose business lies in the metropolis. Parkskle lies in the 
midst of a flourishing and rapidly improving agricultural neighbourhood, and has 
numerous flne orchards and vineyards. The suburb of Ui^ey lies 1 mile distant, N.E. 
by E. Cars run to that place and to Adelaide several times daily. There is 1 hotel 
— 4;he Turf. The resident magistrates are C. Bonney, G. Young, and W. A. Wewing,. 
Bsqs. Parkside is celebrated for the excellence of the fruits grown, and t^e jams and 
pickles ma^iufactured there. Mrs. L. A. Chance, of this plaee, eidiili^ted ui th& 
Melbourne exhibition of 1866: 3 dozen tomato sauce, 3 dozen West India sauce, 1 dosen 
Prince of Wales sauce, 2 dozen chutnee, 6 jars pickled figs, 6 jars juckled walnuts, 
6 jars pickled cauliflower, 6 jars pickled picalilli, 6 jars pi<Med citron, 6 jars pickled 
quinces, 4 jars pickled almonds, 3 jars pickled red cabbage, 3 jars pickled white 
cabbage, 2 jars pickled onions, 6 jars pickled tomatoes, 6 jars pickled lemcHis, and IJ. 
iozen 2lb. tins assorted jams. 



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"Tab, — ^Pas] Ths Soiieh Australim Gazetteer. 179 

FAJUk A (Plmdera distriet) is the name of a tract of grassj country lying about 
30 miles to the N. of Streaky bay, and discOYered by Mr. Hack in J 857. There are, 
however, only a few waterholes lying in the granite rock, and a few low granite hills 
command a cheerless yiew of the surrounding country, which is yery scrubby. 

VAJUbA, hill, 22<' 50" S. lat., 134'' 45' E. long. {Flinders district,) is an elevation 
in the pastoral country lying to the £. of Stieaky bay, and about 30 miles distant from 
that bay. It lies in a scrubby country, with here and there a granite hill projecting. 
There is a good belt of grassy country, in bold downs, containing about 100 square 
anles, lying about 15 miles N. of this hill. This was the first camp formed by Hack in 
* '657, on his ezplovation journey from Streaky bay to the head of Spencer's gulf, and 
fKHn this {dace he started tor the Gawler range, which he could see to the N. 

PABXA RUN {W. district;) leases, Nos. 611, 779, 821, and 1098; occupiers, 
L indsay and Gibson ; respective areas of leases, 14, 12, 17, and 20 square, miles. This 
run lies at Parla hill, to the N. of Yenus bay, the next post c^ce. 

PAMA £. RITS {W,digtria;) lease, No. 1110; occu^er, J. Hiem; area, 26 
squaie mUes ; rent, £13 per annum. Next post town, Flinders (Streaky bay.) 

PA&^A tf.BJJNiW. district;) leases, Nos. 816 and 926; occupier, J, Forster. 
Tliis run is also known as Gh^dada and PoUitia — which see. 

PA&ZiA N. RON, No. 2 {W, district;) lease. No. 976; occupier, A. Schlinke; 
area, 64 square miles. Next post town. Flinders (Streaky bay.) 

FA&ZiA N. IMJN, No. 3 (jW. district;) leafle. No. 927 ; occupier, J. Thompson ; 
area, 36 square miles; rental, £IS per annum. Next post town, Flinders (Streaky bay.) 

PAMA W. RUN ( W. district;) Je^/je, No. 780 ; occupier, A. Tennant ; area, 59 
square miles ; rental, £29 10s. per annum. Next post town. Flinders (Streaky bay.) 

PamiffAROO BUN (N.E.dda^nct;) lease8,Nos. 373, 397,303, 305, 304, 413, 434, 
400, 414, and 610; occupiers, Levi and Williams; respective areas of leases, 26, 25, 
10, 10, 12, 26, 15, 35, 23, and 22 square miles. This run lies in the Eastern plains, 
ihe next post town being Kooringa, to the W, There is an aboriginal station on this 
nin. 

PA&NKA RUN (S.E, district;) lease. No. 226; occupiers, Rankine and Walker; 
area, 7 square miles; grazing capacity, 700 sheep, or 100 per square mile; Croyder's 
yaluation, £15 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £100. This run lies 
between the Goorong lake and the sea coast, S.W. of Magrath's flat, about 40 miles 
^.S. W. of Wellington, and 100 miles by road from Adelaide. 

PAB&AITA (or Fibara) STATION iTorhe'speninsida;) lease, 232; occupiers, 
(Bowman and Farnell ; area, 27 square miles. The grazing capability of this station, 
with that of the Tickara station and Winter run, is 4000 sheep and 20 head of cattle. 
Parrana station Ues to the S. of Glinton, 23 miles S.£. of Moonta. the next post town. 

PAJUEtOT HILL (Co. Light) is a peak in the main range, lying in Uie hundred 
of Moorooroo, about 6 miles E. of Angaston. 

PAJUEtT, MOUNT {N. district^) is a peak in a W. spur of {the main range, lying 
to the N. of mount Scott, and about 30 miles W.N. W. of Angipena. 

PAl^TAQ^HA RUN (N. district;) lease, No. 587; occupier, H. M'GonviUe; 
area, 28 square miles; rental, £14 per annum. This run lies to the W. of mount Scott, 
tbe next post office being Angipena, to the E: about 30 miles* 

PARTAWARTA HILL (Flinders district N,) is a rugged lofty peak, lying 
10 miles N. of the township of JBlinman. It is composed of hard siliceous rocl^ 
dipping N.W. 

PA&TBIBQE, MOUNT {Minders district,) is a peak of the Gawler ranges^ 
lying to the S.E. of lake Gairdner, and named by Hack in 1857. 

PAaT&IBOE, MOUNT, STATION {N. district;) lease, No. 566, is part of the 
Oomberatana run— which see. 

PASXiEY'S PONDS {Flinders district) is a chain of ponds, lying on the W. side 
of the S. part of lake Eyre, and 10 miles W. from mount Hamilton. 

PASSMOXtE RIVER (N. district) is a fine stream, rising near Wilpena, and 
flowing through the Wilpena pound in an E. direction through the fine pastoral 
country known as the Eastern plains, where it is lost in the scrub. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



180 The ^ouih Australian Gazetteer. [Pat — Pek 

— ^ ~~~ : • " 

p ATAGHILN A CREEK (N, district) is a stream rising by three heads, the N. 
one in Patawarta hill, and the others to the S. of Blinman. These unite to the S. of 
mount Samuel, and flow in a W. direction across the main North road into the W. 
plains. 

PATAWA&TA HILL (or Mount Ruoobd,) 30'' 59" S. lat., ISB,"" 45' E. long., 
is a bold, dark rocky peak in the main range; and near the main road from Blinman to 
the N. There is a mineral claim (No. 1654) on the slope of this hill, which claim 
contains several lodes, having backs of ironstone protruding above the surface, and 
showing a good deal of copper and yellow ore. Copper is found scattered in many 
places over the section, and the lodes are traceable over 2 hills and a gully for a distance 
of nearly a mile. Some very good specimens of ore have been found, and bismuth of 
a high percentage has also been discovered. There is a fine natural pound between 
the hills at this place, into which cattle may be driven, and the entrance closed by a 
fence, the mountain sides being so steep that they cannot climb them. This hill is 
about 500 feet higher ^an the general level of the range, and consists of reddish and 
yellow rugged rocks, covered with scrub. There are 2 small caves in it, and the peak 
is visible from mount Remarkable, 170 miles S. 

FATAWAJITA RUN (N, district;) leases, Nos. 489, 368, 359, and 437; 
occupier, the hon. J. Baker; respective areas of leltes, 80, 61, 10, and 84 squard 
miles. TMs run lies round Patawarta hill, a few miles to the N. of Blinman — the next 
post town. 

PATSY'S SPRINGS (N. district) is the name given to a spring of fresh water 
lying to the N. of mount Scott. 

PATNEHAM (Co, Adelaide) is a small postal agricultural village Ijdng about 
31 miles distant N.E. from the city of Adelaide, in the midst of an agricultural district 
taken up by small farmers engaged in the culture of wheat and hay, principally the 
latter. There is a post office in the village for the convenience of the neighbouring 
locality. The resident magistrates are E. C. Gwynne, A. Hallett, and H. Mildred, 
Esqs. There is a public pound in the neighbourhood. His Honour Mr. Justice 
Gwynne has a fine vineyard, orchard, garden and pinery at Glynde, near this village. 

PATNEHAM {Co. Adelaide} is a district council on the electoral district of 
East Torrens. It is under the control of a chairman — the present one being 
M. G. Hill of Campbelltown, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this 
district council for 1865 were as follow:— Assessment, £17,363— rate, 6d. in the pound; 
rates collected, £427 7s 9d; total receipts, £946 2s. 4d.; office expenses and salaries, 
£101 Os. 9d.; expended on public works, £831 18s. 2d. The population numbers 
2749 persons. The area is 13 square miles, or 8320 acres; land under cultivation, 
4225 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 539. 

PEAGHORABi STATION (Co, -S^ur^ is an out-station occupied by the hon. 
John Morphett (manager. H. Harslet t,) lying on the Murray river, in the hundred of 
Brinkley, 13 miles N. of Wellington, and 3 S. of Swanport. See Wood's Point 
Station. 

PEAKED HILL STATION (N, district;) lease, No. 610; occupiers, Levi and 
Williams; area, 22 square miles. This run lies to the N.of Black rock, the next 
poftt town being port Augusta to the W. 

PEARGE POINT (Yorke's peninsula) is the S- point of Wardong island — 
which see. 

PEARSON ISLANDS, between 33° 57' and 34° S. lat., 134° 13' E. long., is the 
name given to a cluster of 6 small granite islands forming part of the Investigator 
group. The N. island is a remarkably abrupt peak, rising 655 feet firom the sea. The 
other islands are also abrupt, but not so high. 

PEBXiER'S CREEK {Oo. Adelaide) is a small creek crossing the main S. road, 
about 2i miles from Noarlunga. 

PEEBAXiZXiXiA HILL {Co. ffindmarsh) is an elevation and survey point, lying 
on th/B E. bank of theHmdmarsh river, about 6 miles N.W. of Port Elliott. 



CREEK {Flinders district) is a creek flowing in the W. part of the 
E. phuns pastoral district, 12 miles N.W. of Black rock. 



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Pbk — ^Prn] The SotUh Australian Gazetteer, 181 



LRUN(i\r.di8eWc«;)lea8e,No.80; occupier, Price Maurice; area, 320 square 
miles; grazing capability, 43, 200 sheep; old rent and assessment, £520; Goyder's yalua- 
tton, X2000 per annum, deducting improvements valued at ;C5968. The head station of 
Mr.Frice Maurice is on this run, and on thisand the Appila,Boolooroo,WaUowa7,Mucra. 
Tolubra, Wepowie, and Tarcowie stations, in the vicinity, but held under different 
leases, there were at the time of valuation 50,000 sheep, 130 head of cattle and 70 horses. 
This run is tolerably well grassed, with ferns, bushes and a little saltbush, and spinifez 
hills and plains with oak, wattle and mallee. It lies 55 miles E. by S. of port Augusta, 
and 170 miles N. of Adelaide, and is watered by numerous springs, waterholes and 
wells. This run also includes leases, Nos. 311, 245, 268, 383 and 448, having respective 
areas of 85, 42, 11, 85 and 128 square miles. 

FEUCAN LAGOON (Kangaroo UUmd) is a large salt lake or arm of the sea, 
running inland in a S. direction from the head of the deep bight on the N.E. coast, known 
as Newland bay. The entrance to the lagoon from the bay is a narrow channel, about 
3 miles in depth and 8 feet deep, where the main body of water spreads out in a large 
sheet to the E., with a deep arm to the S. The tides are irregular and rapid. The 
lagoon is shallow and overgrown in manyf)laces with dense reeds, which afford breeding 
places to immense flocks of aquatic birds. It is separated on the S. side by a narroyr 
neck of sandy land, little more than halfa-mile in width in one place, and called Flinders 
isthmus. Fresh water is obtainable near the W. side of the entrance. 

FEIiZCAN POINT, native name Tubullco {Go, Jtussdl,) is the name of the N. 
point of the opening of the Ck>orong lake into lake Alexandrina. The land at this point 
is swampy and covered with reeds. 

FEXiOaUS ROCK, 36*" 6' 20" S. lat., 137** 35' 50" E. long. (Kangaroo i8land,)UA 
rock lying 3 miles S.E. i E. from cape Gantheaume, standing between 30 and 40 feet 
above the surface, and having a reef extending to the eastward about half -a-mile. The 
channel between the coast and the Pelorus rock is quite safe, having about 24 fathoms 
in its centrel 

PENFZSXiB (Co. Adelaide) is a postal township in the electoral district of Yatala, 
hundred of MunnoPara, and under the control of the district council of Munno ParaW. 
It lies about *the middle of the Gawler plains, about 7 miles S. of the Gawler river, 
and 5. N. of the Para. The district is an agricultural one, grain of various kinds being 
grown by the farmers, who also graze a few sheep in the neighbourhood. The nearest 
places are Salisbury, 6 miles S.E.; and Virginia, 4 miles distant. The communication 
is by Rounseveirs daily mail coach; and with Adelaide, 18j miles S., by that coach to 
Salisbury, and thence by train. Penfield has a post office, a large wheat store, and the 
regular tradesmen's shops, a literary institute and library, and 1 hotel — the Plough and 
Harrow. The surrounding country consists of an extensive plain, bounded by the sea 
to the S. and W., and by the range of hills extending from Adelaide to Gawler on the 
£. and N.E. A considerable quantity of the plain is under cultivation, much of the 
low timber by which it was formerly covered being now cleared. The population 
numbers about 50 persons. 

FENOUm ISLAND (Co. Qrey). is a small rocky islet lying off" the S.E. coast 
near cape Jaffa. 

FENOLAf 37 25' S. lat., UO"* 55' E. long. (Co. Grey,) is a township in the 
hundred of Penola, and in the electoral district of Victoria. It is 286 miles from 
Adelaide, and 299 miles from Melbourne, the junction of the main line of roads from 
Melbourne to Adelaide and Port Macdonnell to Adelaide being here. The district is 
pastoral, the stock being chiefly sheep. The nearest places are Gambierton, 32 miles 
S.; Narracoorte, 31 miles N.; and Robe, 70 miles W. Coaches leave for Adelaide, 
Narracoorte, and mount Gambler twice a- week, and for Melbourne three times a- week. 
The hotels are the Royal Oak and the Prince of Wales. The coach and parcel 
carrying offices are Cobb and Co.'s for any part of Victoria, and Rounsevell's for 
SouUi Australia. The surrounding country is flat, well-grassed land, with numerous 
swamps. The population numbers about 500 persons. Penola has a local court, 
police station, telegraph, post, and money order offices, an aboriginal station, a Foresters' 
court, a public pound, a National school, a branch of the National bank, and an 
excellent mechanics' institute. There are 2 churches— the Presbyterian and the 
Catholic The resident magistrates are J. M. Carter, E. Kirby, G. Riddoch, G. B. Scott, 
and J. A. and H. E. Wells, Esqs. A ridge of limestone, with light red soil, formed by 
the decomposition of the outcropping limestones, commences near Penola, and runs in 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



182 • The South Australian Owsetteer. [Pen— Pbb 

a N. direction for more than 60 miles, sloping down to liie W. all the way into open, 
marshy country, sparingly timbered with sheoak, honeysuckle, red gum, and wattles 
With regard to the swampy country lying round Fen(^, and the means for its drainage^ 
see Dismal Swamp. 

PENOLA (Co. Chrey) is one of the N. hundreds of the county, lying in the N.£}* 
and containing a considerable quantity of sold land. I'he township of Pekibla liet in 
this hundred. 



{Co, Light) is the name of a smiJl hamlet lying 1 mile distant frota. 
the township of Angaston. It has a chapel and a steam flour mill. The population is' 
small, and engaged principally in farming. 

PEHTOH YALE RUN ( Yorkers peninsula;) lease, No. 84; occupiers, Anstey 
and Giles; area, 107 square miles; grazing capability, 21,000 sheep, or 196 per square 
mile; Goyder's valuation, £1182 16s. per annum, deducting improvements valued at 
£1916. This run is watered from wells and springs, and lies near Wool bay, 56 miles 
W.S.W. of port Adelaide by sea, and 160 miles overland, via port Wakefield, from 
Adelaide. On this and Gum flat runs are 44,^100 sheep 350 head of cattle, and 330 
horses. 

PEXir WOB.tr AM [Co. Stanley) is a small village situated on a flat, surrounded 
by hills. Skilligalee creek runs through it. Mount Horrocks is about \\ mile E., and 
mount Ogden, \^ mile W. It is 6 miles S. of Clare, and 3 N. of Watervale, and has 
a flour mill in Aill work (Roach's.) It has a church of England, Wesleyan chapel, a 
store, and public-house^the Derby Arms. There is also a post office. The district 
is both agricultural and pastoral, wheat being grown, and cattle depastured. There 
are large deposits of iron ore in the hills W. of Penwortham, and copper, but not in 
sufficient quantities to pay for the working. The ne^,re8t places are Clare, 6 miles W.; 
Watervale, 3 miles S. ; and Mintaro, 5 miles W.; the communication being by Rounstei 
veil's daily mail coach. With Adelaide, 87 miles S., the communiciktSon is by Rounse^ 
veil's mail coach to Kapunda, and the railway thence to Adelaide. The hotel is the* 
Derby Arms (Freeman's.) The main road is under the supervision of the central 
road board; but Penworthan^ is under the control of the district council of Clare, as 
far as the by-roads, &c., are coilcerned. It is in the district of Clare, anfl county and 
electoral district of Stanley. The surrounding country is very hilly, aAd the formaitioii 
sandstone and slate. The village of Penwortham has about 100 inbabUants; but the 
surrounding district is thickly populated for a farming district. There is a public 
pound in the village. • 

PEltrORATZB ISLE (^Go, Flinders,) See WmDBEY Islands. 
PEUOUNBI LAKE {Flinders district) is a salt lagoon, lying about 60 miles N. 
of lake Hope, in a sandy and stony plain, with sand-hills and patches of rank vegetation. 

PISBl, PORT (Co. Victoria f) is a shipping port for wool, &c., fying to the S. of 
port Germain, on the E. coast of Spencer's gulf. A shipping place and store has been 
erected at the port, where cargo can be landed and loaded at high water. 

PE&KZNBOO, 35| 23' S. lat., 139 30' E. long. (C7o. Russdl,) is a camping ^ace 
on the main road from Wellington to Border town. There is a well at this place 
known as the Twelve-mile well, from its being 12 miles distant S.E. of Wellington. 

PBRLUBIE (Flinders district PT.) is a prominent white sand-hill, lying on th)e 
E. side of the head of the bight of Streaky bay. Fresh water may had of excellent 
q^dality and in abundance in the hollows of this hill, but care must be taken in clearing 
out the wells not to penetrate the clayey substratum whicb holds the water. 

PEBXUBZE STATION, (Port Lincoln district;) lease, No. 1090. See Kirkala 
Bun. 

FEBJT ATTT LAGOON (Flinders district N.) is a large swampy salt lake lying 
to the W. of the S. part of lake Torrens. It is fed on its E. side by a small ueeh 
cfeek flowing froai Bonney's bluff", and known as the Pematty creek. This creek and 
lagoon, and also a fine fresh waterhole, called by the natives Pernatty, were f&aud by 
Swinden in 1853. 

PSllMfUNNA RUN, [N. district;) leases, Nos. 403, 442, and 475; occupier, hou, 
X. Baker; respective areas of leases, 81, 87, and 32 square miles. The next post oMce 
WAn^pena^ ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Pb»-^PuJ The^ South 4wftiralian Q<mtteer. 183 

ggTAWHKINA FALL, or Moonshine Watbb, {Flinders district N.) is a 
remarkable waterfall, falling over the side of a range of rocks on section 1685, at 
Tndanamutana. This range is 200 feet high from the golly, and about half-way up is 
a mass of overhanging rocks which causes the water to fall in a cloud of spray into a 
yodt 35 fleet in diMoeter, and 4 feet deep. 

VSTAMORA SPRING {FUndera dis^ia N.) is a spring of good water impreg- 
nated with soda, and having a peculiar smell, going off however after the water has 
been exposed some time to* the^ fresh air, and not srising from any deleterious quality 
in the water. This spring bubbles up with a force to a height of several inches above 
the surface. Tim*ber is scarce in the neighbourhood which lies to the N. of the Freeling 
range, and about 400 miles N. of Adelaide. 

^ VCTOUbinWO BUN (TT. district;) lease, No. 1145; oceupier, G. Hawson; 
area. 24 square miles; rent, £12 per annum. This run lies on the Gawler ranges, in 
the postal district of port Lincoln. 

FETSa POINT, 32** 12' 40" S. lat., 133** 27' 10" E. long., is the name given to 
the W. head of Denial Bay. It is a rocky peninsula, running out from the mainland 
in an £. direction, and is of moderate elevation, although on either side the land 
retreats with sandy beaches. The N. bight of this peninsula forms a small but safe 
harbour known as Tourville bay, which offers secure anchorage and facilities for landing 
even on the open beach. 

FETSa'S HILL {Co. Light) is the highest peak of the Belvidere range of 
mountains, and lies about 4 miles W. of the township of Hamilton. The surrounding 
-country \b partly taken up by formers. A small copper mine, the Belvidere, closed for 
some y«ars past, was formerly worked at the N. end of this hill. 

VETEa'S HILL, 29*" 30^ S. lat., 136'' 4€/ E. long. (FHnders district,) is a hiU 
lying in the pastoral country, to the S.W. of lake Eyre. 

FXTHEaTON- S* iOo. Adelaide) is the name of an agricultural village lying 3^ 
miles 87^ mount Pleasant. It has one hotel — the District hotel; 'and a small farming 
population. 

FSTWJL RUN (W. district;) leases, Nos. 937, 936, 1093, 1047, 800, and 801; 
occupier, Henry C. Hawson; total area, 138 square miles; grazing capability, 7000 
sheep. The nases have respective areas of 41, 12, 13, 17, 37, and 18 square miles. 
This run lies 30 miles N.E. of Flinders, the nearest post town on the E. side of Streaky 
bay, Blancheport being the shipping port. 

FEWftET VALE {Co, Adelaide) is a small village near Tanunda, the land being 
taken up by small farmers and vignerons. At this place is a vineyard, the property of 
J. Gilbert, Esq. It is situated on the eminence of one of the smallest of a long line of 
hills lying to the S. of the Barossa range, the view on all sides bemg enclosed by hills, 
some of which are 1400 to 1600 feet above the level of the sea. The vineyard lies 
round the residence, and bears Verdeilho, Gouais and Beisling for white wines, and 
Shiraz and Carbonet for red. There are also Malaga, Muscatel, Chasselas musque, 
black Lombardy, white Malvaria, and black MAocco or Black prince. There are 
excellent wine cellars on the property, the lower part being used for the storage of, and 
the upper for manufacturing wine. On this property is also an extensive range of 
stables, where Mr. Gilbert keeps his blood stock, comprising some of the best in the 
colony. A small creek flows through the estate into the Para river, and a small church 
(St. Thomases) has been erected by Mr. Gilbert for the neighbouring inhabitants, in 
which the clergyman of Lyndoch valley ofllciates each altemate SabbiUh. 

FHZIiE'9 HILL {Co. ffindmarsh) is a peak of an E. spur of the main range lyhig 
about 4 miles N.E. of Macclesfield. 

FSSLIFSTOWN (Co. Adelaide) is a small agrieultural township lying about 
half-a-mile N.E. of Chain of Ponds, the nearest post office. It has a fine spring fiowing 
through it all the year round, the stream being imbedded in water cresses, which grow 
aU the year round. The neighbourhood is celebrated for its vineyards and firuit gardens. 
It has one hotel — the Morning Star*" and a store, and a population of about 100 persons, 
5ci^ 18 dwelling-houses. The formation iso ferruginous sandstone and quartz. 

FIAFEO BUN {N.F. district;) leases, Nos. 86 (part o^) 386 (part of,) 1054, 
aftd 1086; occupier, J« Chambers; respective areas, 72, 22, 16, and 2\ square mUes. 
TUt run lies near the £* boundary of the colony, the nearest post office being Orer- 
]AadoDme& 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



184 The 8(mth AustraUan (jhaetteer, [Pio — Ple 

PZGRI-&ZGHZ PASS {Go. Frome) is the name of an opening in the ranges on 
the N. road from Stirling and port Augusta. The Saltia creek flows through the past^ 
and the township of Saltia is situated at its entrance. 

PZEB.OE POINT STATION ( Torke's peninsula.) See Yobk Valley Station. 

FIZiXiAWOaTA RUN (IF. district;) lease, No. 104; occupier, W. Borthwick; 
area, 15 square miles ; grazing capability, 2400 sheep, or 160 per square mUe; Gojder'a 
yaluation, £130 per annum, deducting improvements yalued at £50. This run lies 22 
miles N. bj E. of port Lincoln, 10 miles E. by N. of Tumby bay, where the wool l» 
shipped, 380 miles overland, and 200 miles by sea from Adelaide. 

PniiZ&OO STATION ( W. district) See Ulibbib Run. 

>ZLTZirZBT STATION (por^ZtncolfK^MtrtW;) lease, No. U29. See Eibkala Run. ^ 

PZNBUTA RUNCfT. district;) leases, Nos. 1160 and 1161; occupier, J. London; 
area, 300 square miles; rental, £140 per annum. 

PmBA RUN (Co. Frome;) lease. No. 122; occupiers, Grant and Stokes; area, 29 
square miles; grazing capability, 4600 sheep, or 104 per square mile; Goyder's valua- 
tion, £288 per annum, deducting improvements valued at £300. This run lies 15 miles 
N. of Melrose, 30 miles by road E. by S. of mount Remarkable, and 180 miles N. of 
Adelaide. On this and on the Coonattoo, Yanyary, and other runs held by the same 
lessees are 90,000 sheep, 150 horses,* and 150 head of cattle. 

FUTBILPENA mine {Flinders district) lies near the Paralana station, and 
consists of ironstone rocks impregnated with green carbonate and grey ore, tie lode 
running E. and W. for about 80 yards. The geological formation of the ground is 
singular — ironstone, granite, greenstone, disintegrated quartz, felspar, limestone, 
micaceous schist, and quartz crystals being all found in the locality, and within a short 
distance. This mine is not being worked at present. 

FINE CREEK {Co. Bttrra) is a small stream flowing in the pastoral country to 
the S.E. of Mount Bryant. 

PINE CREEK (Go. Light) is the name of a small creek flowing through 
agricultural country, in the hundred of Saddleworth, into the Wakefield nfer. 

Also a small creek rising in the main range in the hundred of Juda creek, and 
flowing S. into the Light river. 

PINE HUT CREEK {Co. Eyre) is a small creek flowing 10 miles E. of the 
township of Keyneton. The Wheal Alfred copper mine is situated on this creek. 

PINXEETON'S FLAT {Co. Oawler) is a fertile plain lying about the middle of 
the county of Crawler. Part of this flat is under cultivation. 

PINNAROO RUN (5JE. district;) occupier, W. Hack; area, 20 square miles; 
grazing capability, 500 head of cattle. This run lies 78 miles N. of Border town 
(Tattiara country,) 80 miles W. of Wellington, and 95 miles N.E. of Magrath's flat. 

PINTRAPUT RUN (If. district;) leases, Nos. 1079 and 1080; occupiers, 
Hosking and Bryant; area, 26 square miles; rental, £13 per annum. This run 
lies E. by N, of mount Southam, the nearest post towns being at Venus and 
Streaky iMiys. 

PIPEGLAT LAKES (Co. Macdonnelt) is the name given to some swampy lagoons 
lying on a bed of whitish clay, whence the name. These lagoons are situated near 
the coast. 

PTRARA STATION {Yorkers peninsula.) See Parbana Statioi^ . 

PLANTAGhENETy MOUNT (N. district,) is a peak in the main range, lying' 
at the head of the Kanyaka creek, and to the E. of Watts's sugar loaf. The Wirrawilka 
mine lies to the N., and the Kirwan to the S. 

PLATFAIE, MOUNT {N. district,) is a peak lying on the border of the 
West plains, to the N. of mount Parry, and S.W. of the Frome river.* 

PIiEASANTy MOUNT (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal township in the hundred of 
Talunga, electoral district of Gumeracka, and is under the control of a district couneU. 
It is situated on the E. source of the Torrens river, Cudlee creek falling into the 
Torrens near the township. Elagstafi* hill is 2} miles N.E., and the mount Pleasast 
range, which divides the hundreds of Talunga and Barossa, is 1^ miles to the N.N. W. 

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p 



Ple — Pob] The South AvstraUan Oaaetteer. 185 

The district is an agricultural one, the chief product being whe&t. There are also 
sereral sheep runs in the neighbourhood, the principal of which are Baker's, Melrose's, 
and Murray's. There is also a copper mine— the Kanappa, lying 14 miles distant. 
The nearest places to mount Pleasant township are S. Petherton, 3| miles S., on a 
district road; and Spring town, 5 miles N.E. on the main line of road to Angaston. 
There is no regular communication with S. Petherton, and only by carriers' waggons 
to Spring town. With Adelaide, 35 miles S.W., the communication is by Bounseveli's 
daily miUl coach, and passenger 'bus, and by carriers' waggons, 2 four-horse teams 
plying regularly for the conveyance of goods. Mount Pleasant has a post and money 
order office, a telegraph station, a mechanics' institute, an Oddfellows' lodge, and a 
Foresters' court, a public pound, a steam flour mill (Giles',) and English, Presbyterian, 
and Wesleyan places of worship ; also a school, and 2 hotels— the Talunga and the 
Totness. There is a racecourse and agricultural show ground, where races, and a 
ploughing match and agricultural exhibition are held annually. There are branches of 
the South Australian bank and the Adelaide assurance and guarantee company. The 
resident magistrates are G. Melrose and J. Bennett, Esqs. The surrounding country 
is elevated and mountainous. The population numbers about 1000 persons. 

PLEASANT, MOUNT, RANGE {Co. Adelaide) is the name of an E. spur of the 
Flinders or main range, dividing the districts of Talunga and Barossa, and lying 1^ 
miles N.N.W. of mount Pleasant. 

PLTflflEFTON ((7o. Adelaide) is a small postal agricultural village, lying about 
8i miles distant, S.W. from the city .of Adelaide, in the midst of an agricultural 
district taken up by small farmers engaged in the culture of wheat and hay, principally 
the latter. There is a post office in the village for the convenience of the neighbouring 
locality. There is also a public pound in the neighbourhood. The population is small 
and scattered. 

POINT PIERCE {Torhe'spmi'Mvla.) See Pibkcb Point. 

POLUTIA STATION {W, district;) occupier, J. Forster; is a part of the 
Chandada run, and lies 28 miles from the head station Chandada — which see. 

POMONBA POINT {Cos. Sturt and Buasell) is a point into the N.E. end of lake 
Alezandrina, and forming the W. head of the entrance of the Murray river into that 
lake. It is a small peninsula running out boldly into the lake in a S. direction, and 
having a hill at its extremity, with a swampy lagoon lying behind it. 

PONA&A> or Mount Granitb {Flinders district,) is an elevation lying on a well- 
grassed plain, and lying about 50 miles N. of Parla. About 6 miles further is a good 
wateAole, known by the aboriginals as W^aroona, where water can be had all the year 
round by scraping in the sand. From this place Eoondoollea spring Hes 8 miles, 
Talbinda 16 miles, Eoorahkilda 8 miles, Tanna 10 miles, and Wanea 30 miles, all 
through indifTerent saltbush and scrub country, known only to the aboriginals, and 
leading to a large salt lake. This country was discovered and tracked by Mr. Hack, 
in 1857. 

POOBNON RUN (Port Lincoln district,) See Manoalow Run. 

POOLE'S POND (Flinders district.) See Coobakatus-thowbnb Ljlkb. 

PO&GUPZNE HILL (Flinders district) is a peak in the low scrubby ranges 
lying to the N.E. of mount Bryan and of the county Burra. The surrounding country 
is covered with mallee scrub, and is the N. part of the great Murray belt of scrub. 

PORT ADELAIDE (Co, Adelaide,) See Adblaidb Pobt. 

PO&T AUGUSTA. See Augusta Port. 

PO&T CAROLINE {Co. MacdonneU.) See Cabounb Pobt. 

PORT ELLIOTT {Co. Hindma/rsh.) See Elliott Port. 

PO&TE&'S HILL, 29° 58' S. lat., 137" 25' E. long. (Flinders district,) is a low 
hill lying in the desert country to the N. of lake Torrens.. 

PORT GAWLER (Co. Cfawler,) See Gawlbb Port. 

PORTXiANB ESTATE {Co. AdeUide) is the name of a small hamlet adjoining 
port Adelaide on its S.E. side, and having one hotel, a public pound, an Oddfellows* 
k>dge, and a Foresters' court. There is a post office in this district for the convenience 
«f the residents, who are principally farmers, engaged in the cultivation of hay. The 
^strict lies to the N. of Port Adelaide, the cemmunication being by means of horse 
OT dray. 



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180 Tka Smith AuMtnxUtm Qaaetteer. [Pob--Pbo< 



ESTATB (Oo, AMaide) k a district ooonoil in the elo^ral 

district of port Adelaide. It it under the control of a chairman, the present one being 
Mr. J. Rann, and 4 oonncillors. The receipts and expenditure in the district council 
for 1865 were as fc^owt-^Aseessment, £3141 lOs.— rate, Is^ in the pound; rates col- 
lected, A158 17s.; total receipts, ^426 8s. 8d.; office expenses and salaries, £54 8s» 9d.; 
expended on public works, £367 16s. 8d. The population numbers 654 persons. The 
area is 199 aores, an4 the number of dwelling-houses 152« 

FO&T LINCOLN (Co. Flinders.) See Lirooln Port. 

FOaT LINCOLN, or Etbb's Crossing, 32' SCK S. lat., 137° 40' E. long. {Fti/nden 
district,) is a crossing place over the salt swamps, lying at the head of Spencer's gulf, a 
few miles to the N. W. of port Augusta. This crossing was found by Eyre in 1839. 

FOXT LINCOLN MINE- {W, district,) is a copper mine lying 3 miles N.E. of the 
mount Lirerpool mine, now the property of Messrs^ Levi and Beck. It is not at present 
working. S«e Mount Liyerpool Mins. 

FOanrST island [Spencer's gulf,) See Sir J. Banks's Group. 

FOaT VICTOR ((7o. Hindmarsh.) See Victor, Port. 

FBJLaEI«L All A STATION ( W. district;) occuiners, Heal^ and Woddridge. See 
Wallianippib Station. 

FRE AMIUMA MINE (Co.Sturt) is a copper mine situated 29 miles E.S.E. of 
Adelaide, and lying about 6 miles N.E. of Callington, on a hill near the Murray scrub. 
This mine was opened 1854, some good ore being raised, chiefly carbonates; after a 
time the lode was lost, and the mine abandoned. It was, howeyer, reopened about 
4 years since. Grey and black ore, and also muriates of copper are found in this mine^ 
The mine is, however, not regularly worked. 

FanUlOSE HILL AND SPRINGS, 28'' 5' S. lat., 136'' 20" E. long. (Flinder 
distridy) is a sand hill lying on the W. of lake Eyre, between the Davenport and Neales 
rivers, and near mount Charles. Upon the summit of this hill are several hot springs, 
and on its £. side some colder ones covered with reeds. This hill and the springs upon 
it were found by Stuart in 1859. 

FHXNCESS ROYAL MINE {Go. Burra) is a copper mine, now not woriced, 
lying in a special survey to the S.E. of the Burra mine, and opened about the same 
time as that mine. It was worked with considerable success for a time, and a great 
quantity of rich ore was raised and shipped to England^ the average percentage of 
copper being above 27. A large parcel made over 29 per cent. The workings were 
carried on until the year 1851, when the water was cut at about the 30-fathom ^vel, 
and the capital of the company being all expended, as well as the proceeds of the ore, 
— in machinery, buildings, wages, &c. &c., the shareholders lost heart and determined 
on abandoning the mine. The land was subsequently sold, and enclosed for a sheep 
run, the price paid being £9000 fbr 10,000 acres. The total proceeds of the ore raised 
were above £7000, and the mine ultimately paid a dividend of about 13s. in the pound 
on the original cost and outlay. The shades, however, at one time rose to above £200 
each. It is not at all unlikely that if a company were to recommence working this 
mine in a legitimate way, and with the determination to sink £20,000 or £30,000 at 
the outset and look for no return beyond what would pay for the labour employed for 
12 months, the mine might yet prove to be one of great value. Its comparative proximity 
to a shipping port is greatly in its favour. 

FBINGETOWN {Co, Burra) is a small village on the Burra mines lying to the 
S.W. of Eooringa. It is principally a place of residence for the miners employ cS e& the 



HILL, 30^ 50' S. lat., 139° 20' E. long. (FUndtre district,) is a lof^ and 
isolated peak and survey point, lying between the main range and the W. shore of lake 
Blanche, and to the S. of the* Big John creek. The Mooroo copper mine is situated 
about 8 miles W. of this hill, and copper has been found on its S. slopes. It is a 
prominent landmark in the pastoral district known as the East^n plains, m which it is 
situated. Sandstone, shales, slates and caleureous rock. 

F&OITY CAPE {Kanga/roo island) is a prominent headland on the N. coast o f 
the Island. 

FaOSFEGT HILL {Kangaroo island) is the name of a hill lying at the W. eai 
or narrowest part of Flinders isthmus, and on the N. shore of Pennington bay. 



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Pro — Rad] The Setah AustraUan QazeU^er. 187 

PROSPECT TILLAGB (fio, Adelaide) » a small subinrb of K. Adelaide, lying 
to the N.of that place, and separated from it by the Park lands. There are numerous 
suburban residences of gentlemen haying business in town in the yillage. The com- 
munication with Adelaide, about a mile distant, is by the Walkerrille 'bus several 
times in the day, or by car from the N. Adelaide stand. The Tillage lies on a high 
plateau of limestone and dolomite, covered with tolerably good soil, which produces 
excellent grapes. The population numbers about 150 persons, mostly gardeners and 
labourers employed in lime-burning, which is carried on to a considerable extent in the 
ne^hbouiliood. 

Pt^ALOO RUN (J^.E, district;) leases. Nog. 472, 518, and 577; occupier, G. Hiles; 
respective areas of leases, 12, 30, and 60 square miles. This run lies to the If. ^ 
mount Bryant, the next post town being Eooringa. 

PtfZiUSH POINT {Oo.Hindmarsh) is the eiA of the low sand-hills (Sir 
Richard's Peninsula,) forming the W. side of the sea mouth ot the Murray. On its 
highest part, in 35'' 34' S. Ut., 138^ 57' 15'' E. long., is a flagstaff, whence the tidal 
and other signals are made. 

PUXiLEN'S island {Co, Smdmarsh) is a small rocky islet lying off the point 
known as Freeman's Not, at the S. extremity of port £Iliott. It lies about a quarter 
of a mile from the land. 

PUUPANGE, or Crishwa Lake, 27'' 37' S. lat., ISQ'' 30' E. long. (Flinders 
district,) is a small waterhole lying to the S. of lake Buchanan, in the grassy plain in 
which M^Einlay camped before starting to cross the continent. 

PVNGRBOW& (Co. Orey) is a crater in the extinct volcano of mount Gambier, 
lying on the S. iside of the mountain, and looking like a hollow scooped out by an 
eruption in its side. It is very deep, and somewhat resembles a funnel in form, with 
one side much lower than the Other. A sort of pitch-stone porphyry is common, 
especially on the inner or lower side. 

PUBJOZE ISLANDS are the north-westernmost of the islands forming Nuyt's 
archipelago, and consist of one principal island somewhat elevated, 6 miles S.E. by £. 
from point Bell, with a ledge of rocks, on which are some smaller islets extending 
3 miles from it to the E.N.E. A small separate islet exists also 3 miles £., and 
a smaller one, three-quarters of a mile off its S. end. They are probably joined to it 
by sunken reefs. There is also a sunken rock, on which the sea does not always break, 
lying between it and point Bell, 24 miles N.N.W. f W. from it. 

QVliENSTOWN {Co. Adelaide) is a small agricultural settlement adjoining the 
township of Alberton, of which it forms part. The population is a scattered one, and 
engaged principally in the cultivaticm of wheat, hay, &c., which are grown in 
considerable quantities in the neighbourhood. Clay, swamp, and sandy drift. This 
place forms part of the district coundl of Alberton and Queenstown — which see. 

QUEENSTOWN DISTRICT COUNCIL {fio. Adelaide.) See Alberton and 

QUBBNSTOWN. 

QUIN'S rock {Kangaroo island) is a rook (awash) 3 miles to the westward 
of cape Gantheaume, and may be avoided by keeping the Pelorus rock off the cape, 
bearing E. | S. until a sufficient distance is attained. A reef projects about 1 mile in 
» S.S.E. direction from the cape; the sea generally breaks on its outer extremity. 

ftABEIiAZSy CAPE {Co Bohe,) is a promontory on the S.E. coast, Ijdng at the 
point of division between the counties of Robe and Grey. 

&ADSTOCK, CAPE, 33° 1 1' 45" S. lat., 134° 15' 20" E. long., is one of the most 
remarkable projections on the W. portion of the coast, and forms an unmistakable 
guide for mariners bound either from the E. to Streaky bay, or standing in from 
seaward towards Venus harbour. The cape is of wedgelike form, and, bein^ 348 feet 
in height, may be distinguished for a considerable distance. The land to the N.W. 
becomes gradually lower towards cape Blanche, and also to the E. towards Beard's bay. 
Cape Radstock forms the N. and W. head of Anxious bay, and lies 12^ miles W. by N. 
from point Weyland, the soundings between the two being generally about 35 fE^homs. 

BABSTOGS, CAPE, (or Calca, or Baird's Bat) RUN, (IT. district;) leases, 
Nos. 554, 795^ and 851; occupiers, W. J. and J. H. Browne; areas, respectively 85, 10, 
End 46 square miles. This run lies to the W. of Venus bay, the next post office being 
Parkin, at the head of that bay. 



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188 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Rag — Rat 

&AOXiESS RANGE (Flinders district) is an E. spar of the main range, running 
in a N. and S. direction from about 32"" 10" to 33"" 3' S. lat., and Ids'" 50" E. long. It is 
rugged and scrubby, and lies on the W. border of the Eastern plains, in good pastoral 
countrj. Its principal peaks are Marchant's hill, Eke's bill, Black rock, and Black hill. 

BAMBALLSEA (Co. Hindmarsh,) See Rapid Bat. 

BAHDELIi {Co, Albert) is a hundred, lying on the E. bank of the Murray 
rirer, above Blanchetown. It is taken up for pastoral purposes. 

BAPIB BAY, 35"" 35' S. Ut., 138'' 16' E. long. (Co, ffmdmarsh;) also known as 
Second valley, Finniss vale, and Biandallsea; is the name of a postal township in the 
hundred of Tankalilla, electoral district of Encounter bay, and under the control of a 
district council. It is situated on Rapid bay, a boat harbour on the S.E. side of the 
gulf of St. Vincent, and on tYm Paramacoona creek, mount Rapid being W.S.W., 
distant 5 miles, and forming the bluff of the same name in the gulf. There are 
numerous small creeks in the neighbourhood, with abundance of water. The district 
is agricultural and pastoral, both sheep and cattle being grazed, and the soil bears 
strong mineral traces. The Talisker silver lead mines are 10 miles S.W., and the 
Whefl Coglin mine S.W. by W. 3 miles distant. The township of Normanville lies 8 
miles N.E. by E., and Glenbum 5 miles S.W. by W., the communication being by 
horse or dray, and the mails being carried on horseback. With Adelaide, 62 miles N.E., 
the communication is by horse or dray to Yankalilla, 12 miles N. (the next telegraph 
station,) and thence by Rounsevell's daily mail coach. There is 1 hotel in the township— 
the FinnisYale hotel Major's,) and 1 on the road to cape Jervis, 10 miles distant W.S.W. 
There is also a post office, a store, and a steam flour mill (Leonard's.) The surrounding 
country is elevated, and the ground bears evidences of lead and copper, a mine of 
which was some years ago (1844) opened by Mr. W. A. Phillips. The lodes of lead 
were close to the surface, and yielded 75 per cent, of lead and about 23 oz. of silver 
per ton. The copper lodes were found cropping out on the surface, and showing also 
in the face of the cliffs fronting the sea at a depth of about 500 feet from the summit. 
The ores consisted of grey, yellow, and peacock ores. About 50 tons of silver lead 
ores were raised, when the works, from some cause, were stopped. The ground is 
hard, but the situation is unsurpassed for the facilities which it swords for dressing and 
shipping away the ore. Some fine white marble is found in the neighbourhood. The 
country is very pretty; but to the S., between Rapid bay and cape Jervis, a belt of 
stringy bark forest intervenes, relieved towards the coast by beautiful and fertile 
valleys, which are taken up for grazing purposes, and some of which are cultivated. 
The geological formation of the district is of granite and limestone. There is a mag- 
nificent spring of clear water in the township, which has a population of about 60 
persons. Rapid bay has a public pound and a volunteer rifle corps. The resident 
magistrate is W. Randeil, Esq., J.P. The geological formation consists of dark 
earthy schists, with glistening surfaces, interstratified with bands of hard quartz 
sandstone, and irregular beds of white and grey crystalline limestone, or coarse 
saccharoid marble. 



BAY {Co, Hindmarsh) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Encounter bay. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. F. 
Ransford of cape Jervis, and 4 councillors. The receipts and expenditure in this district 
council for 1865 were as follow: — Assessment, £5249 16s. 3d. — rate. Is. in the pound; 
rates collected, JE257 Os. 9d.; total receipts, £628 14s.; office expenses and salaries, 
£77 17s. 6d.; expended on public works, £508 12s. Ud. The population numbers 1119 
persons, the area is 93 square miles, or 59,520 acres; land under cultivation, 4028 acres; 
and number of dwelling-houses, 238. 

BJLBTD, MOUNT, BLUFF {Co. Hindmarsh) is the bold W. extremity of mount 
Rapid, which forms a prominent bluff on the E. coast of the gulf of St. Yincent. 



^, MOUNT {Co. Hindmarsh,) is a lofty hill lying about half-a-mile from the 
coast, and 1^ miles S. of Rapid bay. 

RAT ISLAND (Co. Hindmarsh) is a small sandy island lying near the junction 
of the lower Murray and Holmes Greek, and off the E. point of Hindmarsh island. 

BAT, MOUNT (Torke's peninsula) is a hill lying on the W. side of Yorke's 
peninsula, a little to the S. of port Yietoria, to the entrance of which it forms a land- 
mark for navigators. 



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Eat — Red] The SotUh AustrdUan Qnzetteer, 189 



P, MOUNT, RUN ( TwrTce^a peninnda,) See GumFlat Run. 

RATZir DE CASOARS (Kangaroo island) is a remarkable gorge in the clifOs on 
the W. coast of the island, lying about 3 miles S. of cape Borda. 

BAWNSXiETS' BLUFF (iV. district) is a lofty peak in that part of the main 
range known as the Wilpena range, and lying between Kanyaka on the S. and Blinman 
on Uie N. 

aAZO&BAGS, MOUNT (Co. Bwra,) is a peak of the range lying to the N. of 
Koringa, and running into the E. plains. It lies to the S. of mount Bryant, and 
attains an altitude of 2992 feet above the leyel of the sea. The geological formation 
consists of blue, grey, and brown arenaceous slate and sandstone, dipping E. and W. 
from 20° to vertiwd. 

aSAPHOOS (iV. district) is an E. spur of the main range, lying in the pastoral 
district of the Eastern plains, between the Balcoranna and Yudnapunda creeks. 

&EAPHOOS RUN [N, district;) leases, Nos. 605 and 1138; occupier, 
R. Beatson; areas, 120 and 110 square miles. This run lies to the N.W. of Rawnsley's 
blufi, the post town being Eooringa to the S. 

RED BANKS {Co, Gawler) is a recently surreyed township (laid out and sold 
last year) lying 9 miles E. of the township of Two-wells, and 4 miles N.W. of 
Mallala, to which place, however, there is no direct road. Seven public roads meet 
at Redbanks, 'and the township contains a blacksmith's and wheelwright's shop, a 
store, and 1 hotel — the Seven Stars. The population numbers about 30 persons. 

RED LAKE (Flinders district) is a salt lagoon in the scrubby sandy plains lying 
between lakes Torrens and Gairdner, and forming in wet seasons part of the Island 
Is^oon — which see. 

BEDRUTHy or Abebdbbn (Co, Burra,) is a small mining township in the elec- 
toral district of the Burra and hundred of Eooringa. It adjoins the Burra mine, and 
is situated on the E. side of the Burra creek. On the W. side of the creek is a small 
township, named Aberdeen, but generally called Redruth. The two townships are 
united by an excellent stone bridge, with 1 arch, span 60 feet, and are supplied with 
excellent water from wells about 30 fe^t deep, sunk on the surrounding hills. Redruth 
is chiefly inhabited by miners who work at the Burra mine, and by smelters and 
labourers employed at the Eooringa smelting works. There is a mine, now not work- . 
ing, called the Bon Accord, adjoining to the Burra mine, and although large sums have 
been spent in sinking and driving, apparently in the direct line of ore at the Burra, no 
copper has yet been found over the Burra boundary. Within a few yards of that 
boundary some of the richest ore discovered at the Burra has been raised. But little 
land has been ploughed, but in wet seasons good crops can be grown. In dry seasons 
the crops are generally stunted. The chief pursuit in the country round it is the 
rearing and depasturing of sheep, the dry nature of the soil and excellent grass affording 
peculiar advantages for this occupation. Copper has been found all around the Burra 
at various distances; but, although lodes are clearly defined, they have not had sufficient 
ore to pay expenses. There is reason to believe that if a sufficient depth were sunk, 
plenty of payable ore would be discovered. The names of the abandoned mines are 
the Wheal Sarah, the River Broughton, both situated on the river Broughton; the 
North Burra, at Caroona; the Princess Royal, the Royal mine, near Black springs, 
and now being tried; the Eingston, 8 miles N. of Eooringa; the Scrubbers' Camp, 20 
miles N.; and the Nakara, 60 miles N. of the Burra. The nearest townships are — 
Hampton, half-a-mile distant; Eooringa, scarcely a mile distant; and Copperhouse, 1^ 
miles distant. With these places the communication is by rough bush-roads, that jiave 
never been repaired. From the dry nature of the soil, the roads, however, except 
between E^ooringa and Redruth, are very fair. With Adelaide, 100 miles S., the com- 
munication is by four-wheeled mail vehicles between Redruth and Eapunda, and thence 
hy railway. There is 1 hospital, for miners* use only, in Aberdeen, supported by the 
mine. The hotels are — in Redruth — Bushman's Home, Court House hotel; in Aber- 
deen — Aberdeen hotel. Smelters' Home, and the White Hart. The reason why there 
are only 3 inns in Eooringa and 5 in the much smaller townships of Redruth 
and Aberdeen, is that Eooringa is built on leasehold property belonging to the min^ 
and the landlord will allow but 3 public-houses in the whole township. Redruth 
and Aberdeen are built on freehold property, and therefore the owners are not subject 
to the mine regulations, and have built public-houses to secure some of the publicana 

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190 The South Australian Gazetteer. [Ebd — ^Bbe 



trade that would be done in Eooringa were more houses of that class allowed. The 
rrounding country is undulating md billy, comprising excellent grazing imids for 
sheep. All the timber within 20 miles of the neighbourhood has been cut down>u)d 
used as fuel for the mine. Within a radius of 5 miles not a tree can be seen, and 
beyond that distance timber can only be seen on long-purchased property. All the 
recently purchased lands from Government are bare. Redruth, from the property 
being freehold and not leasehold, like Kooringa, has been selected by the Government 
to build the principal Government buildings upon. It contains a large, commodious 
court-house for the use of the local court, a well-built gaol, capable of accommodating 
30 prisoners, and a police station. It also contains a Wesleyan, a German Lutheran, 
and a Primitive Methodist chapel, and there is a licensed school averaging nearly 100 
scholars. 

BJBDSTOirS HILL, 2^'' 25' S. lat., ids'" 25' E. long. {FUndera district,) ^ a 
solitary hill lying in a sandy and stony flat to theN.E. of lake Harry. 

mCCBBEPg (Co. Adelaide) is the name given to a vast area of flat «wamp7 
agricultural land lying ucmt the coast, to the S. of port Adelaide. The Torrens river^ 
and several small creeks, empty themselves into this flat, these waters draining oft by 
a few watercourses, most of which flow into the Saltwater creek or Thomas rivw, and 
by that means into the gulf of St. Vincent, at Glenelg. There is a troop of volunteer 
cavalry in this neighbourhood. Nearly the whole of this area is either under cultivation, 
hay being grown in large quantities upon it, or forms excellent fattening pasture for 
sheep and cattle, which are depastured upon it all the year roand. 

&£EBT CREEK (fioa.Bobe cmd MacdormeU) is a swampy draQi%ge crcek,-rising 
in the S. part of the S.E. district, and draining the marshy pastoral country in that 
district. It flows in a N.W. direction, and falls into the Maria creek, near Kingston, 
after crossing the main S.E. road at the Reedy creek hotel, a well-known jkccom- 
modation house. 

&SSOY CREEK {Co. Sturt) is the name of a stream rising m the E. slope of the 
Flinders range, and flowing in a S.E. direction into the Murray river, between the 
townships of Wall and Mannum. There is a copper mine in this croek l^iownas t^ie 
Reedy creek mine, b^ut operations are at present suspended upon jit. 

IREBDT CREEK RUN (S.E. district;) lease. No. 216; occc^ier, A. Pearson^ 
area, S7 square miles (^orreot area, 39 square miles;) grazing capability, SdOO sheep; 
Goyder's valuation, £226, deducting improvements valued at £120. This run lies 
206 miles by road S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 30 miles E. of Robe (Guiohen bay.) On thia 
and the adjoining lease, held by the same lessee, are 7600 sheep, 60 head of eattle^and 
70 horses. 

mSEirr CRESK S. station <(?o. Robe;) occupiers, Thomas TUley and Co.^ 
Mrea, 74 square miles; grazing capability, 21,000 sheep, and 50 head of cattle. This 
station lies S3 miles E. oithe townahip of Robe, on the Swampy creek, whence it takea 
its name. 

JISE9T CREEK STATION (Co. Robe;) occupier, Alex. Pearson; area, 50 square 
miles; grazing capability, 8000 sheep and 100 bead of catUe. This station lies 22 miles 
E. from Robe town in a straight line. 

M:KJSVW LAGOON, 30° 20' «. lat., 1S5° SC B. long. {Flinders district)^ the name 
given to a fresh water lagoon lying to the E. of the Limestone raage, and discovered 
by Stuart in 1858. It is situated in a stony flat with narrow ranges of sand-hills, a few 
limestone and ironstone rises, and numerous lagoons. The oountrj is covered with 
dense mu^ scarub and patches of grass, sometimes thick but odOtener spars^y scattered. 

IB LM BBW St^RINGS (Flinders district) is the name of a spring lying aJi>out a mile 
^0 the 8. of Weathered hill, and discovered by Mr. Goyder in 1857. Jt is, as its name 
imports, in the centre of a swamp overgrown with reeds. 

BXEPT WELLS {Co. Cardmll) See Jem Cbow»s Flat. 

BJSEX^Y WELL RUN {S.R district;) lease. No. 810; occppiOT, J. Hooper; area^ 
54 square miles; rental, £27. This run lies at Binnie's look-oi^t, on the xoad from 
Wellington to Border town, the former place bepig the next post town. 

AESmr WELL RUN (S,E. district;) lease. No. 1000; occupier, P. McDonald; 
aeea, 17 square miles; rental, £8 10s. This run lies to ^e N.E. of Reedy Well, on the 
tioad firom WeUmgton to Border t^wiiy about half-way between the^o places. 



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JtBas — Ret] The 8mUh AustraUan O^az^teer. 1^1 



' POINT (Go. Flings) is a dangerous reef of «unk«n roeks, orer irhieh the 
sea rolls with fearM yiolen^P lying 5j^ miles S.W.hy 8. of point Sir Isaac, and 
stretching 2 miles to the W. 

BSSTSSBfT ISLAND {Speneei^a^gvif.) See Sib. J. Banks^s Group. 

aSSVESBT ISLAND RUN {W. district/) lease, No. 227; occupier, F. H.Dodd; 
area, lO square miles. This run comprehends the islands of the Sir Joseph Banks's 
group, the next post town being port Lincoln. 

JUSSTE'S PLAINS. 34° 30' S. lat., 138° 20' E. long. (Go. GcmlerJ is the name 
^t a post office, situated in the centre of an agricultural district known by the same 
'Same, and lyio^ between the rivers Light and Gawler, on the N. and S. respectiyely. 
The post office is' distant 7 miles S. of the former and 8 miles N. of the latter rivers. 
The nearest townships are Bedbanks, about 4 miles N. (where is the nearest hotel ;) 
and Two- wells, 74 miles S.W. The communication is by horse or dray, and with 
Adelaide by horse or dray to the port Wakefield and Adelaide road, whic^ Lies a few 
miles to the W., thence by coach to Salisbury, and thence by rail. The surrouading 
country is low and flat, and the population small and scattered. Reeve's plains form 
,part of the electoral district of Stanley. 

:RBBEJk&XABLE, MOUNT {Go.Frwne,) is a loffcy hill lyiog to the N. of the 
lotvmship of Melrose, and attaining an altitude of 1857 feet above the surrounding 
-land, and 3000 lieet above sea level. The geologioal formation conusts of soft aluminous 
<&U>me, similar to that at Eapunda. The beds in which it is found dip 85° W., and are 
;>ov6rlaid By soft, red, grit^ quaitzose «andstone. Near the top of the mount are thick 
'l^ded sandstones of this description, and siliceous freestones, dipping about 15° to 
25° W. Tbere is a local court, a public pound, and an aboriginal station at this place. 
'Tte resident magistrates beiag J. B. Yeates, S. Yeates, J. 3. Smith, and 0. H. Pear- 
son, Esqs. 

JWimSLLA {Go. Adelaide) is a postal township in 4^triet B of the oounty, 
In the hundred of Noarlunga, and under the control of the central road board and the 
district council of Morphett vale, It is situated on the Pandtotinga creek, a never- 
failing stream, the mount Lofty ranges, or rather the contmuation of them, passing to 
the £. and S. of the township. The district is both pastoral and agricultural, princi- 
pally the latter. There is an excellent S-storey steam flour mill in the town, having all 
the most modem improvements, and HaUett's mines, now abandoned, lie within 2 mdies. 
The nearest places are Morphett vale, 2 miles distant on the main S. road; O'fialio- 
ran^s hill and Youngville, 1 mile N.E.; and Clarendon, 5 miles E. by S.; the commu- 
nication being bv coach along the main S. and district roads. With Adelaide, 13 miles 
N., I^e communication is by mail coach. Reyne^arhas 1 hotel — the Crown-^apost office, 
a store, a public school, and Wesleyan chapel. The surrounding country is undulating 
and hilly, with an alluvial flat known as Hurtle vale, and running down to a tea^tree 
fiCrnb swamp E. of the bridge on tifiemain South-road. The formation is limestose, with 
red loam and sandy soil on the suriace, ^nd black alluvial earth in the low grounds. 
^The population of Reynella towBship has not been ascertained s^Murately , but the neigh- 
tMurhood, from Morphett vale to O'flalloran's hUl, including collateral groups of allot- 
ment settlers, such as the " United States," " M&dville," &g., the population is large, 
and fbr the district, probably the densest country population in the colony, the distiict 
having been settled immediately the land was surveyed, about 1838. The population of 
the district mentioned numbers about 1000 persons. This district is eminently adapted 
to the cultivation of the vine, as well as to agriculture generally, the seasons bringing 
to perfection all the later kinds of grapes just before the rains usually set in. The 
climate is salubrious, partaking of the purity ot that of the hills, with the invigorating 
piioperties of that of the seaside. The rainfall is somewhat above the average one of 
the colony. About a quarter of a miile S.E. of l^is township lies Beynella farm— the 
▼ineyard and &rm of J. Reynell, Esq., — it comprises about 450 acres, of which 15 acres 
'are under vises, some of which were planted 23 years' ago. The principal varieties of 
^gi^pes ate the Verdeilho, Oarbouet, Malbec, Pineau Gris, Gouais, Bousillon, Pe(ko 
Ximenes, Doradilla, Tempnana, Palo-mino-blanco, Shiraz, and Frontignac. The 
ovdiard is also worthy of mention, and produces exceedingly fine apples and pears. 

JtSTNOUyS. LAKE (Flinders district,) is a small lagoon lying in the Stony 
plain, with sand-hills and numerous lagoons, to the N. of lake Younghusband. It is 
probable that in times of heavy floods this and others of the neighbouring lakes are 



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193 The South AmtrdLicm Gazetteer. [Rhi — Rht 



united, forming one vast inland sea, whilst in periods of drought they shrink into mere 
oozy iwamps. The losses recently sustained by ^eep-farmers who haye planted 
stations there show how dangerous it is to depend upon them in dry seasons. 
'7C RHINE, NORTH, RIVER (Cos. Eyre and Sturt,) is the name given to a fine 
strSira rising by 2 heads in the hilly country to the W. of the hundred of N. Rhine, 
Ck). Eyre, and flowing in an E. direction into the Murray river. It is fed by the 
8. Rhine river and the One Tree hill creek. 

RHINE, NORTH {Co. Eyre,) is the S.W. hundred of the county, being nearly 
all purchased land, and taken up for farming purposes. This is a wine-making 
district, and in it is a public pound. The resident magistrate is J. Keynes, Esq., J.P. 
The area of this hundred is 79,360 acres, of which 8241 acres are under cultivation. 
The population numbers 1010 persons, chiefly small settlers. 

BHINE MINE, NORTH (Go. Eyre,) is a copper mine on sections 563 and 570 
in the hundred of North Rhine, the land being freehold. There are 2 lodes, running 
nearly parallel, upon it; the ores found near the sur&ce being green and blue carbonates, 
of promising appearance. The works on this mine have been suspended for some time. 
Austin describes the mine as follows: — " This mine is situated on sections 563 and 570 — 
the company having also the adjoining sections, numbered 550 and 562 — all treehold. 
CJopper is found on the whole of the land, and one of the lodes is traced through 2 
sections. There are 2 lodes, running nearly parallel, in a N. and S. direction, with an 
underlay towards the W. of about 18 inches in the fathom. The ores found near the 
surface were green and blue carbonates, of promising appearance. The eastern lode 
was flrst opened; and about 20 tons of ore, averaging a little over 20 per cenf. of copper, 
were sent to England; but as the water soon became too strong to be kept in fork by 
animal power, an engine-shaft was sunk near the main (or NichoUs') lode, and a 70 
horse power engine and pump work flxed ; this has been working very efficiently since 
March, 1860. Another shaft, near the engine-shaft, had been pommenced prior to the 
present company ti^ng the mine, and thi^ was continued by Captain Barker, until the 
lode was cut at 20 fathoms, where it was 4 feet wide, being composed of black ore, 
mundic and spar. The sinking was continued to 30 fathoms, and it was after this that 
the engine-shaft was sunk. The lode was, unfortunately, not found to yield ore in 
paying quantities when cut again at the 30-fathom level; but the indications were 
deemed such as to warrant further sinking. When the 43-fathom level was reached a 
drive was made and carried on for 70 fathoms on the course of the lode; but although 
the lode varied from 3 to 6 feet in width, it contained too large a proportion of mundic 
to allow of its being worked to advantage. The engine-shaft has been sunk to a depth 
of 60 fathoms, and another drive made for 50 fathoms, but the lode unfortunately 
remains unremunerative, although containing black sulphuret throughout. The drive 
is being continued, in order to communicate with a winze which is in course of sinking 
from the 43-fathom level" 

BHINE, SOUTH {Co. Start,) is a district council in the electoral district of 
Gumeracka. It is under the control of a chairman, the present one being Mr. 
J. Bennett, sen.. Dale-view, South Rhine, and 4 councillors. The population numbors 
1287 persons. The area is 101 square miles, or 64,640 acres; land under cultivation, 
14,102 acres; and number of dwelling-houses, 204. 

BHINE, SOUTH (Go, Stwrt,) is a hundred in the N.W. part of the county, 
consisting in a great measure of purchased land, and watered by the S. Rhine river. 
It is taken up by a German farming and vinegrowing population. 

BHINE, SOUTH, RIVER (Co, Start) is a stream rising near Keyne's hill, and 
flowing in an E. direction into the N. Rhine river. 

BHTNIE, 34** 25' S. lat., 138° 45' E. long. (Co. Gawler,) is a road-board postal 
township in the hundred of Alma, and electoral district of Stanley. It is situated at 
the Government Freshwater reserve, and on Springs creek, 70 miles from Adelaide as 
per mail route, and on the main road from Adelaide to Clare, Mount Remarkable, and 
the far north. The river Wakefield lies 5 miles N., bearing W.S. W. ; and the Woolshed 
creek, into which the Springs creek falls, flows 2 miles N.W. The district is botii 
agricultural and pastoral, the former pursuit being extensively carried on. The soil is 
admirably suited to the purpose, and all the land within a radius of 25 miles is taken up 
for cultivation faJtms. The chief product is wheat, but little other being attended to. 
The pastoral interest, sheep and cattle, is carried on upon a small scale only. Rhynie 

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Kic — Riv] The South Australian Gazetteer. 193 

had a flour mill in course of erection, a machinist's workshop, stores — and the usual 
tradesmen's shops. There is a post office. There is I hotel — the Springs hotel, in the 
township. A copper mine, having rich indications, is worked hy Messrs. NickoUs 
Brothers. There are also indications of copper and of tin in various parts of the neigh- 
l>onrhood. The nearest places are Birerton, 4 miles E.; Gilberton, 9 miles S.; and 
Undalya, 5 miles N.; the two latter places being situated on the main North-road. 
With Adelaide, 70 miles S., the communication is by mail coach to Eapunda, and thence 
by rail. The distance by direct road for drays, waggons, &c., is 60 miles. The sur- 
rounding country is slightly hilly and undulating, the portions not occupied for agricul- 
tural purposes being richly grassed and well timbered, there being abundance of good 
building stone and road metal. Khynie is a new township, established in 1859, before 
which year there was not a dwelling-house within miles of it, nor was it surveyed by 
Government. It is now a rapidly improving place, and as pretty and picturesque a town 
as any in the colony, being well laid out, and dotted with productive orchards and vine- 
yards. It contains 31 dwelling-houses, and has, within a radius of a ipile, a population 
of 248 persons. The resident magistrate is J. Nicholls, Esq. 

BICHMOND (Go. Adelaide,) See Ck>WANDiLLA. 

RZDLST {Co. Sturt) is the N.E. hundred of the county, lying on the W. bank 
of the Murray river, and consisting almost exclusively of pastoral country. This 
hundred lies in the belt of mallee brush known as the Murray scrub. For the population 
ifcc, see Anqas Hundred. 

BlZiET POINT (Co. Daly) is a prominent headland lying on the W. side of the 
N. part of Yorke's peninsula, a little to the N. of Port Wallaroo. 

RZIiST. POINT, RUN (Yorhi's peninsula;) lease. No. 445; occupier, E. Stirling; 
area, 22 square miles ; rent and assessment, £23 6s. 8d. The nearest post town in a 
direct line is port Adelaide; the overland route being S. from Wallaroo. 

RZZiET, POINT, STATION {Yorhe's peninsula;) lease, 449; occupiers. J.W. and 
T. R.Bowman; area, 62 square miles; rent and assessment, £82 13s. 4d. Nearest post 
town, port Adelaide; route overland, S. from Wallaroo. 

BIVERTON, 84'']0' S. lat, ISS"" 40" E. long. (Co.Zi^Af.) is a postal township in the 
electoral district of Light, of which it is one of the polling places— and hundred of 
Gilbert. It is situated on the river Gilbert, the Light river being 8 miles E., the 
Wakefield river, 9 miles N.W., and Macaw creek, 3 miles S.W. The district is an 
agricultural one, wheat being the staple product. Gold and copper have been both 
obtained in the neighbourhood, but no payable mines have been discovered. The nearest 
places are Hamilton, 8 miles E.; Marrabel, 7 miles N.E.; Saddleworth, 6 miles N.; 
Auburn, 9 miles N.W.; Rhynie.4 miles W.; Navan, 4 miles S.; Gilberton, 7 miles S.; 
Kapunda, 18 miles S.E.; and Stockport. 12 miles S.S.W. The communication with 
these places is by horse or private conveyance, and with Adelaide^ 684 miles S.S.W. 
from Marrabel or Auburn, by Rounseveirs mail coach to Kapunda, and thence by rail, 
or by the main road or private conveyances, via Navan, Gilberton, Tempters, Gawler, 
fcc.; 62 miles. Riverton has 1 hotel— the Riverton— a post and money order office, 
telegraph office, public pound, 5 stores, (one of which employs 2 saddlers,) a large wheat 
store, 2 blacksmiths' smithies, (one of which employs 2 wheelwrights,) 3 shoemakers' 
shops, and 1 butcher's. The masons' and carpenters' trades are well represented, there 
being 5 of the former and 5 of the latter. The post and money order offices, telegraph 
office, and registration office for births, deaths, and marriages are situated in a building 
attached to one of the stores. A local court is held on the first Wednesday of each 
month, in the large room of the hotel, and a sum of money has been voted by the Gro- 
merriment for the erection of a court-house and police station, which will be commenced 
thortly. There is a neat church and parsonage (church of England,) and a Bible 
Christian chapel, 2 sabbath schools, and a public school-house, with master's residence 
nearly completed. There is also a branch of the South Australian insurance company. 
The ■ surrounding country is low and undulating, a range of hills running N. and S. 
about 5 mites K. of the township. All the land in the neighbourhood, with the excep- 
tion of a few water reserves, is purchased, there being no Government land in the 
neighbourhood. The resident magistrates are M. Moorhouse and T. Gil(;s, Esqs. The 
population numbers 235 in the township, and the country round is thickly populated 
«y fiurmers and settlers. 



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194 The South Australian Gazetteer, [Riv — Rob 

&ZVOU BAY (Go. Grey) is an indentation in the S.E. coast, the township of 
Grejtown lying at its head. It lies between cape Martin on the N., and cape Launes 
on the S. 

&ZVOU BAY RUN (S.E. district-;) lease, No. 195; occupiers, Tilley and 
Ormerod; area, 13 square miles; grazing capability, 1850 sheep, or 142 per square mile; 
Gojder's valuation, £47 8s., deducting improvements valued at £88. This mn lies 
225 miles S.S.E. of Adelaide, and 37 miles S.E. of Robe (Guichen bay.) The head 
station is at Gillap, and on this and other runs held by the same lessees, under leases of 
•ioiilar dates, are 34,200 sheep, 250 head of cattle, and 40 horses. 

REAPHOOBL HILL (Flinders district) is a spur of the ranges lying to the N. -of 
the Fassmore river, and takes its name from the peculiar shape it assumes, which 
somewhat resembles a reaping-hook. 

ROBS TOWN, 37° 9' 45" S. lat.. 139° 44' 15" E. long., mag. var. 5° E. long, 
(Co. RobCt) is a postal seaport town in the electoral district of Victoria, hundred of 
Waterhouse, parish of St. Peter, and under the control of the S.E. district road board. 
It is situated 6n the S. side of Guichen bay, lake Butler lying to the W. of the town, 
lake Robe about 3, and lake Eliza 4 miles distant from the town. Mount Benson lies 
about 3 miles from the N. shore of Guichen bay. The district is a pastoral one, sheep 
and cattle being largely depastured. There is a considerable quantity of good agricul- 
tural land in the neighbourhood, which will probably be- rendered available for cul- 
tivation in the course of a year or two. The nearest place is Kingston, on the main 
road to Adelaide, about 30 miles dueN.,and within 1 mile of port Caroline, Lacepede bay. 
The communication is by mail car twice a week, and with Adelaide, by mail caj: twice 
a week, or by the steamer Penola once a fortnight, the distance by land being about 
230, and by sea about 200 miles. The average length of passage by the Penola is 18 
hours. Robe has a post and money order office, a telegraph station, custom house, 
local court, volunteer rifle corps, branches of the National and South Australian banks, 
and of the South Australian insurance company, an aboriginal station, a rocket and life 
boat station, and a literary institute, the subscription to whicti (one guinea per afinutn) 
entitles subscribers to the use of the reading-room, and the perusal of all the leading 
colonial, intercolonial, and British newspapers and magazines, and to the use of the 
library, which contains a well-selected member of works of various classes of literature. 
There are 3 hotels in Robe— the Robe, the Criterion and the Caledonian— about 2 miles 
from the town, the Newton and the Carriers' arms. On the mount Gambier road, distant 
about 12 miles, is the Stone Hut inn, and on Adelaide road, the Telegraph hotel, 
(9 miles,) and the Emu inn, (12 miles.) The resident magistrates are J. (Jrmerod and 
E. Gower, Rsqs. Robe town is situated amidst a dreary country of sand-hills, but 
lies on a limestone tertiary formation, which supplies a white and durable building 
stone, of which most of the buildings are constructed, giving the town a peculiarly 
cheerful aspect. The population numbers 409 persons. The surrounding coiiutry; is 
flat and in places swampy, the soil is a light sandy loam. 

ROBE COUNTY is a county lying in the S.E. part of the colony, and bounded 
on the S. by the county of Grey, on the N. by that of Macdonnell, oci the W- by ^he 
«ea, and on the E. by the colony of Victoria. The E. and W. parts of this coupty 
only are taken up, the central part consisting of immense swampy plains and brackish 
lagoons, drained to the W. by the Reedy creek. The settled portions are divided into 
the following hundreds: — E. hundreds — Joanna, Killanoola and Comaum; and W» 
hundred, Waterhouse. The principal township in this county is that of Robe, a seapprt 
on the S.E. shore of Guichen bay, and Narracoorte, a roadside village, and the centre 
of a fine pastoral district in the N.E. The W. side of the county consists of sai^dy 
and rocky hills, with some swampy lakes, the principal of which are lake Eliza and 
lake Hawdon. The central plains are known as the Mosquito plains, and extend oyer 
the N. border of the county. In the W. part of the county is the celebrated Biscuit 
flat, so called from its being covered with round flat pieces of limestone, as like wine 
biscuits as stones can be. Sometimes they are small, about the size of a penny, piece, 
covering the ground so thickly that nothing else can be seen, and at other times more 
like dumplings than biscuits, being of large size and nearly spherioaL They are 
supposed to be caused by the lime and pipeclay in the water, which settles in the sn^all 
depressions in the plain becoming hardened after-drying up, curling up to some extent 
in the sun, and thus becoming detached from the ground. This county is compr^heujied 
in the electoral district of Victoria. This county has an area of 2028 square miles, or 

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KoB — Ros] The South J^iralian Gazetteer. 195 

1,297,920 acres, of which 82,035 acres are purchased land, 63,007 acres being held by 
freeholders, 994,474 acres enclosed, and 712 acres under cultivation. The live stock 
numbers 4858 horses, 4487 horned cattle, 393,507 sheep, 120 goats, 184 pigs, and 3428 
head of poultry. Of the land under culture 8 acres are under wheat, 7 acres under 
barley, 436 acres under hay, 60 acres under green forage, 136 acres are fallow, 18 acres 
under potatoes, 9 acres orchard, 28 acres garden, and 10 acres vineyard, the latter 
having 6296 vines in bearing, and 2150 vines not in bearing. The crops for the year 
ending March 31st, 1866, were 180 bushels wheat, 102 bushels barley, 521 tons hay, 33 
tons potatoes, 550 gallons wine, and 26 cwt. grapes. The population numbers 1740 
persons, being an increase of 263 since 1861, and the number of dwellings is 502, being 
an increase of 40 since that year. 

ROBE, LAKE (Co. Robe,) is a swampy lagoon, lying 3 miles distant from the 
township of Robe. 

ROBINSOH, MOUNT, 27°40'S. lat., 136° 25' E. long. {Flinders district N.) is a 
high flat-topped hill, lying in a sandy plain to the S. of the Frew river, and being the source 
of a small S« tributary of that river. It was discovered by Stuart in his explorations 
of 1859. 

ROBINSON'S HILL {Oo. Hindmarsh) is a peak of the scrubby ranges in the 
hundred of Encounter bay, lying on the S. side of and 4 miles distant from the Inmau 
river, and about 8 miles W. of Victor harbour. 

ROCKWELL CREEK (Flinders district) is a spot in the pastoral county to the 
S of lake Gairdner, and lying in a low range to the S.E. of that lake, where a fresh 
water spring was discovered by Hack, in 1857, in his exploration journey from the 
Garwler ranges to the head of SjJlncer's gulf. 

ROGBLT ISLAND, 34° 50' 20" S. lat., 134° 42' 30^ E. long. {Oo. Flinders,) is a 
precipitous granite rock, 17 feet in height, with a reef of rocks running in a N,W, 
direction for about half-a-mile. It lies to the S. W. of point Sir Isaac. 

Also, another small rocky islet, lying N.W. by N. from point Drummond, and 42 
miles E. of the Pearson isles. 

ROCBLT POINT (Flinders district) is a peak of the mount Norwest range. 

ROCKT RIVER {Cos. Frome and Victoria) is a fine stream rising to the S. of 
mount Remarkable, near Melrose, and flowing in a S. direction through pastoral 
country into the Broughton river, on its N. side. In the neighbourhood of this river 
are belts of finely timbered land, wooded with large gum ancj pine. The country is 
very fine, and forms magnificent sheep runs. A singular variety of the wild duck has 
been observed in the loc'ality, being only half web-footed, and having the power of 
perching on the boughs of trees. There is a resident magistrate in this neighbourhood 
— H. B. Hughes, Esq., J.P. 

ROCBLT SPRINGS (Flinders district) is the name of a springy lying about half, 
a-mile S. of Weathered hill, and found by Mr. Goyder in 18.57. It is, as its name 
imports, bubbling out of a pool surrounded by large masses of rock. 

ROCBLT WATERHOLE (Flinders district) is a name given to a deep waterhole 
on the Kanyaka creek — which see. 

ROSWELL'S CREEK (Co. Hindmarsh) is an E. spur of the main range near 
Macclesfield, and flowing in an E. direction, about 10 miles into the Bremer river, 6 
miles N.E. of Strathalbyn township. It is fed by Archer's and several other smaU 
tributary' creeks, flowing into it from the N., and watering the agricultural country in 
the hundred of Strathalbyn, 

ROEBVCBL, MOUNT, 30® 50^ S. lat., 139® 2' E. long. (Flinders district) is a lofty 
peak and survey point, lying about 15 miles S.E. of Angipena, on the S. bank of the 
Rose creek. 

ROGVS'S GULLY, or Munta. Wurta (Yorkers peninsula) is a small tract of 
land lying in a valley on the E. side of Yorke's peninsula, and adapted to agricultural 
development. A small stream of good water flows down the gully into the gulf of 
St. Vincent during, and for some time after, rainy seasons. 

ROSEBANBL STATION (Co. Eyre) the head station of G. Mekose, Esq., 
lying 3 miles E. of mount Pleasant. See Tdnqapa STArioN. 

oa> , 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



106 The South Australian GazeUeer. [Bos 

itOSE CREEK (Flinders district) is a fine mountain stream rising in mount Hack, 
and flowing in a S,£. direction, past mounts Roebuck, John, and Frome into lake 
Blanche. 

BrOSS) MOUNT CFlinder$ district,) is a copper mine, lying about 215 miles N.E. 
of port Augusta, and not now worked. At the time of stopping the following report 
fiiirly shows the operations which had been carried on upon it : — ** No. 2 shaft is above 
13 fathoms in depth. The lode has been stoped away N. from this shaft for 2^ 
fiithoms, and it is more than 3 feet wide, of solid black and grey ore of high per 
centag(>, and which is standing 7 feet high in the N. end of the stopes. No. 3 shaft is 
sunk 10 fathoms, on the underlay of a targe counter lode, 5 feet of which have been 
cut through, and only one wall found at present. A few teet were driven on l^e 
course of the lode, and a branch or leader of fine ore, 18 inches wide, was cut in the 
bottom of the level. No. 4 shaft is sunk to the depth of 10 fathoms, and contains a 
quantity of mundic, also a lode, 2 feet wide, and composed of green carbonate of 
copper, mixed with ironstone and gossan. This lode is parallel with that in No. 2 
■haft. The ore shipped to Swansea was assayed by Messrs. fiath and Co., there, and 
yielded a produce of 28| per cent." 

ROSE, MOUNT, STATION (N, district;) lease, No. 527, is part of the Oomber- 
atana run — which see. 

ROSENTHAL, 34*" 34' 8. lat., 138** 52" E. long. (Co. Adelaide,) is a postal 
township in the electoral district and hundred of Barossa, and under the control of 
the Barossa W. district council. It is situated on the Gawler or N. Para river, and 
OQ the road from Sandy creek to Sheoak log, the Salt creek being about three- 
quarters of a mile N.W., and Sandy creek 4 miles S» The district is a wheat-growing 
one, a few sheep being depastured in parts. The nearest places are Sheoak log, 5 
miles N.W.; New Mecklenburg^, 4 miles N.E.; Lyndoch, 54 miles S.E.; Sandy creek. 

Smiles S. ; and Gawler, 8 miles S. W. The communication is by horse or dray only, 
e mail being conveyed on horseback twice a-week. With Adelaide the cotnmunication 
is by horse or dray to the Tanunda and Gawler road, 4 miles S., where a daily coach 
passes from Tanunda to Gawler, and thence by rail, the distance being 34 miles. The 
surrounding country is mountainous, with undulating plains to the N. Rosenthal has 
a post office, 2 stone-built German churches, and a public school. The nearest hotel 
and telegraph station are at Lyndoch. The crossing of the river at the township is 
very dangerous in wet weather, and a bridge is much wanted. ' The soil round the 
township is good, and fine grapes are grown in the vineyards attached to some of the 
houses. The population numbers about 140 persons, principally Germans. 

ROSETTA COVE AND HEAD (Co. ffindmarsh) is a small cove available for 
small craft, and a bold headland forming its S. point, lying 28 miles E. of cape Jervis, 
and on the N. side of Backstairs passage. The bottom of the cove is smooth and 
affords excellent Jiolding ground. At liosetta head, and from it to Encounter bay there 
is a gradual passage Arom granite through gneiss to sandstone, caused either by the 
intrusion of granitic matter amongst the layers of sandstone, or by a metamorphism 
into granite and gneiss of some of the original sedimentary beds. 

BrOSEWOBrTHT (Co, Gawler) is a postal township and railway statfon on the 
N. line, in the electoral district of Stanley, hundred of Mudla Wirra, and under the 
control of the Mudla Wirra district council. It lies about 5 miles N. of the river 
Gawler, and on a plain near the foot of the Barossa range, in an agricultural district 
ifhere large quantities of wheat are grown. A copper mine is supposed to exist about 
a miles N.W. Only one shaft has yet been sunk, and that not at a sufficient depth to 
test the discovery. It is on private property, and the owner intends sinking another 
shaft to aibertain if copper exists in paying quantities. The nearest townships are 
Willaston, Sheoak log, and Templers. Willaston is situated about 4 mi